Min Goo Lee

Yonsei University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (246)1124.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of GRs underlying the detection of a toxic tastant that drives avoidance behaviour in an insect.
    Nature Communications 11/2015; 6:8867. DOI:10.1038/ncomms9867 · 11.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy after colorectal cancer (CRC) lung metastasectomy is uncertain. Methods: We enrolled 221 CRC patients who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy between October 2002 and July 2013, including those with previous liver metastasis that had been curatively resected. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the day of lung metastasectomy. Results: Among all patients, 176 (79.6 %) received adjuvant chemotherapy after lung metastasectomy. Median follow-up was 34.7 months from the time of lung metastasectomy [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), 7.4-90.9 months]. Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy had longer DFS compared with surgery alone (median 32.7 vs 11.2 months respectively, P = 0.076). Multivariate analysis revealed previous liver metastasis, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen ≥5 ng/mL, disease-free interval <24 months, and surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy as independent risk factors for recurrence. Low-risk patients who had 0-1 risk factors received a significant survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR) 0.54; 95 % CI 0.32-0.91, P = 0.020]; however, high-risk patients with ≥2 risk factors did not (HR 1.02; 95 % CI 0.48-2.14, P = 0.964). Patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy showed no OS benefit compared with patients who received surgery alone (median 89.6 vs 86.8 months respectively, P = 0.833). Conclusions: CRC patients received lung metastasectomy could have a DFS benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, especially in low-risk patients. Larger, prospective studies are needed to evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after CRC lung metastasectomy.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4951-z · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a critical enzyme involved in intracellular phosphorylation of lamivudine (LAM) to its active triphosphates. We conducted this study to determine dCK polymorphisms in Koreans and to evaluate whether the discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with LAM. The full-length dCK gene was sequenced from 24 healthy volunteers and 24 patients with CHB. 127 patients with CHB who were followed-up for at least 24 months after LAM treatment were enrolled. Virological response as determined by undetectable HBV DNA was defined as a good drug response. Primary non-response at 6 months and virological breakthrough within 12 months were defined as a poor drug response. Six novel dCK SNPs were found (-2052C/A, IVS3-46G/del, IVS4 + 40G/T, IVS5 + 39T/C, IVS5-72A/T, and 966∼975T10 /T11 ). In particular, two promoter SNPs, namely -360C/G and -201C/T, were in full linkage disequilibrium. These two SNPs had a higher allele frequency than previously reported in Caucasian, Japanese, and Chinese (26% vs. 2%, 13.1%, and 15.6%, respectively). There was no significant difference between treatment response groups in terms of the distributions of SNP genotypes or allele frequencies. However, there was significant difference in the allele frequency of -360G/-201T between HBeAg seroclearance group and HBeAg non-seroclearance group (P = 0.045). In conclusion, six novel dCK SNPs were discovered. Two promoter SNPs, namely -360C/G and -201C/T, were more frequent in Koreans than other populations. In particular, HBeAg-positive patients with the -360G/-201T haplotype may help HBeAg seroclearance in response to LAM therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Medical Virology 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/jmv.24393 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Min Goo Lee · Yong Kuk Park · Kyung Kwon Jung · Young Jin Kim ·

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    ABSTRACT: DFNA9 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by late-onset, non-syndromic hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Mutations in the COCH (coagulation factor C homology) gene encoding cochlin are etiologically linked to DFNA9. Previous studies have shown that cochlin is cleaved by aggrecanase-1 during inflammation in the spleen and that the cleaved LCCL domain functions as an innate immune mediator. However, the physiological role of cochlin in the inner ear is not completely understood. Here, we report that cochlins containing DFNA9-linked mutations (p.P51S, p.V66G, p.G88E, p.I109T, p.W117R, p.V123E, and p.C162Y) demonstrate reduced cleavage by aggrecanase. Notably, in families affected with DFNA9 we found a novel COCH mutation causing p.V123E substitution in cochlin, which significantly reduced protein susceptibility to cleavage by aggrecanase (to about 20.5% of the wild type). These results suggest that the impaired post-translational cleavage of cochlin mutants may be associated with pathological mechanisms underlying DFNA9-related sensorineural hearing loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 08/2015; 36(12). DOI:10.1002/humu.22855 · 5.14 Impact Factor
  • Yong Kuk Park · Min Goo Lee · Kyung Kwon Jung · Young-Jin Won ·

    07/2015; 52(7):169-177. DOI:10.5573/ieie.2015.52.7.169
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione BPO-27 inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel with low nanomolar potency and reduced cystogenesis in a model of polycystic kidney disease. Here, we used computational chemistry and patch-clamp to show that enantiomerically pure (R)-BPO-27 inhibits CFTR by competition with ATP, whereas (S)-BPO-27 is inactive. Docking computations using a homology model of CFTR structure suggested that (R)-BPO-27 binds near the canonical ATP binding site, which was supported by molecular dynamics simulations showing a lower binding energy for the (R) vs. (S) stereoisomers. Three additional lower-potency BPO-27 analogs were modeled in a similar fashion, with the binding energies predicted in the correct order. Whole-cell patch-clamp showed linear CFTR currents with a voltage-independent (R)-BPO-27 block mechanism. Single channel recordings in inside-out patches showed reduced CFTR channel open probability and increased channel closed-time by (R)-BPO-27 without altered unitary channel conductance. At a concentration of (R)-BPO-27 that inhibited CFTR chloride current by ~50%, the EC50 for ATP activation of CFTR increased from 0.27 to 1.77 mM, but was not changed by CFTRinh-172, a thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor that acts at a site distinct from the ATP binding site. Our results suggest that (R)-BPO-27 inhibition of CFTR involves competition with ATP. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
    Molecular pharmacology 07/2015; 88(4). DOI:10.1124/mol.115.098368 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    Joo Hyung Han · Seung Kim · Hoon Jang · So Won Kim · Min Goo Lee · Hong Koh · Ji Hyun Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), a common form of inherited hemolytic anemia, is a heterogeneous group of disorders with regard to clinical severity, protein defects, and mode of inheritance. Causal mutations in at least five genes have been reported so far. Because multiple genes have been associated with HS, clinical genetic testing that relies on direct sequencing will be a challenge. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify a novel nonsense mutation in ANK1 (p.Q1772X, NM_020476) that resulted in a truncated protein in a Korean patient with HS. Sanger sequencing confirmed the two affected individuals in the patient's family were heterozygous for the mutation. This is the first report of a Korean family that carries an ANK1 mutation responsible for HS. Our results demonstrate that next generation sequencing is a powerful approach for rapidly determining the genetic etiology of HS.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0131251. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131251 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Juwon Kim · Jinsei Jung · Min Goo Lee · Jae Young Choi · Kyung-A Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: GJB2 alleles containing two cis mutations have been rarely found in non-syndromic hearing loss. Herein, we present a Korean patient with non-syndromic hearing loss caused by the R75Q cis mutation with V37I, which arose de novo in the father and was inherited by the patient. Biochemical coupling and hemichannel permeability assays were performed after molecular cloning and transfection of HEK293T cells. Student's t-tests or analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test was used as statistical analysis. Biochemical coupling was significantly reduced in connexin 26 (Cx26)-R75Q- and Cx26-V37I-transfected cells, with greater extent in Cx26-R75Q and Cx26-R75Q+V37I cells. Interestingly, our patient and his father with the mutations had more residual hearing compared with patients with the dominant mutation alone. Although the difference in hemichannel activity between R75Q alone and R75Q in combination with V37I failed to reach significance, it is of note that there is a possibility that V37I located upstream of R75Q might have the ability to ameliorate R75Q expression. Our study emphasizes the importance of cis mutations with R75Q, as the gene effect of R75Q can be modulated depending on the type of additional mutation.
    06/2015; 47(6):e169. DOI:10.1038/emm.2015.32
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    ABSTRACT: Lamotrigine (LTG)-induced maculopapular eruption (MPE) often causes treatment discontinuation and rising burdens on current healthcare systems. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel susceptibility loci associated with LTG-induced MPE in patients with epilepsy. We enrolled patients with LTG-induced MPE (n=34) and utilized the Korea Association Resource project cohort as a control group (n=1214). We explored associations between LTG-induced MPE and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) through imputation and replicated these associations in samples from 59 LTG-induced MPE cases and 98 LTG tolerant-controls. We found two novel SNPs associated with LTG-induced MPE: rs12668095 near CRAMP1L/TMEM204/IFT140/HN1L (P=4.89×10(-7)) and rs79007183 near TNS3 (P=3.15×10(-10)), both of which were replicated in an independent cohort. These two validated SNPs may be good candidate markers for predicting LTG-induced MPE in epilepsy patients, although further experimental validation is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Epilepsy Research 06/2015; 115. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2015.05.014 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Yong Kuk Park · Min Goo Lee · Kyung Kwon Jung · Yong-Gu Lee ·

    05/2015; 52(5):225-234. DOI:10.5573/ieie.2015.52.5.225
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    ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with an increased risk of early-onset coronary artery disease. Although some clinically diagnosed FH cases are caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9, mutation detection rates and profiles can vary across ethnic groups. In this study, we aimed to provide insight into the spectrum of FH-causing mutations in Koreans. Among 136 patients referred for FH, 69 who met Simon Broome criteria with definite family history were enrolled. By whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis, we confirmed that the 3 known FH-related genes accounted for genetic causes in 23 patients (33.3%). A substantial portion of the mutations (19 of 23 patients, 82.6%) resulted from 17 mutations and 2 copy number deletions in LDLR gene. Two mutations each in the APOB and PCSK9 genes were verified. Of these anomalies, two frameshift deletions in LDLR and one mutation in PCSK9 were identified as novel causative mutations. In particular, one novel mutation and copy number deletion were validated by co-segregation in their relatives. This study confirmed the utility of genetic diagnosis of FH through WES.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0126706. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126706 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in liver fibrosis, and inactivating HSCs has been considered a promising therapeutic approach. We previously showed that albumin and its derivative designed for stellate cell-targeting, retinol-binding protein-albumin domain III fusion protein (referred to as R-III), inactivate cultured HSCs. Here, we investigated the mechanism of action of albumin/R-III in HSCs and examined the anti-fibrotic potential of R-III in vivo. R-III treatment and albumin expression downregulated retinoic acid (RA) signaling which was involved in HSC activation. RA receptor agonist and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase overexpression abolished the anti-fibrotic effect of R-III and albumin, respectively. R-III uptake into cultured HSCs was significantly decreased by siRNA-STRA6, and injected R-III was localized predominantly in HSCs in liver. Importantly, R-III administration reduced CCl4- and bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis. R-III also exhibited a preventive effect against CCl4-inducd liver fibrosis. These findings suggest that the anti-fibrotic effect of albumin/R-III is, at least in part, mediated by downregulation of RA signaling and that R-III is a good candidate as a novel anti-fibrotic drug. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 04/2015; 7(6). DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404527 · 8.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysferlinopathy comprises a group of autosomal recessive muscular dystrophies caused by mutations in the DYSF gene. Due to the large size of the gene and its lack of mutational hot spots, analysis of the DYSF gene is time-consuming and laborious using conventional sequencing methods. By next-generation sequencing (NGS), DYSF gene analysis has previously been validated through its incorporation in multi-gene panels or exome analyses. However, individual validation of NGS approaches for DYSF gene has not been performed. Here, we established and validated a hybridization capture-based target-enrichment followed by next-generation sequencing to detect mutations in patients with dysferlinopathy. With this approach, mean depth of coverage was approximately 450 fold and almost all (99.3%) of the targeted region had sequence coverage greater than 20 fold. When this approach was tested on samples from patients with known DYSF mutations, all known mutations were correctly retrieved. Using this method on 32 consecutive patient samples with dysferlinopathy, at least two pathogenic variants were detected in 28 (87.5%) samples and at least one pathogenic variant was identified in all samples. Our results suggested that the NGS-based screening method could facilitate efficient and accurate genetic diagnosis of dysferlinopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Neuromuscular Disorders 03/2015; 25(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2015.03.006 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Heon Yung Gee · Joo Young Kim · Min Goo Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a polytopic transmembrane protein that functions as a cAMP-activated anion channel at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Mutations in CFTR cause cystic fibrosis and are also associated with monosymptomatic diseases in the lung, pancreas, intestines, and vas deferens. Many disease-causing CFTR mutations, including the deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR), result in protein misfolding and trafficking defects. Therefore, intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR has been studied extensively, and results from these studies significantly contribute to our general understanding of mechanisms involved in the cell-surface trafficking of membrane proteins. CFTR is a glycoprotein that undergoes complex N-glycosylation as it passes through Golgi-mediated conventional exocytosis. Interestingly, results from recent studies revealed that CFTR and other membrane proteins can reach the plasma membrane via an unconventional alternative route that bypasses Golgi in specific cellular conditions. Here, we describe methods that have been used to investigate the conventional and unconventional surface trafficking of CFTR. With appropriate modifications, the protocols described in this chapter can also be applied to studies investigating the intracellular trafficking of other plasma membrane proteins.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2015; 1270:137-154. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-2309-0_11 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anoctamin 6 (ANO6) is a member of the recently identified TMEM16/anoctamin protein family comprising Ca2+-activated Cl− channels that generate outward-rectifying ionic currents in response to intracellular Ca2+ increase. ANO6 is also essential for Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scrambling required for blood coagulation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)—fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine—that are used for the treatment of major depressive disorders can increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after chronic treatment. However, at the earlier stage of intake, which is 1–7 days after the treatment, the possibility of blood coagulation might also increase, but transiently. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether therapeutic SSRI concentrations affected the Cl− current or phospholipid scrambling activity of ANO6 by assessing ANO6 currents (I ANO6), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and platelet aggregation. In the whole-cell patch mode, SSRIs facilitated Ca2+-dependent activation of IANO6 in ANO6-transfected cells, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the delay of IANO6 generation. On the other hand, in the inside-out patch clamp configuration, SSRIs showed an inhibitory effect on ANO6 currents, suggesting that SSRIs activate ANO6 via an indirect mechanism in intact cells. SSRIs also facilitated Ca2+-dependent PS exposure and α-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These results indicate that SSRIs at clinically relevant concentrations promote Ca2+-dependent activation of ANO6, which may have potential clinical implications such as the underlying mechanism of SSRI-induced adverse drug reactions.
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2015; 467(11). DOI:10.1007/s00424-015-1692-6 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    Jinsei Jung · Min Goo Lee ·

    The Journal of General Physiology 01/2015; 145(1):75-7. DOI:10.1085/jgp.201411283 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The goals of this study were to investigate the clinical activity, safety and biomarkers of dacomitinib, an irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 and HER4, in recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (R/M-SCCHN). Experimental Design: Patients were eligible if the diseases were not amenable to curative treatment and had progressed on platinum-based chemotherapy, and were treated with dacomitinib 45mg/day. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by RECISTv1.1. Exploratory analysis included the characterization of somatic mutation, gene copy number, gene expression, p16INK4A expression by immunohistochemistry, and investigation of their relationship with clinical outcomes. Results: Forty-eight patients were evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Ten patients (20.8%) had partial responses and 31 patients (65%) had stable diseases. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.9-5.0) and 6.6 months (95% CI, 5.4-10.3). Adverse events were mostly grade 1-2. Mutations in PI3K-pathway (PIK3CA, PTEN) and high expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL8, IL1A, IL1B, IL4, and TNF) were significantly associated with shorter PFS (2.9 v 4.9 months without mutations, P=0.013; 2.8 v 9.9 months with low expression, P=0.004). Those harboring PI3K-pathway mutations or high inflammatory cytokine expression had shorter median OS (6.1 v 12.5 months lacking PI3K-pathway mutations and with low inflammatory cytokine expression, P=0.005). Conclusions: Dacomitinib demonstrated clinical efficacy with manageable toxicity in platinum-failed R/M-SCCHN patients. Screening of PI3K-pathway mutation and inflammatory cytokine expression may help identify which R/M-SCCHN patients are likely to gain benefit from dacomitinib. Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-1756 · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular inversion probe (MIP)-based capture is a scalable and effective target-enrichment technology that can use synthetic single-stranded oligonucleotides as probes. Unlike the straightforward use of synthetic oligonucleotides for low-throughput target capture, high-throughput MIP capture has required laborious protocols to generate thousands of single-stranded probes from DNA microarray because of multiple enzymatic steps, gel purifications and extensive PCR amplifications. Here, we developed a simple and efficient microarray-based MIP preparation protocol using only one enzyme with double-stranded probes and improved target capture yields by designing probes with overlapping targets and unique barcodes. To test our strategy, we produced 11 510 microarray-based duplex MIPs (microDuMIPs) and captured 3554 exons of 228 genes in a HapMap genomic DNA sample (NA12878). Under our protocol, capture performance and precision of calling were compatible to conventional MIP capture methods, yet overlapping targets and unique barcodes allowed us to precisely genotype with as little as 50 ng of input genomic DNA without library preparation. microDuMIP method is simpler and cheaper, allowing broader applications and accurate target sequencing with a scalable number of targets. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2014; 43(5). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1188 · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • Dae Keon Heo · Hye Min Lim · Joo Hyun Nam · Min Goo Lee · Joo Young Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: Microglia are immune effector cells in the central nervous system that participate in tissue repair, inflammatory responses, and neuronal degeneration. The most important signaling factor in the differentiation of immune-active cells after stimulation is the sustained high calcium concentration in the cytosol, which is called store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Recently, the molecular identity of the store-operated channel (SOC) has revealed that Orai1, Orai2, Orai3, Stim1, and Stim2 constitute the most of SOC. In this study, we demonstrate that Orai1- and Stim1-mediated SOC regulated the phagocytic activity and cytokine release of primary isolated murine microglia.RT-PCR analysis revealed that primary cultured microglia from neonatal ICR mouse brains had Orai1, Orai2, Orai3, and Stim1. To elucidate the role of SOCE in the immune functions of microglia, pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown with Orai1 or Stim1 siRNA was applied, and UDP-induced phagocytic activity and LPS-induced cytokine secretion activity were compared. The pharmacological inhibition and siRNA effect was verified by measuring thapsigargin (TG)-, ATP-, or UDP-activated SOCE Ca2 + influx and proper siRNA-mediated knockdown was verified by western blot analysis. UDP-induced phagocytic activity was inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, such as SKF96365 or 2-APB, and knockdown of Orai1 and Stim1. Cytokine secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 by LPS treatment was also inhibited by SKF96365 and knockdown of Orai1 and Stim1. Meanwhile, LPS stimulation-induced NF-κB activation was not altered, but NFAT1 activity was attenuated with Stim1 knockdown. These results indicate that SOCE, which was composed of Orais and Stim1, regulates UDP-induced phagocytosis and LPS-stimulated cytokine secretion in microglia.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2014; 27(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.11.003 · 4.32 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,124.11 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea University
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Biology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1997-2014
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Institute of Gastroenterology
      • • Department of Forensic Medicine and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science
      • • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 2013
    • Korea Electronics Technology Institute
      • Embedded Software Convergence Research Center
      성남시, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
  • 2005-2013
    • Chonnam National University
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2010-2012
    • Chonnam National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Chung-Ang University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1999-2004
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Physiology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 2001
    • Kyung Hee University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States