Forearm blood flow responses during mental stress are greater in individuals homozygous for the Glu27 allele. A high-fat meal is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent dilatation. We investigated the impact of high-fat ingestion on the muscle vasodilatory responses during mental stress in individuals with the Glu27 allele and those with the Gln27 allele of the β<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor gene.
A total of 162 preselected individuals were genotyped for the Glu27Gln β<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Twenty-four individuals participated in the study. Fourteen were homozygous for the Gln27 allele (Gln27Gln, 40 ± 2 years; 64 ± 2 kg), and 10 were homozygous for the Glu27 allele (Glu27Glu, 40 ± 3 years; 65 ± 3 kg). Forearm blood flow was evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography before and after ingestion of 62 g of fat.
The high-fat meal caused no changes in baseline forearm vascular conductance (FVC, 2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2; P = 0.27, respectively), but reduced FVC responses to mental stress (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 units; P = 0.04). When volunteers were divided according to their genotypes, baseline FVC was not different between groups (Glu27Glu = 2.4 ± 0.1 vs. Gln27Gln = 2.1 ± 0.1 units; P = 0.08), but it was significantly greater in Glu27Glu individuals during mental stress (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 units; P = 0.04). High-fat intake eliminated the difference in FVC responses between Glu27Glu and Gln27Gln individuals (FVC, 1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4; P = 0.66, respectively).
These findings demonstrate that a high-fat meal impairs muscle vasodilatation responses to mental stress in humans. However, this reduction can be attributed to the presence of the homozygous Glu27 allele of the β<sub>2</sub>-adrenoceptor gene.
Lipids in Health and Disease. 01/2010;
ABSTRACT: Sympathetic hyperactivity is one of the mechanisms involved in the increased cardiovascular risk associated with depression, and there is evidence that antidepressants decrease sympathetic activity.
We tested the following two hypotheses: patients with major depressive disorder with high scores of depressive symptoms (HMDD) have augmented muscle sympathetic nervous system activity (MSNA) at rest and during mental stress compared with patients with major depressive disorder with low scores of depressive symptoms (LMDD) and controls; sertraline decreases MSNA in depressed patients.
Ten HMDD, nine LMDD and 11 body weight-matched controls were studied. MSNA was directly measured from the peroneal nerve using microneurography for 3 min at rest and 4 min during the Stroop color word test. For the LMDD and HMDD groups, the tests were repeated after treatment with sertraline (103.3 +/- 40 mg).
Resting MSNA was significantly higher in the HMDD [29.1 bursts/min (SE 2.9)] compared with LMDD [19.9 (1.6)] and controls [22.2 (2.0)] groups (P = 0.026 and 0.046, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between resting MSNA and severity of depression. MSNA increased significantly and similarly during stress in all the studied groups. Sertraline significantly decreased resting MSNA in the LMDD group and MSNA during mental stress in LMDD and HMDD groups. Sertraline significantly decreased resting heart rate and heart rate response to mental stress in the HMDD group.
Moderate-to-severe depression is associated with increased MSNA. Sertraline treatment reduces MSNA at rest and during mental challenge in depressed patients, which may have prognostic implications in this group.
Journal of hypertension 09/2009; 27(12):2429-36. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the hemodynamic and autonomic regulation during sleep-awake transitions and across different sleep cycles in patients with essential hypertension.
Nineteen individuals free of sleep apnea (10 normotensive and nine hypertensive matched for age, sex, and body mass index) underwent a standard polysomnography, with simultaneous electrocardiography and beat-to-beat blood pressure monitoring (Portapres). All measurements were determined while awake (before and after sleep), as well as in the beginning and at end of the sleep cycle (first/last cycle of nonrapid and rapid eye movement stages).
Systolic blood pressure was higher in hypertensives and exhibited a similar reduction to the normotensives ones in initial nonrapid eye movement sleep. This reduction was because of different mechanisms: a significant fall in cardiac output in normotensives, whereas in hypertensives was also dependent of a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. Hypertensive patients presented lower heart rate variation and attenuated baroreflex sensitivity during sleep but not immediately before and after sleep. Spectral analysis suggested a higher sympathetic activity in the sleep stages in hypertension. Additionally, a progressive sympathetic predominance (final rapid eye movement > initial rapid eye movement and awake period postsleep > awake period presleep) was observed in both groups.
Hypertension is associated with depressed baroreflex sensitivity and increased sympathetic activation during sleep. The greater sympathetic predominance at the end of night (preceding the morning surge of sympathetic activity) could be implicated in the occurrence of cardiovascular events.
Journal of hypertension 06/2009; 27(8):1655-63. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The allele threonine (T) of the angiotensinogen has been associated with ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients and soccer players. However, the long-term effect of physical exercise in healthy athletes carrying the T allele remains unknown. We investigated the influence of methionine (M) or T allele of the angiotensinogen and D or I allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme on left-ventricular mass index (LVMI) and maximal aerobic capacity in young healthy individuals after long-term physical exercise training.
Prospective clinical trial.
Eighty-three policemen aged between 20 and 35 years (mean+/-SD 26+/-4.5 years) were genotyped for the M235T gene angiotensinogen polymorphism (TT, n = 25; MM/MT, n = 58) and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism (II, n = 18; DD/DI, n = 65). Left-ventricular morphology was evaluated by echocardiography and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) by cardiopulmonary exercise test before and after 17 weeks of exercise training (50-80% VO2peak).
Baseline VO2peak and LVMI were similar between TT and MM/MT groups, and II and DD/DI groups. Exercise training increased significantly and similarly VO2peak in homozygous TT and MM/MT individuals, and homozygous II and DD/DI individuals. In addition, exercise training increased significantly LVMI in TT and MM/MT individuals (76.5+/-3 vs. 86.7+/-4, P = 0.00001 and 76.2+/-2 vs. 81.4+/-2, P = 0.00001, respectively), and II and DD/DI individuals (77.7+/-4 vs. 81.5+/-4, P = 0.0001 and 76+/-2 vs. 83.5+/-2, P = 0.0001, respectively). However, LVMI in TT individuals was significantly greater than in MM/MT individuals (P = 0.04). LVMI was not different between II and DD/DI individuals.
Left-ventricular hypertrophy caused by exercise training is exacerbated in homozygous TT individuals with angiotensinogen polymorphism.
European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation: official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology 05/2009; 16(4):487-92. · 2.51 Impact Factor