[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) in preventing the alteration of oxidative parameters in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into six groups (n = 8): control, ethanol, RA 10 mg/kg, diabetic, diabetic/ethanol, and diabetic/RA 10 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, we found that TBARS levels in liver and kidney were significantly increased in the diabetic/saline group and the administration of RA prevented this increase in the liver and kidney (P < 0.05). Diabetes caused a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the diabetes/saline group (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with 10 mg/kg RA (antioxidant) prevented this alteration in SOD and CAT activity in the diabetic RA group (P < 0.05). In addition, RA reverses the decrease in ascorbic acid and non-protein-thiol (NPSH) levels in diabetic rats. The treatment with RA also prevented the decrease in the Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, RA did not have any effect on glycemic levels. These results indicate that RA effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced by STZ, suggesting that RA is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of pathological conditions in diabetic models.
Journal of physiology and biochemistry 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13105-015-0438-4 · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the potential effect of vitamin D3 (VD3) in avoiding atherothrombosis by modulation of lipid metabolism and platelet activation in type 1 diabetic rats. Male wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): Control/Saline (Sal); Control/Metformin 500 mg/kg (Metf); Control/Vitamin D3 90 µg/kg (VD3); Control/Metformin 500 mg/kg + VD3 90 µg/kg (Metf + VD3); Diabetic/Saline (Sal); Diabetic/Metformin 500 mg/kg (Metf); Diabetic/Vitamin D3 90 µg/kg (VD3); Diabetic/Metformin 500 mg/kg + VD3 90 µg/kg (Metf + VD3). Treatments were administered during 30 days after diabetes induction with streptozotocin (STZ). After 31 days, the rats were euthanized and blood was collected and separated into serum and platelets, both used for lipid profile and ectonucleotidase activity assays, respectively. Ectonucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (E-NPP), and 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) were significantly higher in the Diabetic than in Control group. Treatment with Metf and/or VD3 prevented the increase in NTPDase and E-NPP activities in diabetic rats. Only Metf + VD3 significantly prevented the increase in 5'-nucleotidase. VD3 alone, but not Metf, prevented the increase in ADA activity when compared to saline-treated diabetic rats. Treatment of rats with VD3, Metf, and Metf + VD3 was also effective in the prevention of lipid metabolism disorder in diabetic and was able to ameliorate lipid metabolism in non-diabetic rats. These results provide evidence for the potential of Metf and VD3 in the treatment of platelet dysfunction and lipid metabolism impairment in T1D, which may be important in the control and prevention of atherothrombosis in diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ex vivo and in vitro effects of quercetin on NTPDase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetycholinesterase (AChE) activities in lymphocytes, as well as the effects of quercetin on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma were determined in rats. For the ex vivo experiment, animals were orally exposed to Cadmium (Cd) for 45 days. Animals were divided into eight groups: saline/ethanol, saline/Querc 5 mg/kg, saline/Querc 25 mg/kg, saline/Querc 50 mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5 mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25 mg/kg, and Cd/Querc 50 mg/kg. The ex vivo data showed an increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis and ADA activity in Cd-exposed rats when compared to the control group. The treatment with quercetin 25 and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase in the ATP and ADP hydrolysis, while the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented the increase in the ADA activity. AChE, BChE, and MPO activities ex vivo presented an increase in the Cd-exposed group when compared to the control group, and the treatment with quercetin 5, 25, and 50 mg/kg prevented this increase caused by Cd exposure. The in vitro experiment showed that quercetin 5, 10, 25, or 50 µM decreased the ADA activity proportionally to the increase of the concentrations of quercetin when compared to the control group. Thus, we can suggest that the quercetin is able to modulate NTPDase, ADA, AChE, and MPO activities and contribute to maintain the levels of ATP, adenosine, and acetylcholine normal, respectively, exhibiting potent pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory actions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activity in whole blood as well as the parameters of oxidative stress, such as reactive species (RS) levels in serum, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as total thiols (T-SH) and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels in platelets. Moreover, the content of vitamin C and E in plasma and serum, respectively, in lung cancer patients was also investigated. We collected blood samples from patients (n = 28) previously treated for lung cancer with chemotherapy. Patients were classified as stage IIIb and IV according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). Results showed a decrease of 37% in δ-ALA-D activity in patients with lung cancer when compared to the control group. RS and TBARS levels were 8% and 99% higher in the patient group, respectively. The activity of SOD and CAT as well as the vitamin C content were 41%, 35% and 127% lower in patients when compared with controls, respectively. However, T-SH and vitamin E levels were 27% and 44% higher in lung cancer patients, respectively. Results show that the overproduction of reactive species in patients with lung cancer may be interfering with the activity of δ-ALA-D. Likewise, the decrease in the activity of this enzyme may be contributing for the oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the main chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that cause functional disability in young adults. It has unknown etiology characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in lymphocytes and whole blood, as well as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum. We also checked the levels of nucleotides, nucleosides, biomarkers of inflammation such as cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum from 29 patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS) and 29 healthy subjects as the control group. Results showed that AChE in lymphocytes and whole blood as well as BChE, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in serum were significantly increased in RRMS patients when compared to the control group (P<0.05). In addition, we observed a decrease in ATP levels and a significant increase in the levels of ADP, AMP, adenosine and inosine in serum from RRMS patients in relation to the healthy subjects (P<0.05). Results also demonstrated an increase in the IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and CRP (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the IL-10 (P<0.0001) in RRMS patients when compared to control. Our results suggest that alterations in the biomarkers of inflammation and hydrolysis of nucleotides and nucleosides may contribute to the understanding of the neurological dysfunction of RRMS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with brain alterations that may contribute to cognitive dysfunctions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine (CA), abundant in coffee (CF), are natural compounds that have showed important actions in the brain. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA, CA, and CF on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and TBARS levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory and anxiety in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): control; control/CGA 5 mg/kg; control/CA 15 mg/kg; control/CF 0.5 g/kg; diabetic; diabetic/CGA 5 mg/kg; diabetic/CA 15 mg/kg; and diabetic/CF 0.5 g/kg. Our results demonstrated an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels in cerebral cortex, while δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were decreased in the diabetic rats when compared to control water group. Furthermore, a memory deficit and an increase in anxiety in diabetic rats were observed. The treatment with CGA and CA prevented the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic water group. CGA, CA, and CF intake partially prevented cerebral δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decrease due to diabetes. Moreover, CGA prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, and decreased anxiety. In conclusion, among the compounds studied CGA proved to be a compound which acts better in the prevention of brain disorders promoted by DM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oxidative stress caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a symptom that can trigger root growth inhibition in oat genotype seedlings. Oat seedlings were grown in a nutrient solution (pH4.0) with 0 and 370μM Al. At 12, 24, and 36h after Al addition, growth (root length) and biochemical parameters (catalase - CAT, ascorbate peroxidase - APX, and superoxide dismutase - SOD activities, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid (ASA) and non-protein thiol group (NPSH) concentration) were determined. The aluminum content was measured in oat seedlings. Regardless of the exposure time, root of the tolerant genotype grew normally with any Al treatments. Al supply caused lipid peroxidation only in the Al-sensitive genotype in roots and shoots (at 12, 24, and 36h). In sensitive genotype seedlings, CAT, APX, and SOD were activated only at 24 or 36h. In tolerant and intermediate genotypes, CAT, APX, and SOD were activated at 12, 24, and 36h. Data for root growth and lipid peroxidation suggested that lipid peroxidation in the sensitive genotype may be an effect of Al toxicity on root growth. Therefore, the tolerant, intermediate, and sensitive genotypes differ in the expression of the amount, type of antioxidants, and speed of activation of antioxidant system, suggesting a varying capacity of these genotypes to deal with oxidative stress, which resulted in varying sensitivity and tolerance to Al.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of quercetin on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex of adult rats exposed to cadmium (Cd). Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5 mg/Kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50 mg/Kg) by gavage for 45 days. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 8-10): saline/ethanol, saline/Querc 5 mg/kg, saline/Querc 25 mg/kg, saline/Querc 50 mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5 mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25 mg/kg, and Cd/Querc 50 mg/kg. Results demonstrated that AChE activity increased in the Cd/ethanol group when compared to saline/ethanol group. Treatment with quercetin prevented the increase in AChE activity when compared to Cd/ethanol group. Quercetin treatment prevented the cadmium-induced increase in NTPDase, 5-nucleotidase, and ADA activities in Cd/ethanol group when compared to saline/ethanol group. Our data showed that quercetin have a protector effect against Cd intoxication. This way, is a promising candidate among the flavonoids to be investigated as a therapeutic agent to attenuate neurological disorders associated with Cd intoxication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytotoxic effects of aluminum and the mechanisms of genetically-based Al tolerance have been widely investigated, as reported in many papers and reviews. However, investigations on many Al-sensitive and Al-resistant species demonstrate that Al phytotoxicity and Al-resistance mechanisms are extremely complex phenomena. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of aluminum on the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Also was evaluated the lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) content, levels of ascorbic acid (ASA), non-protein thiols (NPSH) and Al content in three genotypes of oat, Avena sativa L. (UFRGS 930598, UFRGS 17, and UFRGS 280). The genotypes were grown in different concentrations of Al ranging from 90 to 555 μM for 5 days. The antioxidant system was unable to overcome toxicity resulting in negative effects such as lipid peroxidation and H(2)O(2) content in UFRGS 930598. The results showed that UFRGS 930598 was the most sensitive genotype. UFRGS 17 and UFRGS 280 were more resistant to Al toxicity. These results suggest that UFRGS 17 has mechanisms of external detoxification and UFRGS 280 has mechanisms of internal detoxification. The different behavior of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of the genotypes showed that aluminum resistance in UFGRS 17 and UFRGS 280 may be related to oxidative stress.
Biology of Metals 02/2011; 24(1):73-83. DOI:10.1007/s10534-010-9375-4 · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aluminum (Al) is one of the most abundant elements of the planet and exposure to this metal can cause oxidative stress and lead to various signs of toxicity in plants. Plants are essential organisms for the environment as well as food for humans and animals. The toxic effect of aluminum is the major cause of decreased crop productivity. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of aluminum on the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT - E.C. 188.8.131.52), superoxide dismutase (SOD - E.C.184.108.40.206) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX - E.C. 220.127.116.11), and on lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage percentage (ELP) and chlorophyll and protein oxidation levels in Cucumis sativus L. (cv. Aodai). Seedlings were grown at different concentrations of aluminum ranging from 1 to 2000 microM for 10 days. The increase in ELP and H(2)O(2) production observed in the seedlings may be related to the decreased efficiency of the antioxidant system at higher aluminum concentrations. The antioxidant system was unable to overcome toxicity resulting in negative effects such as lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and a decrease in the growth of Cucumis seedlings. Aluminum toxicity triggered alterations in the antioxidant and physiological status of growing cucumber seedlings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the oxidative stress caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is an early symptom that can trigger root growth inhibition in Macaca (Al-sensitive) and SMIC148-A (Al-tolerant) potato clones. Plantlets were grown in a nutrient solution (pH 4.00) with 0, 100 and 200mg Al L(-1). At 24, 72, 120 and 168h after Al addition, root length and biochemical parameters were determined. Regardless of exposure time, root length of the Macaca clone was significantly lower at 200mg Al L(-1). For the SMIC148-A clone, root length did not decrease with any Al treatments. Al supply caused lipid peroxidation only in Macaca, in both roots (at 24, 72, 120 and 168h) and shoot (at 120 and 168h). In roots of the Macaca, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity decreased at 72 and 120h, and at 24, 72 and 120h, respectively. At 168h, both activities increased upon addition of Al. In roots of the SMIC148-A, CAT activity increased at 72 and 168h, whereas APX activity decreased at 72h and increased at 24, 12 and 168h. The Macaca showed lower root non-protein thiol group (NPSH) concentration at 200mg Al L(-1) in all evaluations, but the SMIC148-A either did not demonstrate any alterations at 24 and 72h or presented higher levels at 120h. This pattern was also observed in root ascorbic acid (AsA) concentration at 24 and 120h. The cellular redox status of these potato clones seems to be affected by Al. Therefore, oxidative stress may be an important mechanism for Al toxicity, mainly in the Al-sensitive Macaca clone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd(2+)) toxicity on mineral nutrient accumulation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), two cultivars named Asterix and Macaca were cultivated both in vitro and in hydroponic experiments under increasing levels of Cd(2+) (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 microM in vitro and 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microM in hydroponic culture). At 22 and 7 days of exposure to Cd(2+), for the in vitro and hydroponic experiment, respectively, the plantlets were separated into roots and shoot, which were analyzed for biomass as well as Cd(2+), and macro (Ca(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+)) and micronutrient (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+)) contents. In the hydroponic experiment, there was no reduction in shoot and root dry weight for any Cd(2+) level, regardless of the potato cultivar. In contrast, in the in vitro experiment, there was an increase in biomass at low Cd(2+) levels, while higher Cd(2+) levels caused a decrease. In general, Cd(2+) decreased the macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the in vitro cultured plantlets in both roots and shoot of cultivars. In contrast, the macronutrient and micronutrient contents in the hydroponically grown plantlets were generally not affected by Cd(2+). Our data suggest that the influence of Cd(2+) on nutrient content in potato was related to the level of Cd(2+) in the substrate, potato cultivar, plant organ, essential element, growth medium and exposure time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acid phosphatases (18.104.22.168) are a group of enzymes widely distributed in nature, which catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of phosphate esters in the pH range of 4-6. We confirmed the presence of acid phosphatases in seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus) and rocket salad (Eruca vesicaria) under different assay conditions using a rapid and simple preparation. The results showed that the optimum pH and temperature used for all species were close to 5.5 and 35°C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by molybdate, fluoride, azide, levamisole, orthovanadate, Zn2+ and Cu2+. Suramin had no effect on enzyme activity. The acid phosphatase from cucumber, radish and rocket salad hydrolyzed a wide variety of phosphate esters and the highest activity was observed with PPi, ATP and GTP. These results demonstrate that the enzyme investigated in this study is different from well known ester phosphate cleaving plant enzymes (apyrase and inorganic pyrophosphatases) and this preparation could be a useful tool to future toxicological studies and to study initially all isoforms of acid phosphatase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acid phosphatases (E.C.22.214.171.124) are a group of enzymes widely distributed in nature, which nonspecifically catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of phosphate esters in pH ranges from 4 to 6 and play a major role in the supply and metabolism of phosphate in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of some metals on the activity of acid phosphatase in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) and to determine their kinetic parameters. The enzyme was assayed with Hg, Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn, K and Na at the 0.001–1mM range using ATP, PPi and β-glycerol phosphate as substrates. Mn, Na and Cd did not significantly alter the enzyme activity. K caused a broad activation at low concentrations and an inhibition at high concentrations (10mM) and lead caused no inhibition. Acid phosphatase was inhibited by Hg and Zn and the inhibition type and IC50 values were determined for these metals. Hg presented a mixed inhibition type with PPi and ATP as substrates and uncompetitive inhibition with β-glycerol phosphate as substrate. Zn presented competitive inhibition for ATP as substrate, and a mixed inhibition type with PPi and β-glycerol phosphate as substrate. IC50 values were 0.02, 0.3 and 0.15mM for Hg, and 0.056, 0.035 and 0.24mM for Zn with ATP, PPi and β-glycerol phosphate as substrates, respectively. Analysis of these results indicates that Zn is a more potent inhibitor of acid phosphatase from cucumbers than Hg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements on the planet. The effects of its toxicity to plants include inhibition of the growth of the root system and inhibition of enzymes of plant metabolism causing a delay in development. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of aluminum on the activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), responsible for the formation of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen that is part of the chlorophyll molecule, as well as the cytochromes, in cucumbers. Plant growth was also monitored and the roots were submitted to histological analysis. The concentrations of Al2(SO4)3 used in the growth medium ranged from 1 to 2000 μmol/L. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was chosen because it is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. Results demonstrated that aluminum inhibits this enzyme and also greatly impairs plant growth. Histological analysis of the roots indicated a delay in the development of the vase elements, alterations in cell shape and cellular lesions. ALA-D inhibition may be due to the fact that aluminum present in the growth medium can compete with Mg2+ or reduce the expression of ALA-D. Probably, Al3+ forms complexes with nucleotides, with the cell wall and with other biomolecules, reducing the growth and development of the plant.