[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An appropriate trigger for BCR-ABL1 mutation analysis has not yet been established in unselected cohorts of chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. We examined 92 patients after 12 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Univariate analysis revealed that significant factors associated with not attaining a major molecular response (MMR) were the presence of the minor BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, a low daily dose of TKI, and the emergence of BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations conferring resistance to imatinib. Factors associated with the loss of sustained MMR were a low daily dose of TKI and the emergence of alternatively spliced BCR-ABL1 mRNA with a 35-nucleotide insertion. Taken together, our results suggest that the search for BCR-ABL1 mutations should be initiated if patients have not achieved MMR following 12 months of TKI treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand indeterminate HTLV-1 carriers and smoldering (SM) subtype of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-1 proviral integrated status, proviral load (PVL) and ATL-related biomarkers were examined in 57 smoldering cases, including unusual carriers with a percentage of ATL-like cells. We found that according to Southern blot hybridization analytic features, 28 patients with SM ATL could be divided into 3 groups consisting of 16 (57.4%) patients with a monoclonal band, 6 (21.4%) with oligoclonal bands and the remaining 6 with smears. Although no clinical differences were observed among the 3 SM subtypes, HTLV-1-infected CD4 T-cell counts increased in order of poly-, oligo- and monoclonal subtypes. This trend began in the carrier stage and also was observed in PVL, CD25 and CCR4, indicating that a clone consisting of leukemic phenotypic cells was continuously growing. Moreover, the antigen modulation rates of CD26 and CD7 and the increasing rate of CD25 and CCR4 cells were closely correlated to growing clonal size, indicating that these markers had the possibility to predict a monoclonal band. In particular, CD26 or the ratio of CD26/CD25 had a validity differential for leukemic nature and predictive detection of clonal band. Conclusively, the present study shows that smoldering ATL is heterogeneous in the leukemogenic process, and the behavior of CD26 plays a central role in the evolution from early occult to overt smoldering ATL.
International journal of hematology 03/2012; 95(4):399-408. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The T315I BCR-ABL mutation in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients is responsible for up to 20% of all clinically observed resistance. This mutation confers resistance not only to imatinib, but also to second-generation BCR-ABL tyrosine kinases, such as nilotinib and dasatinib. A number of strategies have been implemented to overcome this resistance, but allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only established therapeutic option for a cure. A 61-year-old male was diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic-phase CML in 2002. He was initially treated with imatinib and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved 12 months later. However, after 18 months, a loss of CCyR was observed and a molecular study at 24 months revealed a T315I mutation of the BCR-ABL gene. At 30 months, imatinib/interferon-alfa (IFNα) combination therapy was initiated in an effort to overcome the resistance. Thirty months later, he re-achieved CCyR, and the T315I BCR-ABL mutation disappeared at 51 months. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing the effectiveness of imatinib/IFNα combination therapy for CML patients bearing the T315I BCR-ABL mutation.
International journal of hematology 02/2012; 95(2):209-13. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address the clinical and virological significance of a high HTLV-1 proviral load (VL) in practical blood samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers, we simultaneously examined VL and clonal expansion status using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification (infected cell % of peripheral mononuclear cells) and Southern blotting hybridization (SBH) methods.
The present study disclosed extremely high VL with highly dense smears with or without oligoclonal bands in SBH. A high VL of 10% or more was observed in 16 (43.2%) of a total of 33 samples (one of 13 asymptomatic carriers, 8 of 12 symptomatic carriers, and 7 of 8 patients with lymphoma-type ATL without circulating ATL cells). In particular, an extremely high VL of 50% or more was limited to symptomatic carriers whose band findings always contained at least dense smears derived from polyclonally expanded cells infected with HTLV-1. Sequential samples revealed that the VL value was synchronized with the presence or absence of dense smears, and declined at the same time as disappearing dense smears. Dense smears transiently emerged at the active stage of the underlying disease. After disappearance of the smears, several clonal bands became visible and were persistently retained, explaining the process by which the clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells is established. The cases with only oligoclonal bands tended to maintain a stable VL of around 20% for a long time. Two of such cases developed ATL 4 and 3.5 years later, suggesting that a high VL with oligoclonal bands may be a predisposing risk to ATL.
The main contributor to extremely high VL seems to be transient emergence of dense smears detected by the sensitivity level of SBH, corresponding to polyclonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells including abundant small clones. Major clones retained after disappearance of dense smears stably persist and acquire various malignant characteristics step by step.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For relevant imatinib therapy against Philadelphia (Ph)-positive leukemias, it is essential to monitor mutations in the chimerical bcr-abl tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). However, there is no universally acceptable consensus on how to efficiently identify mutations in the target TKD. Recently, high-resolution melting (HRM) technology was developed, which allows gene scanning using an inexpensive generic heteroduplex-detecting dsDNA-binding dye. This study aimed to validate the introduction of HRM in a practical clinical setting for screening of mutations in sporadic sites of the chimerical bcr-abl TKD. All chimerical and wild-type abl TKD regions selectively amplified were used for HRM assays and direct sequencing. The HRM test had approximately 5-90% detection sensitivity for mutations. In contrast to mixture samples with mutant and wild-type cells, all mutant cell samples had indeterminate melting curves equivalent to those of the wild-type due to formation of only a homodulex. This issue was improved by the addition of exogenous wild-type DNA after PCR. Subsequently, HRM results gave a high accordance rate of 97.8% (44/45 samples) compared to the sequencing data. The discordant results in one appear to be due to unsuccessful amplification. Thus, HRM may be considered to be suitable for reliable scanning of mutations in the chimerical abl TKD in a clinical setting.
International journal of hematology 06/2009; 90(1):37-43. · 1.17 Impact Factor