Richard J Bold

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (152)519.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between procedural relative value units (RVUs) for surgical procedures and other measures of surgeon effort are poorly characterized. We hypothesized that RVUs would poorly correlate with quantifiable metrics of surgeon effort.
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Changes in health care reimbursement policy have led to an era in which hospitals are motivated to improve quality of care while simultaneously reducing costs. Research demonstrating the most efficient means to target costs may have a positive effect on patient quality of life and the overburdened health care system. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of hospital length of stay (LOS) and the occurrence of postoperative complications on total charges in patients undergoing elective pancreaticoduodenectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS We performed a retrospective review of 89 cases identified in an institutional database of patients who underwent elective pancreaticoduodenectomy at an academic tertiary care center from December 1, 2007, through May 31, 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Occurrence of postoperative and inpatient complications, LOS, incidence of readmission within 60 days of discharge, and hospital charges from initial postoperative hospitalization. Linear regression analysis was performed comparing LOS with hospital charges. RESULTS Thirty-four of 89 patients (38%) developed postoperative complications. Mean and median LOSs were 12 and 8 days, respectively. The LOS was significantly related to postoperative complications. Of the 34 patients who developed complications, the mean LOS was 19 days compared with 7 days for those patients not developing complications (P < .001). Only 2 of 55 patients (4%) without complications were readmitted to the hospital, whereas 13 of 34 patients (38%) with complications required readmission. Perioperative hospital charges were significantly related to LOS (R2 = 0.840, R = 0.917). For those patients without complications, linear regression demonstrated a daily hospital charge of $11 612 (R2 = 0.923, R = 0.961). However, for those patients with complications, the optimal relationship between LOS and hospital charges was exponential (R2 = 0.832). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prolonged LOS is associated with increased total charges, but given the exponential increase in charges, the complication itself has an effect on increased charges above and beyond that of a prolonged hospitalization. The drive to reduce LOS after pancreaticoduodenectomy has minimal effect on overall charges to the patient. Efforts should be directed instead at reducing complications because this has a much more significant effect on financial outcomes.
    JAMA surgery. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study aims to estimate and test temporal differences in mental health (MH) need and service use among adult cancer survivors nationally before and after important policy recommendations for psychosocial cancer care.Methods Adults (n = 58,585) from the National Health Interview Survey, 2005 and 2010, were categorized as having (1) no chronic disease, (2) chronic disease other than cancer, (3) cancer without other chronic disease, and (4) cancer with other chronic disease. In these groups, we compared psychological distress, MH visits, and unmet need for MH services. Survey-weighted logistic regression was used to model these variables as functions of disease status and sociodemographic covariates and the interactions of disease status and survey year.ResultsWhereas the proportion of individuals with psychological distress and MH visits was significantly higher in 2010 versus 2005 for the no chronic disease group, the only group with significantly lower unmet need in 2010 versus 2005 was the cancer with other chronic disease group (5.3% vs. 3.0%, p < 0.05). In adjusted models, cancer survivors with other chronic disease had significantly lower odds of unmet need in 2010 (odds ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval 0.85, 2.25) than in 2005 (odds ratio 3.32; 95% confidence interval 2.28, 4.83).Conclusions We find evidence of MH care quality improvement among cancer survivors between 2005 and 2010, a period that coincides with policy and clinical attention to psychosocial cancer care. These efforts may have reduced, but not eliminated, unmet need for MH services among cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 05/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: The Akt signaling pathway mediates a potent anti-apoptotic signal in pancreatic cancer and inhibition of this pathway has become an attractive mechanism to increase the efficacy of traditional chemotherapies. Autophagy is a lysosomal catabolic pathway by which eukaryotic cells recycle macromolecules and organelles. Although autophagy may function as a survival mechanism under metabolic stress conditions, it also serves as an alternate route to programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the role of autophagy in Akt-mediated regulation of cell death in pancreatic cancer. Mia-PaCa-2 and PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell lines were used in our experiments. The small-molecule inhibitor A-443654 was used to inhibit Akt, and rapamycin was used to inhibit mTOR. Autophagy was inhibited with Chloroquine and 3-methyladenine. Autophagy was assessed by immunoblotting for light chain-3 (LC-3) processing as well as fluorescence microscopy for autophagosome formation following transfection with a LC-3/GFP construct. Cell death was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with quantitation of the sub-G0 content. Inhibition of either Akt or mTOR induced autophagy; inhibition of Akt but not of mTOR led to traditional caspase-mediated apoptosis. When autophagy was inhibited, cell death was abrogated following Akt, but not mTOR, inhibition. The Akt signaling pathway regulates both autophagy and apoptosis through divergent pathways; mTOR mediates autophagy signaling but appears to be un-involved in cell death. Autophagy appears to play a role in the regulation of cell survival by Akt, but only when proximal signaling pathways not involving mTOR are simultaneously activated.
    Anticancer research 02/2014; 34(2):631-7. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Practice patterns vary with the planning and delivery of post mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Our investigation examines practice patterns in the use of chest wall bolus and a boost among the Athena Breast Health Network (“Athena”). Methods Athena is a collaboration among the five University of California Medical Centers that aims to integrate clinical care and research [1]. From February 2011 to June 2011, all physicians specializing in the multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer were invited to take a web-based practice patterns survey. Sixty-two of the 239 questions focused on radiation therapy practice environment, decision making processes, and treatment management, including the use of a bolus or boost in PMRT. Results Ninety-two percent of the radiation oncologists specializing in breast cancer completed the survey. All of the responders use a material to increase the surface dose to the chest wall during PMRT. Materials used included brass mesh, commercial bolus, and custom designed wax bolus. Fifty percent used tissue equivalent superflab bolus. Fifty-five percent of the respondents routinely use a boost to the chest wall in PMRT. Eighteen percent give a boost depending on the margin status, and 3/11 (27%) do not use a boost. Conclusions Our investigation documents practice pattern variation for the use of a PMRT boost and the use of chest wall bolus among the University of California breast cancer radiation oncologists. Further understanding of the practice pattern variation will help guide clinicians in our cancer centers to a more uniform approach in the delivery of PMRT.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Breast Cancer 10/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the modern era of esophagectomy, we hypothesized that perioperative morbidity and mortality from cervical or thoracic sites of anastomoses would not be different. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify patients who underwent esophagectomy for lower esophageal or gastroesophageal (GE) junction malignancies from 2005 to 2010. Patients were categorized as having either a cervical or thoracic anastomosis based on CPT codes. There were 601 (66%) cervical and 308 (34%) thoracic anastomoses. Cervical anastomoses were associated with greater than 2 units of blood transfusion in a higher proportion of patients (10% vs. 3%, P = 0.001), and higher superficial surgical site infections (13% vs. 7%, P = 0.003). There were no difference in rates of organ/space infections (6% vs. 7%, P = 0.70), overall morbidity (38% vs. 39%, P = 0.84), or mortality (3% vs. 4%, P = 0.34). Median length of stay was similar (11.5 days cervical vs. 11 days thoracic, P = 0.89), even among patients with organ/space infections (18 days cervical vs. 21 days thoracic, P = 0.49). On multivariate analysis thoracic anastomosis was not a significant predictor of increased overall morbidity (OR 1.13: 95%CI 0.83-1.54). After esophagectomy, the site of anastomosis does not predict an increased risk of perioperative morbidity or mortality. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 09/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to characterize the extent of extremity soft tissue tumor (ESTT) resections among surgical specialties, hypothesizing that substantial variation exists in the number of ESTT resections performed by specialty. We queried the UHC-AAMC database for data from 85 institutions for years 2007-2009. We abstracted data on total number of musculoskeletal (MSK) procedures, number of subcutaneous (SQ), deep, and malignant ESTT resections, and anatomic site of resection. Data were available for 4,682 practitioners including the following specialties: general surgery (GS, N = 2,195), plastic surgery (PS, N = 792), surgical oncology (SO, N = 533), general orthopedics (GO, N = 1,079), and orthopedic oncology (OO, N = 83). The mean number of all MSK procedures performed per year was 19.0 ± 2.3 GS, 179.6 ± 3.0 PS, 32.4 ± 6.2 SO, 798.6 ± 115.4 GO, and 482.9 ± 6.5 OO (P = 0.001). SQ ESTT resections per year were similar among specialties (1.7 ± 0.3 GS, 2.7 ± 0.3 PS, 2.4 ± 0.4 SO, 1.7 ± 0.5 GO, 4.7 ± 0.2 OO), while deep and malignant resections were more likely performed by OO (combined deep and malignant: 0.9 ± 0.1 GS, 2.0 ± 0.4 PS, 9.9 ± 0.6 SO, 5.8 ± 0.3 GO, and 63.6 ± 8.1 OO, P = 0.001). Adjusting for number of physicians in the database, of the total deep and malignant ESTT resections, 9.4% were performed by GS, 7.7% by PS, 26.0% by SO, 30.8% by GO, and 26.0% by OO. Nearly 50% of deep and malignant ESTT resections are performed by non-oncology-designated surgeons. Approximately 17% are performed by practitioners who complete an average of one to two of these procedures per year. These findings may have significant implications for quality of care in soft tissue tumor surgery. J. Surg. Oncol. 2013; 108:142-147. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 09/2013; 108(3):142-7. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    Richard J Bold
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND DATA: Recent literature has suggested that completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast carcinoma patients with positive SLN may not be necessary. However, a method for determining the risk of non-SLN or extranodal disease remains to be established. AIMS: To determine if pathological variables from primary tumors and sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases could predict the probability of non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases and extranodal disease in patients with breast carcinoma and SLN metastases. METHODS: 84 women with T1-3 breast cancer and clinically-negative axillae underwent completion ALND. Maximum diameter and width of SLN metastases were measured to calculate metastatic area. When multiple SLNs contained metastases, areas were summed to calculate the Total Metastatic Area (TMA). Multiple linear regression models were used to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: Her-2/neu over-expression increased the odds of NSLN metastases (OR 4.3, p = 0.01) and extranodal disease (OR 7.9, p < 0.001). Independent SLN predictors were ≥1 positive SLN (OR, 7.35), maximum diameter and area of SLN metastases (OR 2.26, 1.85 respectively) and TMA (OR, 2.12). Maximum metastatic diameter/SLN diameter (OR 3.71, p = 0.04) and the area of metastases/SLN area (OR 3.4, p = 0.04) were predictive. For every 1 mm increase in diameter of SLN metastases, the odds of NSLN extranodal disease increased by 8.5% (p = 0.02). TMA >0.40 cm(2) was an independent predictor for NSLN metastases and extranodal disease. CONCLUSION: Her-2/neu over-expression and parameters assessing metastatic burden in the SLN, particularly TMA, predicted the presence of NSLN involvement and extranodal disease in patients with breast carcinoma and SLN metastases.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 03/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an intracellular recycling mechanism that helps cells to survive against environmental stress and nutritional starvation. We have recently shown that prostate cancers undergo metabolic stress and caspase-independent cell death following exposure to arginine deiminase (ADI, an enzyme that degrades arginine in tissue). The aims of our current investigation into the application of ADI as a novel cancer therapy are to identify the components mediating tumor cell death, and to determine the role of autophagy (stimulated by ADI and/or rapamycin) on cell death. Using advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques including 3D deconvolution and superresolution structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), we show that prostate tumor cells that are killed after exposure to ADI for extended periods, exhibit a morphology that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis; and that autophagosomes forming as a result of ADI stimulation contain DAPI-stained nuclear material. Fluorescence imaging (as well as cryo-electron microscopy) show a breakdown of both the inner and outer nuclear membranes at the interface between the cell nucleus and aggregated autophagolysosomes. Finally, the addition of N-acetyl cysteine (or NAC, a scavenger for reactive oxygen species) effectively abolishes the appearance of autophagolysosomes containing nuclear material. We hope to continue this research to understand the processes that govern the survival or death of these tumor cells, in order to develop methods to improve the efficacy of cancer pharmacotherapy.
    Proc SPIE 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data regarding improvements in postoperative outcomes with perioperative epidural analgesia. We sought to examine the effect of perioperative epidural analgesia vs. intravenous narcotic analgesia on perioperative outcomes including pain control, morbidity, and mortality in patients undergoing gastric and pancreatic resections. METHODS: We evaluated 169 patients from 2007 to 2011 who underwent open gastric and pancreatic resections for malignancy at a university medical center. Emergency, traumatic, pediatric, enucleations, and disseminated cancer cases were excluded. Clinicopathologic data were reviewed among epidural (E) and non-epidural (NE) patients for their association with perioperative endpoints. RESULTS: One hundred twenty patients (71 %) received an epidural and 49 (29 %) did not. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in mean pain scores at each of the four days (days 0-3) among the E (3.2 ± 2.7, 3.2 ± 2.3, 2.3 ± 1.9, and 2.1 ± 1.9, respectively) and NE patients (3.7 ± 2.7, 3.4 ± 1.9, 2.9 ± 2.1, and 2.4 ± 1.9, respectively). Within each of the E and NE patient groups, there were significant differences (P < 0.0001) in mean pain scores from day 0 to day 3 (P < 0.0001). Of the E patients, 69 % also received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Ileus (13 % E vs. 8 % NE), pneumonia (12 % E vs. 8 % NE), venous thromboembolism (6 % E vs. 4 % NE), length of stay [11.0 ± 12.1 (8, 4-107) E vs. 12.2 ± 10.7 (7, 3-54) NE], overall morbidity (36 % E vs. 39 % NE), and mortality (4 % E vs. 2 % NE) were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of epidurals in this group of patients does not appear to be superior to PCA.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increasingly viewed as a quality of care metric, although risk-adjusted incident rates of postoperative VTE and VTE after hospital discharge (VTEDC) are not available. We sought to characterize the predictors of VTE and VTEDC to develop nomograms to estimate individual risk of VTE and VTEDC. METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified 471,867 patients who underwent inpatient abdominal or thoracic operations between 2005 and 2010. We excluded primary vascular and spine operations. We built logistic regression models using stepwise model selection and constructed nomograms for VTE and VTEDC with statistically significant covariates. RESULTS: The overall, unadjusted, 30-d incidence of VTE and VTEDC was 1.5% and 0.5%, respectively. Annual incidence rates remained unchanged over the study period. On multivariate analysis, age, body mass index, presence of preoperative infection, operation for cancer, procedure type (spleen highest), multivisceral resection, and non-bariatric laparoscopic surgery were significant predictors for VTE and VTEDC. Other significant predictors for VTE, but not VTEDC, included a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disseminated cancer, and emergent operation. We constructed and validated nomograms by bootstrapping. The concordance indices for VTE and VTEDC were 0.77 and 0.67, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variation exists in the incidence of VTE and VTEDC, depending on patient and procedural factors. We constructed nomograms to predict individual risk of 30-d VTE and VTEDC. These may allow more targeted quality improvement interventions to reduce VTE and VTEDC in high-risk general and thoracic surgery patients.
    Journal of Surgical Research 01/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information about the use of text messaging (texting) devices among resident and faculty physicians for patient-related care (PRC). To determine the prevalence, frequency, purpose, and concerns regarding texting among resident and attending surgeons and to identify factors associated with PRC texting. E-mail survey. University medical center and its affiliated hospitals. Surgery resident and attending staff. Prevalence, frequency, purpose, and concerns regarding patient-related care text messaging. Overall, 73 (65%) surveyed physicians responded, including 45 resident (66%) and 28 attending surgeons (62%). All respondents owned a texting device. Majority of surgery residents (88%) and attendings (71%) texted residents, whereas only 59% of residents and 65% of attendings texted other faculty. Most resident to resident text occurred at a frequency of 3-5 times/d (43%) compared with most attending to resident texts, which occurred 1-2 times/d (33%). Most resident to attending (25%) and attending to attending (30%) texts occurred 1-2 times/d. Among those that texted, PRC was the most frequently reported purpose for resident to resident (46%), resident to attending (64%), attending to resident (82%), and attending to other attending staff (60%) texting. Texting was the most preferred method to communicate about routine PRC (47% of residents vs 44% of attendings). Age (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; p = 0.003), but not sex, specialty/clinical rotation, academic rank, or postgraduate year (PGY) level predicted PRC texting. Most resident and attending staff surveyed utilize texting, mostly for PRC. Texting was preferred for communicating routine PRC information. Our data may facilitate the development of guidelines for the appropriate use of PRC texting.
    Journal of Surgical Education 01/2013; 70(6):826-834. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the leading form of malignancies among men in the U.S. While surgery carries a significant risk of impotence and incontinence, traditional chemotherapeutic approaches have been largely unsuccessful. Hormone therapy is effective at early stage, but often fails with the eventual development of hormone-refractory tumors. We have been interested in developing therapeutics targeting specific metabolic deficiency of tumor cells. We recently showed that prostate tumor cells specifically lack an enzyme (argininosuccinate synthase, or ASS) involved in the synthesis of the amino acid arginine(1). This condition causes the tumor cells to become dependent on exogenous arginine, and they undergo metabolic stress when free arginine is depleted by arginine deiminase (ADI)(1,10). Indeed, we have shown that human prostate cancer cells CWR22Rv1 are effectively killed by ADI with caspase-independent apoptosis and aggressive autophagy (or macroautophagy)(1,2,3). Autophagy is an evolutionarily-conserved process that allows cells to metabolize unwanted proteins by lysosomal breakdown during nutritional starvation(4,5). Although the essential components of this pathway are well-characterized(6,7,8,9), many aspects of the molecular mechanism are still unclear - in particular, what is the role of autophagy in the death-response of prostate cancer cells after ADI treatment? In order to address this question, we required an experimental method to measure the level and extent of autophagic response in cells - and since there are no known molecular markers that can accurately track this process, we chose to develop an imaging-based approach, using quantitative 3D fluorescence microscopy(11,12). Using CWR22Rv1 cells specifically-labeled with fluorescent probes for autophagosomes and lysosomes, we show that 3D image stacks acquired with either widefield deconvolution microscopy (and later, with super-resolution, structured-illumination microscopy) can clearly capture the early stages of autophagy induction. With commercially available digital image analysis applications, we can readily obtain statistical information about autophagosome and lysosome number, size, distribution, and degree of colocalization from any imaged cell. This information allows us to precisely track the progress of autophagy in living cells and enables our continued investigation into the role of autophagy in cancer chemotherapy.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest consideration of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) undergoing mastectomy. Our objective was to identify factors influencing the utilization of SLNB in this population. METHODS: We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database to identify all women with breast DCIS treated with mastectomy from 2000 to 2008. We excluded patients without histologic confirmation, those diagnosed at autopsy, those who had axillary lymph node dissections performed without a preceding SLNB, and those for whom the status of SLNB was unknown. We used multivariate logistic regression reporting odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship of patient- and tumor-related factors to the likelihood of undergoing SLNB. RESULTS: Of 20,177 patients, 51 % did not receive SLNB. Factors associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving a SLNB included advancing age (OR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.62-0.71), Asian (OR 0.75; CI 0.68-0.83) or Hispanic (OR 0.84; 95 % CI 0.74-0.96) race/ethnicity, and history of prior non-breast (OR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.53-0.61). Factors associated with an increased likelihood of receiving a SLNB included treatment in the east (OR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.17-1.4), intermediate (OR 1.25; 95 % CI 1.11-1.41), high (OR 1.84; 95 % CI 1.62-2.08) grade tumors, treatment after the year 2000, and DCIS size 2-5 cm (OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.42-1.68) and >5 cm (OR 2.43; 95 % CI 2.16-2.75). CONCLUSIONS: SLNB is increasingly utilized in patients undergoing mastectomy for DCIS, but disparities in usage remain. Efforts at improving rates of SLNB in this population are warranted.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine if complete pathological necrosis (pathCR) predicts favorable oncological outcome in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients receiving pre-operative radiation monotherapy (RT). We evaluated 30 patients with primary STS treated with neoadjuvant RT followed by definitive resection, from 2000 to 2010 at our institution. We defined ≥95% tumor necrosis as pathCR. There were 22 STS of the extremities (73%), 7 of the retroperitoneum (23%), and 1 (4%) of the trunk. The median pathological percentage of tumor necrosis was 35% (range 5-100%) with three tumors (10%) demonstrating pathCR. With a median follow-up of 40 months, the 5-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), and overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort were 100%, 61%±11%, and 69%±11%, respectively. Among patients with pathCR, 3-year DRFS was 100% compared to 63±11% in patients without pathCR (p=0.28). Following neoadjuvant RT for STS, pathCR is associated with a clinically but not statistically significant 37% improvement in 3-year DRFS.
    Anticancer research 09/2012; 32(9):3911-5. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that breast cancer (BCa) patients in urban counties would have higher rates of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) relative to patients in near-metro and rural counties. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify women diagnosed with BCa treated with lumpectomy in the Sacramento area between 2000 and 2006. Patient counties were categorized as urban and near-metro. Multivariate logistic regression models predicted treatment with RT. Likelihood of undergoing RT was reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Of 7,953 patients meeting entry criteria, 5,858 (73.7 %) underwent RT. On multivariate analysis, patients from near-metro (OR, 0.66; CI, 0.59-0.75; P < 0.001) and rural (OR 0.39, CI 0.30-0.52; P < 0.001) areas had a decreased likelihood of undergoing RT relative to patients from urban areas. Patients from near-metro and rural areas are less likely to receive RT following lumpectomy for BCa than their urban counterparts.
    Medical Oncology 06/2012; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymph node assessment (LNA), including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), is controversial in patients undergoing lumpectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Our goal was to identify factors influencing LNA in these patients. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database to identify all female patients treated with lumpectomy for DCIS from 2000 to 2008. We excluded patients without histologic confirmation, including those diagnosed at autopsy, and those for whom LNA status was unknown. Multivariate logistic regression models predicted use of LNA. Likelihood of undergoing LNA was reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 62,935 patients met inclusion criteria. Approximately 15% (N = 9726) had regional LNA at the time of lumpectomy, with 12% (N = 7294) undergoing SLNB. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of undergoing LNA included treatment in the Southeast (OR 1.25, CI 1.04-1.22); treatment after the year 2000; grade II (OR 2.71, CI 2.48-2.96), III (OR 2.38, CI 2.18-2.59), or IV (OR 2.61, CI 2.37-2.88) tumors; DCIS size 2-5 cm (OR 1.49, CI 1.37-1.62) or >5 cm (OR 2.16, CI 1.78-2.61), and estrogen receptor-negative (OR 1.29, CI 1.16-1.43) or progesterone receptor-negative (OR 1.22, CI 1.11-1.33) tumors. Factors associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing regional LNA were age >60 (OR 0.83, CI 0.79-0.87), and Asian race (OR 0.88, CI 0.81-0.96). Factors predictive of LNA in general were also predictive of SLNB. Although LNA is controversial for patients undergoing lumpectomy for DCIS, it is used in 15% of cases. Further research establishing for the benefit of LNA in DCIS patients treated with lumpectomy is needed.
    Journal of Surgical Research 03/2012; 177(1):e21-6. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is indicated for local-regionally advanced breast cancer (LABC). We hypothesized that candidates for PMRT from non-urban areas would receive lower rates of RT than urban patients and would have poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to identify patients diagnosed with LABC and treated with mastectomy in Sacramento and its surrounding 13 counties between 2000 and 2006. All patients were eligible to receive RT according to established guidelines, with tumors >5 cm size, ≥ 4 metastatic lymph nodes, or both. According to a United States Department of Agriculture scale, we designated counties as urban or non-urban and used multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models to predict the use of RT, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Density of radiation oncologists in non-urban and urban counties was determined using the American Medical Association database in relation to census-derived populations of the respective counties. Entry criteria were met by 1,507 patients. Most (56.5%) were from urban counties; only 61% received RT. There was no radiation oncologist listed for 8/10 non-urban counties and 2/4 urban counties. Each radiation oncologist served 88,804 people in non-urban counties and 68,624 residents in urban counties. On multivariate analysis, non-urban patients (OR 0.56, CI 0.44-0.72) and increasing age were the only factors predicting a decreased likelihood of receiving RT (OR 0.97, CI 0.96-0.98). Patients not receiving PMRT experienced poorer OS (HR 1.77, CI 1.39-2.25; P < 0.001) and DSS (HR 1.62, CI 1.23-2.15; P = 0.001); however, non-urban status did not predict OS or DSS. Non-urban residents with LABC are less likely to receive indicated PMRT. This discrepancy may be due to limited RT access in non-urban areas. The lack of poorer OS and DSS due to this disparity requires further study.
    Medical Oncology 10/2011; 29(3):1523-8. · 2.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
519.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • University of California, Davis
      • • Division of Surgical Oncology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • California State University, Sacramento
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 1997–2002
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Department of Surgical Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • Oakland University
      • Department of Surgery
      Rochester, MI, United States
  • 1993–1998
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Surgery
      Galveston, TX, United States