ABSTRACT: The presence of fungi and bacteria in the paranasal sinuses may contribute to ongoing inflammation. Lysozyme is an innate immune peptide with bactericidal and fungicidal activity. The expression of lysozyme in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is poorly understood and deficiencies in lysozyme expression may contribute to the ongoing inflammation in CRS patients.
Determine lysozyme expression in sinus mucosa of normal and CRS patients with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps.
Sinus mucosa specimens (n = 82) were processed for standard histology, immunohistochemical localisation of lysozyme, immunofluorescent localisation of fungi, and qPCR analysis of lysozyme expression.
CRS specimens displayed high-levels of lysozyme immunoreactivity in many of the abundant serous cells. Moderate levels were detected in some epithelial cells and inflammatory cells. Low levels were detected in some subepithelial glands of control specimens. No difference in immunoreactivity was detected between CRSwNP and CRSsNP specimens. Fungal elements were not visualised in any sinus specimen. qPCR analysis demonstrated variable lysozyme expression between individuals.
Lysozyme protein expression is increased in patients with CRS, suggesting a defect in lysozyme expression is not responsible for the microbial colonisation often associated with CRS. The functional activity of lysozyme in CRS patients needs to be further investigated.
Rhinology 06/2012; 50(2):147-56. · 1.32 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The role of allergy in the aetiopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains controversial. For example, in some cases with sinus fungal infections allergy can be demonstrated by standard tests. In other cases, such signs can be absent despite elevated levels of IgE-positive cells in sinus tissue and the presence of IgE and eosinophils in the sinus mucous.
To define the nature of molecular diversity in antibodies of the IgE isotype at the site of local inflammation in subjects diagnosed with non-allergic fungal eosinophilic sinusitis (NAFES).
The local occurrence and sequence characteristics of IgE-encoding transcripts in NAFES patients were investigated and compared with sequences found in subjects diagnosed with CRS featuring systemic allergy. These sequences have also been compared with other reported IgE-encoding transcriptomes. Results IGHV genes derived from major subgroups 1, 3, 4 and 5 and a diverse set of IGHD and IGHJ genes were shown to create the IgE repertoire in patients diagnosed with NAFES and CRS. The average lengths of the third hypervariable loop in these populations were 15.8 and 14.6 residues. The sequences showed evidence of extensive somatic hypermutation (mutation frequency: NAFES, 6.4 ± 3.2%; CRS, 7.0 ± 4.4%) with substitutions targeted to complementarity-determining regions. These sequence collections thus show extensive similarities to those found in other polyclonal Ig repertoires including those encoding IgE.
We conclude that sinus IgE-encoding transcripts in subjects diagnosed with NAFES show evidence of conventional IgE responses and we suggest that allergens with characteristics of classical antigens should be investigated for a role in the local response occurring in NAFES. This investigation illustrates that assessment of local immunity might be an important diagnostic tool in conditions like NAFES with no systemic signs of allergy to identify or rule out an allergic component of the patient's disease.
Clinical & Experimental Allergy 06/2011; 41(6):811-20. · 5.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare pepsin, carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression in children with adenoid hypertrophy and normal controls.
A non-randomised, controlled prospective study.
Two paediatric hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia.
Children aged 2-10 years, 21 undergoing adenoidectomy and 12 controls undergoing routine dental surgery.
We measured expression of pepsin, CAIII, COX-2 and MUC5AC levels by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot to determine any difference between children with hyperplastic adenoids and controls.
Pepsin was not detected in any study or control adenoid by immunohistochemistry or Western blot. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed a statistically significant difference between groups with respect to COX-2 (P = 0.027) and MUC5AC (P = 0.02) but no difference in CAIII expression (P = 0.414). A significant correlation was also found between COX-2 and MUC5AC expression (Kendall Tau = 0.4, P = 0.005).
Our results suggest that the biochemical changes seen in adenoid hypertrophy are different to those seen in reflux-affected tissues. The decreased COX-2 and MUC5AC expression may be due to squamous metaplasia and other inflammatory changes associated with adenoid hypertrophy. Our findings infer there is little evidence of reflux being a major contributory factor in the pathophysiology of adenoidal hypertrophy.
Clinical otolaryngology: official journal of ENT-UK; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery 05/2009; 34(2):120-6. · 2.39 Impact Factor