[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Printing electronic components on a chip edge and a stepped substrate with functional inks are an attractive approach for achieving flexible and inexpensive circuits for applications such as flexible displays and large-area chemo/bio/radioactivity sensors. However, it is still challenging because a sufficient cover of the 100 μm high step at the chip edge with a high-resolution pattern is the hardest part of the layer assembling by inkjet printing. Herein, we present a simple and effective strategy to generate electrically conductive line-patterns on stepped substrates by applying the DC electric field. On the surface of flat polyimide substrate, the fine line-pattern (less than 850 nm in line width) is achieved with a polyaniline coated MWCNT dispersed ink. Furthermore, 9.9 μm of line width is successfully patterned on the high stepped poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate, higher than 100 μm, by printing only 1 time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A facile strategy is successfully developed for the centimeter-scale preparation of hierarchically porous aminosilica monolith as a CO2 adsorbent just by simple processes of solvent-evaporation-induced coating, self-assembly, and concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate sol on the surface of a polymer foam template without any adhesive composite material or hydrothermal treatment. (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane is immobilized on the surface of silica monolith via a gas-phase procedure. The silica frameworks of the monolith mimic those of the polymer foam template at the macroscale, and the frameworks are composed of the SBA-15 structure at the nanoscale. The hierarchically porous structure demonstrates improved properties over the single-mode porous component, with the macroporous framework ensuring mechanical stability and good mass transport properties, while the smaller pores provide the functionality for CO2 adsorption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrorheological (ER) fluids are electroresponsive materials that have been extensively investigated for several decades. Despite negative ER fluids being one of the most promising new class of candidate materials for various potential applications, only positive ER fluids have been widely used thus far. Herein, we briefly review the negative ER fluids to encourage their application in commercial device manufacture. This short review discusses an overview of mechanisms, materials, and applications of negative ER fluids.
Journal of Rheology 11/2013; 57(6):1655. DOI:10.1122/1.4821857 · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, the mixing effect of amine and carboxyl groups on electrorheological (ER) properties has been presented with the chitosan and alginic acid dispersed suspensions. Chitosan (for the amine group) and alginic acid (for the carboxyl group) are used to investigate the mixing effect of the amine and carboxyl groups on ER properties with the control of their mixing ratio in the silicone oil. The surface-chemical structure of the mixture of the chitosan and alginic acid particles in the silicone oil is demonstrated by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy at various electric fields for the first time. This study focuses on whether the mixture of chemical groups in the ER fluid can promote ER properties or not, and in situ FT-IR analysis of the interface between ER particles in the silicone oil at various DC electric fields. The ER fluids exhibited the increase of the yield stress values with the increase of the counter group addition up to the weight ratio of 50 : 50 (chitosan : alginic acid). A noteworthy result is that the mixing effect of the amine and carboxyl groups resulting in enhanced ER properties is clearly proved. In the in situ FT-IR study, the complex form of amine and carboxyl groups of particles in the ER fluid was confirmed under the electric field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel method for Cu(2+) sequestration in Cu(2+) aqueous solution has been demonstrated using amine-functionalized double-walled silica nanotubes (DWSNTs). Herein, the precipitation method and the adsorption method are combined to remove Cu(2+) in the Cu(2+) aqueous solution. Primary (1°), secondary (2°), tertiary (3°), di-, tri-amines are immobilized on the surface of DWSNT as the adsorption site. The results show that the Cu(2+) adsorption amount on the amine-functionalized DWSNTs is in the following order: tri-amine>di-amine>1° amine>2° amine>3° amine. The complexed Cu(2+)s with the amine-functionalized DWSNTs become Cu(OH)2 crystals due to the reaction with OH(-)s dissociated from water. Thus, the amine-functionalized DWSNTs show the superior sequestration capacity of Cu(2+) in the Cu(2+) aqueous solution owing to the Cu(OH)2 crystals growth on them. FT-IR, FEG-SEM, HR-TEM, and XRD studies demonstrate the mechanism of the Cu(2+) adsorption and the Cu(OH)2 crystals growth. The crystallization-technique of the heavy metal ion on the amine-functionalized DWSNTs is also expected to have potential applications such as the facile synthesis of nano- and microparticles, and the metal catalyst supporter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study of particles on surfaces is extremely important in many area of human endeavor (ranging from microelectronics to optics to biomedical). However, the topics of review articles on nano- and microparticles are limited to the synthesis, applications and particles on the flat surface, although interest in nano- and microparticles/soft-fibrous template composites has increased because they have merits of low particle aggregation at high concentrations, good physicochemical properties, and highly mechanical strength. Here, we briefly review the recent applications of nano- and microparticles/soft-fibrous template composites such as fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, smart fibrous magnets, photoluminescence composites, and sequestration of toxic materials in water and air.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports the fabrication of new chemosensor based on the aminoacridine immobilized glass substrate. The fabricated chemosensor was highly selective and sensitive for the detection of Ag+. Although each of the chemosensing molecules on the glass substrate does not have the specific ligand, the molecules got specific selectivity for Ag+ owing to the suitable distance between them. Ag+ formed the chelating complex with the chemosensing molecules as not intra- but inter-molecular structure. After the formation of the chelating complex, surface properties, such as the morphology and the wettability, were changed owing to the bent amidine groups of the chemosensing molecules on the glass substrate. The chemical structure and the surface properties of the chemosensor-Ag+ were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle goniometer. Combining these techniques enables discussion of mechanism of the chemosensor-Ag+ complex. In addition, the prepared chemosensor showed a selective absorbance change only with Ag+, indicating that the sensing system described herein exhibits high selectivity for Ag+ detection against other metal ions.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 02/2013; 177:1107-1114. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2012.12.032 · 4.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel silica support has been required for high amine loading and good CO(2) molecule diffusion into its pores to increase the performance of CO(2) adsorbents. Herein, amine groups supported on double-walled silica nanotubes (DWSNTs) have been prepared via the immobilization of various aminosilanes (primary, secondary, tertiary, di-, and tri-aminosilanes) on DWSNT, and found to be a very effective adsorbent for CO(2) capture. Amine groups immobilized DWSNTs captured CO(2) reversibly in a temperature swing process at various adsorption temperatures (25°C, 50°C, 75°C, and 100°C). The amines on modified DWSNTs showed high CO(2) capture capacity in the order of tri-, di-, primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The CO(2) capture capacity of all aminosilanes immobilized DWSNTs decreased linearly with the increase of the adsorption temperature. We expect that DWSNT would be able to inspire researchers to use it not only as a support for CO(2) capture but also as a promising candidate for various applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrorheological (ER) effects of alginic acid and alginate salts (Na+ alginate, NH4+ alginate, and Ca2+ alginate) dispersed suspensions were investigated under DC electric fields. A noteworthy result is that the Ca2+ alginate dispersed suspension showed negative electrorheological effects under electric fields while the other suspensions exhibited positive electrorheological effects. It is the first time that the negative ER effect is obtained with the biomacromolecule. Interestingly, at the DC electric fields, the electromigration of particles to two electrodes was observed in the negative ER fluid, while the particles-bridges formed between two electrodes in the case of the positive ER fluid. In conclusion, the specific salt type of biomacromolecules could be suitable ER particles for negative ER suspension. We believe that our study can present a new way for the development of the biocompatible and eco-friendly negative ER fluids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, the electrorheological (ER) properties of highly dispersion-stable, biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan derivative dispersed ER suspensions are explored. Electro-mechanical responses of the ER suspensions are enhanced with fixed spacers (amide and ester groups) and various functional groups (acid series and their complex forms with urea). A noteworthy result is that the shear stress of urea complexed chitosan acid dispersed suspensions was higher than before doping the urea molecule. However, urea complexed chitosan phosphate and sulphate showed a decreased tendency of shear stress due to too high conductivity at the high temperature. In the dispersion stability test, the chitosan dispersed suspensions showed high dispersion stability for long times. The study of the influence of dipolar molecules on the ER properties of the chitosan derivative dispersed suspensions under an electric field shows how to enhance the ER responses easily just by doping molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potential applications for natural polymers have been intensively researched for a long time. Electrorheological (ER) fluids are a kind of colloidal suspension with rheological properties that can reversibly change over several orders of magnitude under a sufficiently strong electric field within a millisecond. By extension of the study on the properties of natural polymers to enlarge their applications, herein, we briefly review the ER materials based on natural polymers such as cellulose, starch, and chitosan. This highlight focuses on the current research of ER materials based on natural polymers and their perspective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, the effect of pH on Cu(II) crystal growth onto the surface of chelating fiber is presented. Poly(acryloamidino ethyleneamine) and poly(acryloamidino diethylenediamine) are synthesized as chelating polymers, and Cu(OH)2 crystal growth with the change of pH in an aqueous solution are observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the shapes of grown Cu(II) crystals on the chelating polymers depend on their alkyl amine numbers. The best fits of the isotherm data for Cu2+ adsorption and Cu(OH)2 crystal growth on the chelating polymers are obtained by means of our developed model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we demonstrate the adsorption process system with the diethylenetriamne coupled polyacrylonitrile fiber for the removal of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions in the aqueous solution. The synthesized chelating fiber showed a high adsorption capacity of 11.4 mequiv/g. Interestingly, the crystal growth of copper ions on the chelating fiber was observed during the adsorption process. The chelating fiber packed column showed the high performance of the removal of Cu(II) in the aqueous solution due to the distinct characteristic of the crystal growth of metal ions on the chelating fiber. After Cu(II) adsorption on the chelating fiber, the color of the fiber changed to light blue from yellow. The isotherm parameter n of 1.991 was obtained with Freundlich isotherm model for the adsorption equilibrium study which indicates that Cu(II) adsorption on the chelating fiber is very favorable due to n>1. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model equations were used for the kinetic study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of ionic polymer, its solvent-induced switching behavior, the fabrication of membranes with the thermal-induced phase separation method (TIPS), and Li+ adsorption isotherm on the membranes are described. The polymer membranes prepared with TIPS method show various textures with polymer concentrations. The adsorption isotherm curves of Li+ on PEVSA samples show that good adsorption capacity is shown at high pH values, according to the S-shape of the adsorption isotherm. The ionic polymer film displays the different wettability and morphology after treatments in DI water, dichloromethane, and toluene, and its solvent-induced surface properties are reversible corresponding to solvents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we demonstrate the structure of the PS colloidal crystals which were fabricated on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic Si wafers by a spin-coating technique. Monodisperse PS colloids are spin-coated onto self-assembled monolayers of 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and propyltrimethoxysilane coated Si wafers. PS spheres organized as ordered close-packed face-centered cubic structure with (1 1 1) planes on the hydrophilic surface while they gathered without the crystal structure on the hydrophobic surface. This paper also reports a simple and rapid method to fabricate the close-packed structure of hollow TiO2 spheres. The colloidal crystal of TiO2 hollow spheres was prepared using the PS sphere template on the hydrophobic surface. The mechanism for the growing multilayers of self-assembled PS particles from a suspension onto a hydrophilic and hydrophobic Si wafer substrates using the spin-coating method at various rotating speeds is also discussed in this paper.Graphical abstractThe TiO2 inverse opals were fabricated using the PS opal templates which were prepared on the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic surfaces by the spin-coating method.Highlights► PS colloidal crystals were fabricated on the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic surfaces by spin-coating. ► The structure of the spin-coated PS colloidal crystals depended on the surface wettability. ► The mechanism for the growing multilayers of self-assembled spheres by the spin-coating method is discussed. ► This work demonstrates the rapid and simple method for the fabrication of colloidal crystal of TiO2 hollow spheres.
Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 07/2011; 385(1-3):188-194. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.06.011 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CO(2) emissions, from fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the breathing, etc., influence the global worming on large scale and the man's work efficiency on small scale. The reversible capture of CO(2) is a prominent feature of CO(2) organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent to sequester CO(2). Herein, (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), [3-(methylamino)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), and [3-(diethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (DEAPTMS) are immobilized on highly ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) to catch CO(2) as primary, secondary, and tertiary aminosilica adsorbents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the immobilized APTMS, MAPTMS, and DEAPTMS on the SBA-15. We report an interesting discovery that the CO(2) adsorption and desorption on the adsorbent depend on the amine type of the aminosilica adsorbent. The adsorbed CO(2) was easily desorbed from the adsorbent with the low energy consumption in the order of tertiary, secondary, and primary amino-adsorbents while the adsorption amount and the bonding-affinity increased in the reverse order. The effectiveness of amino-functionalized (1(o), 2(o), and 3(o) amines) SBA-15s as a CO(2) capturing agent was investigated in terms of adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and thermodynamics. This work demonstrates apt amine types to catch CO(2) and regenerate the adsorbent, which may open new avenues to designing "CO(2) basket".
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 04/2011; 361(2):594-602. DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2011.03.045 · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, the effect of the degree of deacetylation (DD) on the gelation of the chitosan dispersed suspension as an electrorheological (ER) fluid under an electric field is presented. The fluids were prepared by dispersing the chitin and the chitosan particles having various DDs into silicone oil, and they were evaluated under various electric fields. The alignment of chitosan particles in the fluid was also observed using an optical microscope under the electric field. The formed fibrous structure between electrodes are though to continue to the viscosity increase, because an attempt to move one electrode relative to the order would be hindered by the drag of the dangling fibrils. A noteworthy result is that the region of the frequency for gel state of the ER fluids increased in the order of chitosan DD 99.3, 93.4, 73.2, 83.8, and 87.3% under electric fields while the modulus of the fluids increased in the reverse order. This order was well-matched with the result of dielectric constants and yield stresses of ER fluids. The study of influence of DD on the gelation of the chitosan dispersed suspension under an electric field shows the relevance of the chemical composition of the heteropolysaccharide (chitin-chitosan copolymer) to the rheological and electric properties of ER suspensions.