Keith Miller

Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (15)52.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Triple (ER-, PR-, HER2-) negative breast carcinoma lack targeted therapies, making this group of tumors difficult to treat. By definition, the lack of HER2 expression means a case scoring 0 or 1+ after immunophenotypical analysis and makes the patients avoiding therapeutical chances with anti-HER2 inhibitors. We sought to recruit from a group of triple negative breast carcinoma, patients eligible for effective personalized targeted therapy with anti-HER therapies on the basis of their HER2 gene status. 135 patients diagnosed with IHC triple negative breast carcinoma were studied. Whole tissue sections were used for in situ hybridization analysis. 8/100 (8 %) of ductal-type triple negative breast carcinoma presented Her-2/neu gene amplification versus 2/35 (5.7 %) non-ductal triple negative breast carcinoma. Three cases showed a ratio 2.5. One case showed Her-2/neu heterogeneous gene amplification, ratio 2.3. The other six showed from 7 to 8 absolute Her-2/neu gene copy number. Two cases staged pT1c, and eight cases staged pT2. Eight cases graded G3 and two cases G2. (1) Eight percentage of ductal and 5.7 % non-ductal-type triple negative breast carcinoma present Her-2/neu gene amplification, (2) the standard diagnostic flowchart "do not FISH in 0-1+ (HER2-) breast carcinoma" should be replaced by "do FISH in triple (ER-, PR-, HER2-) negative breast carcinoma," to avoid loss of therapeutical chances in a cohort of such a patients, (3) we demonstrated the identification of a small but significant subset of patients targetable with anti-HER2 inhibitors, giving patients affected by (ex)triple negative breast carcinoma new personalized therapeutical chances.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 07/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lobular breast carcinoma usually shows poor responsiveness to chemotherapies and often lacks targeted therapies. Since FGFR1 expression has been shown to play pivotal roles in primary breast cancer tumorigenesis, we sought to analyze the status of FGFR1 gene in a metastatic setting of lobular breast carcinoma, since promising FGFR1 inhibitors has been recently developed. METHODS: Fifteen tissue metastases from lobular breast carcinomas with matched primary infiltrative lobular breast carcinoma were recruited. Eleven cases showed loco-regional lymph-nodal and four haematogenous metastases.FGFR-1 gene (8p12) amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) analysis. Her-2/neu and topoisomerase-IIalpha gene status was assessed. E-cadherin and Hercept Test were also performed. We distinguished amplification (>6 or cluster of signals) versus gains (3--6 signals) of the locus specific FGFR-1 gene. RESULTS: Three (20%) primary lobular breast carcinomas showed >6 or cluster of FGFR1 signals (amplification), six cases (40%) had a mean of three (range 3--6) chromogenic signals (gains) whereas in 6 (40%) was not observed any abnormality. Three of 15 metastasis (20%) were amplified, 2/15 (13,4%) did not. The ten remaining cases (66,6%) showed three chromogenic signals.The three cases with FGFR-1 amplification matched with those primary breast carcinomas showing FGFR-1 amplification. The six cases showing FGFR-1 gains in the primary tumour again showed FGFR-1 gains in the metastases. Four cases showed gains of FGFR-1 gene signals in the metastases and not in the primary tumours. Her-2/neu gene amplification was not observed in all cases but one (6%) case. Topoisomerase-IIalpha was not amplified in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: 1) a subset of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma harbors FGFR-1 gene amplification or gains of chromogenic signals; 2) a minor heterogeneity has been observed after matching primary and metastatic carcinomas; 3) in the era of tailored therapies, patients affected by the lobular subtype of breast carcinoma with FGFR1 amplification could be approached to the new target biological therapy such as emerging FGFR-1 inhibitors.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 12/2012; 31(1):103. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a multicenter assessment of a new HER2 dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) test and herein report on concordance of CISH data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were evaluated using duplicate cores from 30 breast cancers in 5 laboratories using the Ventana HER2 dual-color ISH assay (Ventana Medical Systems, Cambridgeshire, England) and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall 93.3% of cases were successfully analyzed by CISH across the 5 participating laboratories. There was excellent concordance (98.0% overall) for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by CISH compared with FISH. Intraobserver variability (7.7%) and intersite variability (9.1%) of absolute HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 ratios were tightly controlled across all participating laboratories. The Ventana HER2 dual-color ISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national and international guidelines for performance of ISH-based diagnostic tests.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2011; 135(1):157-62. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Histopathology 12/2010; 57(6):935-40. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess a new HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test and report on multicentre intrasite and intersite variation. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in eight laboratories using the Kreatech Poseidon HER2 FISH probe (Kreatech Diagnostics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Overall, 80.9% of cores were successfully analysed. Mean intrasite variation for HER2 ratio assessment was low (4.74%). Intersite variation in ratio was in line with previous reports (11.9+/-0.8%) for both reference and non-reference laboratories; only one laboratory displayed significantly higher intersite variation (P=0.009) than the remaining seven laboratories. The overall incidence of misclassification of cores was <1.3%, demonstrating an excellent level of concordance (>98.7%) across all eight laboratories, irrespective of whether they were 'reference' or 'routine diagnostic' laboratories. The Kreatech Poseidon HER2 FISH test is robust and reproducible. Highly quantitatively reproducible FISH results were obtained from eight 'diagnostic' and 'reference' laboratories; however, continued quality assessments are essential to good performance.
    Histopathology 02/2010; 56(3):297-304. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our purposes were to perform a robust assessment of a new HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization test and report on concordance of silver in situ hybridization (SISH) data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and on intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in 7 laboratories using the Ventana (Tucson, AZ) INFORM HER-2 SISH assay and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall, 94.8% of cases were successfully analyzed by SISH across the 6 participating laboratories that reported data. Concordance for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by SISH compared with FISH was high (96.0% overall). Intraobserver variability (8.0%) and intersite variability (12.66%) of absolute HER2/chromosome 17 ratios appear to be tightly controlled across all 6 participating laboratories. The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 10/2009; 132(4):514-20. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sister Mary Joseph's nodule (SMJN) involving the umbilicus can often be a clinical sign of metastatic cancer, but rarely cancer originating from the breast. We report a rare case of umbilical metastases from breast cancer and reviewed the literature. A 54-year-old woman was referred to a pre-surgery clinic for an examination of an umbilical nodule. The patient had a history of ductal breast carcinoma. Cytological smear from fine needle aspiration showed epithelial neoplastic cells resembling those of breast carcinoma. Neoplastic cells from tissue were positive for cytokeratin 8-18, estrogen and progesterone receptor and negative for E-cadherin and had a low proliferative index. Her-2/neu immunodetection showed a 2+ equivocal positive rate, but Her-2/neu gene amplification was found on the cytological smear by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Similar results were obtained within a tissue section. Concordant findings have been obtained when comparing the recent American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists scoring system. Fine needle aspiration from the SMJN is a useful tool for the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, the predictive biomarkers for tumors of the breast, hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu not only assist with the identification of the source of the metastatic disease but also provide clinical information for patient management.
    Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 07/2009; 36(6):702-5. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The field of companion diagnostics is an expanding area in which industry can make significant contributions to the quality and reliability of prognostic and predictive assays. HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, by virtue of its semi-quantitative nature demands the highest level of reagent quality and consistency. We describe a unique manufacturing practice that is used to guarantee the quality of control cell line slides provided for controlling the staining procedure and ensuring the validity of the reagent performance. An IHC control that could reflect variations in fixation, processing, section thickness, section storage and staining protocols would provide a useful tool for improved standardization. One way to ensure such accuracy and reproducibility of HER2 testing is by using robust internal controls. We intend to present for the first time, details of a unique manufacturing process, that of interferometry, the technique of using the pattern of interference created by the superposition of 2 or more waves to diagnose the properties of the aforementioned waves, that is, "section thickness," to guarantee the quality and consistency of internal cell line controls that can be used in a HER2 testing assay.
    Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 06/2009; 17(6):536-42. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated intratumoral heterogeneity of 30 ductal breast carcinomas with HER2/neu amplification, scored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology/ College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) criteria, and 3+ immunoexpression. High-grade (ratio > or =4.0) vs low-grade amplification (ratio >2.2 to <4.0) and chromosome 17 polysomy were also evaluated. On whole tissue sections, 20 tumors (67%) showed high-grade and 10 (33%) showed low-grade HER2/ neu amplification. Of 20 tumors with high-grade amplification, 14 (70%) showed no intratumoral genotypic heterogeneity; 6 (30%) showed at least 1 core with low-grade amplification. Of 10 cases with low-grade amplification, 6 (60%) showed no intratumoral heterogeneity; 4 (40%) showed chromosome 17 polysomy without gene amplification in 2 of 3 cores per case. Of 30 cases with gene amplification, 4 (13%) showed a "not-amplified pattern" in other parts of the tumor. The routine assessment of HER2/neu amplification using the ASCO/CAP criteria on whole tissue sections is not significantly confounded by intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer with high-grade amplification; however, genetic heterogeneity exists in a subset of breast carcinomas with low-grade amplification. The clinical relevance and impact on treatment outcome of intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer with low-grade HER2/neu amplification or chromosome 17 polysomy need further investigation.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 05/2009; 131(5):678-82. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines highlighted the critical importance of quality assurance in diagnostic testing for HER2. Unstained formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma cell line sections were circulated to scheme participants on 9 occasions. "Reference laboratories" reported results for the HER2/chromosome 17 ratio and HER2 copy number for 3 years for each cell line, including 418 sets of results (1,671 results total). The number of participants was 62 laboratories in the final analysis. The mean and SD of results from reference laboratories demonstrated consistency during the 3-year period. The percentage of laboratories achieving "appropriate" results ranged from 45% to 88%, and the percentage achieving "inappropriate" results ranged from 5% to 29%. No consistent effect of the HER2 in situ hybridization testing method was demonstrated. Participation in external quality assurance schemes is a valuable mechanism for demonstrating and acquiring consistency for HER2 testing by in situ hybridization. Poor performance can be corrected via assistance and advice.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 02/2009; 131(1):106-11. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study focused on recent assessment results from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Immunocytochemistry and Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridisation breast hormone receptor module in which participants were asked to demonstrate progesterone receptors (PRs). The slides consisted of 3 infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas, previously classified as a high PR expresser, a moderate to low PR expresser, and a negative tumor. During this assessment, 2 commercial rabbit monoclonal antibodies, SP2 (Lab Vision/NeoMarkers, Fremont, CA), and 1E2 (Ventana, Tucson, AZ) were used by 15% of the participants. The SP2 rabbit monoclonal antibody showed false-positive and nonspecific staining on the previously established PR-tumor. This article highlights the necessity for all clinical laboratories to validate immunohistochemical methods and protocols when using newly marketed antibodies such as SP2; use composite tissue blocks with known levels of tumor expression such as a high, mid, and negative expression; and participate in internal and external quality assessment schemes, which can highlight potential technical issues in laboratory methods.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 04/2008; 129(3):398-409. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Trastuzumab provides clinical benefit for advanced and early breast cancer patients whose tumours over-express or have gene amplification of the HER2 oncogene. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (NEQAS) for immunohistochemical testing was established to assess and improve the quality of HER2 immunohistochemical testing. However, until recently, no provision was available for HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) testing. A pilot scheme was set up to review the performance of FISH testing in clinical diagnostic laboratories. FISH was performed in 6 reference and 31 participating laboratories using a cell line panel with known HER2 status. Using results from reference laboratories as a criterion for acceptable performance, 60% of all results returned by participants were appropriate and 78% either appropriate or acceptable. However, 22.4% of results returned were deemed inappropriate, including 13 cases (4.2%) where a misdiagnosis would have been made had these been clinical specimens. The results of three consecutive runs show that both reference laboratories and a proportion of routine clinical diagnostic (about 25%) centres can consistently achieve acceptable quality control of HER2 testing. Data from a significant proportion of participating laboratories show that further steps are required, including those taken via review of performance under schemes such as NEQAS, to improve quality of HER2 testing by FISH in the "real world".
    Journal of Clinical Pathology 08/2007; 60(7):816-9. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Predictive and prognostic testing for breast cancer is now an important part of cellular pathology. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (NEQAS) for immunocytochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization plays a significant role in ensuring that the quality of testing meets the clinical standards required, by assessing the performance of each participant laboratory every 3 months. Besides receiving a confidential performance report, data on the methods used are collected, analysed against the scores and published in the UK NEQAS journal. This information is intended to help those who are not achieving the best scores to improve their performance.
    Current Diagnostic Pathology 01/2007; 13(2):135-149.
  • Bharat Jasani, Keith Miller
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 03/2005; 123(2):314; author reply 314-5. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    Keith Miller, Anthony Rhodes, Bharat Jasani
    BMJ (online) 03/2002; 324(7332):298. · 17.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

122 Citations
52.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2010
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University College London
      • Department of Pathology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Edinburgh Sleep Centre
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • University of Verona
      • Department of Pathology
      Verona, Veneto, Italy