[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA), coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and Morise clinical score in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).
A total of 722 patients (480 men; 62.7±10.9 years) who were referred for further cardiac evaluation underwent CACS and contrast-enhanced CTCA to evaluate the presence and severity of CAD. Of these, 511 (71%) patients were without previous history of CAD. Patients were stratified according to the Morise clinical score (low, intermediate, high), to CACS (0-10, 11-100, 101-400, 401-1,000, >1,000) and to CTCA (absence of CAD, nonsignificant CAD, obstructive CAD). Patients were followed up for the occurrence of major events: cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina and revascularisation.
Significant CAD (>50% luminal narrowing) was detected in 260 (36%) patients; nonsignificant CAD (<50% luminal narrowing) in 250 (35%) and absence of CAD in 212 (29%). During a mean follow-up of 20±4 months, 116 events (21 hard) occurred. In patients with normal coronary arteries on CTCA, the major event rate was 0% vs. 1.7% in patients with nonsignificant CAD and 7.3% in patients with significant CAD (p<0.0001). Three hard events (14%) occurred in patients with CACS≤100 and two (9.5%) in patients with intermediate Morise score; one revascularisation was observed in a patient with low Morise score. At multivariate analysis, diabetes, obstructive CAD and CACS >1,000 were significant predictors of events (p<0.05).
An excellent prognosis was noted in patients with a normal CTCA (0% event rate). CACS ≤100 and low-intermediate Morise score did not exclude the possibility of events at follow-up.
La radiologia medica 09/2011; 116(8):1188-202. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography (CT-CA) for detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% lumen reduction) in intermediate/high-risk asymptomatic patients.
A total of 183 consecutive asymptomatic individuals (92 men; mean age 54±11 years) with more than one major risk factor (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, family history, smoking) and an inconclusive or nonfeasible noninvasive stress test result (stress electrocardiography, stress echocardiography, nuclear stress scintigraphy) underwent CT-CA in an outpatient setting. All patients underwent conventional coronary angiography (CAG) within 4 weeks. Data from CT-CA were compared with CAG regarding the presence of significant CAD (≥50% lumen reduction).
Mean calcium score was 177±432, mean heart rate during the CT-CA scan was 58±8 bpm and the prevalence (per-patient) of obstructive CAD was 19%. CT-CA showed single-vessel CAD in 9% of patients, two-vessel CAD in 9% and three-vessel CAD in 0%. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT-CA were 100% (90-100), 98% (96-99), 97% (85-99), 100% (97-100), respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 151 and 0, respectively.
CT-CA is an excellent noninvasive imaging modality for excluding significant CAD in intermediate/ high-risk asymptomatic patients with inconclusive or nonfeasible noninvasive stress test.
La radiologia medica 09/2011; 116(8):1161-73. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared cardiac computed tomography (CT) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (ECC) for assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using real-world data from a large patient population.
We studied 450 patients (284 males; mean age 64±12 years; range 12-88) who underwent CT and ECC due to suspected coronary artery disease. For CT, we used multiphase short-axis reconstructions and evaluated them with a dedicated software tool that uses Simpson's rule to compute LV volumes. For ECC, computation was based on the biplane Simpson's method. Results in terms of EF were compared with the paired Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and Bland-Altman analysis.
EF was 52%±15% for CT and 55%±13% for ECC. Statistically significant differences, albeit with good correlation, were observed between the measurements (r=0.71; p<0.05). ECC showed a slight tendency to overestimate EF. When the population was divided into subgroups according to EF, this was underestimated by ECC in the subgroup with EF >50% and overestimated in those with EF 35%-50% and <35%, with consistently significant differences between ECC and CT (p<0.05) and progressively lower levels of agreement.
In the real-world assessment of EF, ECC provides significantly different data from CT, with a bias that increases proportionally to LV systolic dysfunction.
La radiologia medica 03/2010; 115(7):1015-27. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the impact of tube current (mAs) in delayed-enhancement computed tomography (CT) imaging for assessing acute reperfused myocardial infarction in a porcine model.
In five domestic pigs (mean weight 24 kg), the circumflex coronary artery was balloon-occluded for 2 h and then reperfused. After 5 days, CT imaging was performed following administration of iodinated contrast material. A 64-slice CT system was used to perform first-pass coronary angiography with a tube current of 15 mAs/kg [Arterial Phase (ART)] followed by two delayed-enhancement (DE) scans 15 min after contrast material administration, with a tube current of 15 mAs/kg and 37.5 mAs/kg, respectively (DE(1) and DE(2)). The mean heart rate decreased to 51±9 beats/min after administration of zatebradine (10 mg/kg IV). The data set was reconstructed during the end-diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Areas with DE, no reflow and remote myocardium [remote left ventricular (LV)] were calculated. CT values expressed in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using five regions of interest (ROI): DE, no reflow, remote LV, LV cavity (LV lumen) and in air, respectively. Differences, correlations, image quality [signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)] and contrast resolution [contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)] were calculated.
Significant differences were found between attenuation of areas of DE, no reflow and remote LV (p<0.001) within the different scans. There was a fair correlation between DE and no-reflow attenuation (r=0.6; p<0.001). In DE(1) vs. DE(2), areas of DE and no reflow were not significantly different (p>0.05). The SNR and CNR were not significantly different in DE(1) vs. DE(2) (p>0.05).
Tube current does not significantly affect infarction area, image quality or contrast resolution of DE imaging with CT.
La radiologia medica 03/2010; 115(7):1003-14. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors sought to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for assessing left ventricular (LV) function parameters in a large patient population.
The study was conducted on 181 patients who underwent cardiac MRI and cardiac CT for various indications. For MRI, we used two-dimensional cine balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) sequences, and for CT we used multiphase short-axis reconstructions. Volume data sets were evaluated with dedicated software. Results were compared with a paired, two-tailed Student's t test, Pearson's correlation (r), and Bland-Altman analysis.
A high level of concordance was observed between cardiac MRI and CT. Ejection fraction (EF) was 53+/-14% for MRI vs. 53%+/-15% for CT. There was good correlation for EF (r=0.71; p>0.05) and end-systolic volume (r=0.74; p>0.05). End-diastolic volume (74+/-23 ml at MRI vs. 71+/-19 ml at CT; r=0.58; p<0.05) and myocardial mass (63+/-20 g at MRI and 56+/-18 g at CT; r=0.89; p<0.01) showed statistically significant differences, although the discrepancy had no clinical impact.
MRI and CT show a good level of agreement in assessing LV function parameters, and both can be used interchangeably in clinical practice.
La radiologia medica 02/2010; 115(5):702-13. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to estimate surplus radiation dose in retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCT-CA) due to the slope-up and slope-down of the tube current using prospectively ECG-triggered tube modulation.
We used an anthropomorphic phantom with an ECG-gated retrospective protocol and a DSCT scanner (Definition, Siemens). We used four tube current modulation algorithms: narrow pulsing window, with tube current reduction to 20% (A) and 4% (B) of peak current; and wide pulsing window, with tube current reduction to 20% (C) and 4% (D). Each algorithm was applied at five heart rates (HR=45, 60, 75, 90 and 120 bpm) with adaptive pitch values (0.2-0.5). Data sets were reconstructed in 5% increments from 0-95% of the R-R interval. Noise was measured at each R-R step in order to identify low noise (100% dose), medium noise (slope-up/down) and high noise (4/20% dose). Width of the transition window (slope-up/slope-down from 4/20% to 100% dose) was calculated. The surplus dose due to slope-up/slope-down was calculated.
Surplus dose was 19% (A), 34% (B), 14% (C) and 21% (D). The transition window lasted 10%+10% (slope-up + down) for HR <75 bpm and all HR in C (except for 120 bpm; 25%+15%), 15%+15% for HR >90 bpm (A). For C and D, instead, the slope-up increased with progressively higher HR (10%-25% of the R-R interval, except for 90 bpm, 10%), whereas the slope-down remained constant at 5% (except for 120 bpm; 10%).
The adaptive ECG-pulsing windows produced an increment of the surplus dose with increasing HR. The transition window was a constant source of surplus radiation dose in the range of 14%-34%.
La radiologia medica 02/2010; 115(1):36-50. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a giant unruptured acquired aneurysm of the noncoronary sinus of Valsalva, which was detected incidentally in a 30-year-old rugby player with clinical suspicion of dermatomyositis. Sixty-four-slice cardiac computed tomography showed a giant aneurysm (diameters: 91 x 78 x 100 mm) of noncoronary sinus of Valsalva compressing both atrial chambers. The patient underwent cardiac surgery according to the Tirone David technique based on the information provided by cardiac computed tomography.
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 12/2009; 11(7):511-3. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography (CT-CA) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis (> or =50% lumen reduction) compared with conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in a registry and to review major multicentre trials.
A total of 1,372 patients (882 men, 490 women; mean age 59.3+/-11.9 years) in sinus rhythm were studied with CT-CA (64-slice technology) and CCA. The diagnostic accuracy of CT-CA was evaluated against quantitative CCA as a reference standard for coronary artery stenosis. Positive and negative likelihood ratios and inter- and intraobserver agreement were calculated.
The prevalence of disease was 53%. CCA demonstrated the absence of significant coronary artery disease in 46.6% (639/1372), single-vessel disease in 24.7% (337/1372) and multivessel disease in 28.9% (396/1372) of patients. In per-patient analysis sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of CT-CA were 99% [confidence interval (CI) 97-99], 92% (CI 89-94), 94% (CI 91-95) and 99% (CI 97-99), respectively. Per-patient and per-segment likelihood ratios (LR+=12.4 and LR-=0.011; LR+=18.3 and LR-=0.064, respectively), were good. Inter- and intraobserver variability was 0.78 and 0.85, respectively.
CT-CA is a reliable diagnostic modality both in terms of sensitivity and negative predictive value. Differences in trial results are also due to the different parameters used for patient inclusion.
La radiologia medica 12/2009; 115(3):368-84. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose in this study was to compare the impact of contrast material volume in delayed-enhancement computer tomography (CT) imaging for assessing acute reperfused myocardial infarction.
In five domestic pigs (20-30 kg), the circumflex coronary artery (CX) was balloon-occluded for 2 h followed by reperfusion. After 5 days, CT imaging was performed after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast material (Iomeprol 400 mgI/ml; Bracco, Italy). A 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) (Sensation 64, Siemens) scanner was used for imaging, with standard angiography characteristics. Three scans were performed: first, coronary angiography at first pass with 1.25 gI/kg of contrast material (ART); and remaining delayed-enhancement (DE(1)-DE(2)) 15 min after administration of 1.25 (DE(1)) and 15 min after additional administration of 2.50 gI/kg (=total 3.75 gI/kg - DE(2)). Mean heart rate decreased to 51+/-9 bpm after intravenous administration of Zatebradine (10 mg/kg). Data sets were reconstructed during the end-diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Areas of infarction-enhanced (DE), no-reflow (no-reflow) and remote myocardial [remote left ventricle (LV)] were manually contoured. CT attenuation values (Hounsfield units) were measured using five regions of interest: DE, no-reflow, remote LV, left ventricular cavity (lumen LV) and in air. Differences, correlations, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated.
We found significant differences between the attenuation of DE, no-reflow and remote LV (p<0.001). DE and no-reflow size were assessed accurately with DEMDCT. In particular, SNR and CNR showed higher values in DE(2) (approximately 6.0 and 3.5, respectively; r(2)=0.90) vs. DE(1) (approximately 4.0 and 2.2, respectively; r(2)=0.85).
The increase of contrast material volume determines a significant improvement in myocardial infarction image quality with DE-MDCT.
La radiologia medica 12/2009; 115(1):22-35. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of stress electrocardiogram (ECG) and computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis (> or =50%) in the real world using conventional CA as the reference standard.
A total of 236 consecutive patients (159 men, 77 women; mean age 62.8+/-10.2 years) at moderate risk and with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled in the study and underwent stress ECG, CTCA and CA. The CTCA scan was performed after i.v. administration of a 100-ml bolus of iodinated contrast material. The stress ECG and CTCA reports were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy compared with CA in the detection of significant stenosis > or =50%.
We excluded 16 patients from the analysis because of the nondiagnostic quality of stress ECG and/or CTCA. The prevalence of disease demonstrated at CA was 62% (n=220), 51% in the population with comparable stress ECG and CTCA (n=147) and 84% in the population with equivocal stress ECG (n=73). Stress ECG was classified as equivocal in 73 cases (33.2%), positive in 69 (31.4%) and negative in 78 (35.5%). In the per-patient analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of stress ECG was sensitivity 47%, specificity 53%, positive predictive value (PPV) 51% and negative predictive value (NPV) 49%. On stress ECG, 40 (27.2%) patients were misclassified as negative, and 34 (23.1%) patients with nonsignificant stenosis were overestimated as positive. The diagnostic accuracy of CTCA was sensitivity 96%, specificity 65%, PPV 74% and NPV 94%. CTCA incorrectly classified three (2%) as negative and 25 (17%) as positive. The difference in diagnostic accuracy between stress ECG and CTCA was significant (p<0.01).
CTCA in the real world has significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared with stress ECG and could be used as a first-line study in patients at moderate risk.
La radiologia medica 11/2009; 115(3):354-67. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the morphological and functional results of surgical reconstruction of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery with an autologous vein patch, associated with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafting onto the patch.
Cardiac computed tomography (CT) images were assessed in terms of functional and morphological parameters. Function was evaluated by assessing patency at 36 months of the reconstructed LAD (based on the attenuation of the native vessel distal to the anastomosis). Morphology was evaluated by studying vein-patch diameters, profiles and margins, shape and structure to categorise the patches into three groups (A, B, C). Within 1 month of CT, all patients underwent functional testing (bicycle ergometry).
CT imaging correctly depicted the LAD graft, revealing it to be fully patent in all cases. On the basis of our morphological classification, 21 patients were classed as group A, two as group B and two as group C. At bicycle ergometry, 23 patients were negative and two were positive. Group C patients had the worst functional results.
Cardiac CT allowed adequate evaluation of the LAD graft patency and morphology, and in consideration of its noninvasive nature, it may become the imaging tool of choice for evaluating extended LAD reconstruction.
La radiologia medica 09/2009; 114(8):1187-95. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors sought to compare different algorithms for dose reduction in retrospectively echocardiographically (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography (DSCT-CA) in a phantom model.
Weighted CT dose index (CTDI) was measured by using an anthropomorphic phantom in spiral cardiac mode (retrospective ECG gating) at five pitch values adapted with two heart-rate-adaptive ECG pulsing windows using four algorithms: narrow pulsing window, with tube current reduction to 20% (A) and 4% (B) of peak current outside the pulsing window; wide pulsing window, with tube current reduction to 20% (C) and 4% (D). Each algorithm was applied at different heart rates (45, 60, 75, 90, 120 bpm).
Mean CTDI volume (CTDIvol) was 36.9+/-9.7 mGy, 23.9+/-5.6 mGy, 49.7+/-16.2 mGy and 38.5+/-12.3 mGy for A, B, C and D, respectively. Consistent dose reduction was observed with protocols applying the 4% tube current reduction (B and D). Using the conversion coefficient for the chest, the mean effective dose was the highest for C (9.6 mSv) and the lowest for B (4.6 mSv). Heart-ratedependent pitch values (pitch=0.2, 0.26, 0.34, 0.43, 0.5) and the use of heart-rate-adaptive ECG pulsing windows provided a significant decrease in the CTDIvol with progressively higher heart rates (45, 60, 75, 90, 120 bpm), despite using wider pulsing windows.
Radiation exposure with DSCT-CA using a narrow pulsing window significantly decreases when compared with a wider pulsing window. When using a protocol with reduced tube current to 4%, the radiation dose is significantly lower.
La radiologia medica 09/2009; 114(7):1037-52. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared two quantitative semiautomated software packages for volumetric analysis of the left ventricle (LV) by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using two-dimensional (2D) cine balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) sequences.
We included 46 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging for various indications. Two-dimensional cine b-SSFP sequences were used to assess the LV. Data sets were evaluated with two dedicated software packages: ViewForum, version 4.2, and Argus, version Va60C. Results were compared with Student's t test for paired samples, Pearson's r correlation coefficient and R2 coefficient of determination; ejection fraction differences were assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. The time required for analysis was also recorded.
We observed very high levels of concordance and reproducibility. High correlation was observed for ejection fraction (p>0.05; r=0.9; R (2)=0.82). The time required for analysis was 7.6+/-2.78 min vs. 7.52+/-2.4 min (p>0.05; r=0.85; R (2)=0.73). Intraobserver and interobserver variability did not show significant differences.
LV volume evaluation is an integral part of cardiac MR imaging. In our experience, there is no significant difference between the commonly used software packages in either quantitative output or time required for analysis.
La radiologia medica 06/2009; 114(5):718-27. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is a fast developing technique. In 10 years it developed from investigative tool into a clinical reality. The technology drive has been the key to success for this technique which is to date the only non invasive clinical tool for coronary angiographic assessment. Technical background is quite complex and the newer solutions are aiming at reducing the scan time and the radiation dose while improving temporal resolution, contrast resolution and ultimately image quality. The key technical development has been in the late 1990, the introduction of ECG triggering/gating techniques. Spatial resolution has also been improved reaching sub-millimeter performance. The latest innovations provide fast coverage with >64 slice detectors, high spatial resolution with 0.5 mm slice thickness, high temporal resolution with <100 ms in hardware, and higher contrast resolution with the forthcoming dual-energy solutions. Recently, also dose issues have been exploited and current state of the art technology are able to perform cardiac CT with 1-2 mSv. These improvements put cardiac CT as the most promising clinical tool for the non invasive assessment of coronary arteries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the performance of 64-slice CT in symptomatic patients with different coronary calcium scores. Two hundred patients undergoing 64-slice CT coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease were enrolled into five groups based on Agatston calcium score using the Mayo Clinic risk stratification: group 1: score 0, group 2: score 1-10, group 3: score 11-100, group 4: score 101-400, and group 5: score > 401. Diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant (>/=50% lumen reduction) coronary artery stenosis was assessed on a per-segment and per-patient base using quantitative coronary angiography as the gold standard. For groups 1 through 5, sensitivity was 97, 96, 91, 90, 92%, and specificity was 99, 98, 96, 88, 90%, respectively, on a per-segment basis. On a per-patient basis, the best diagnostic performance was obtained in group 1 (sensitivity 100% and specificity 100%) and group 5 (sensitivity 95% and specificity 100%). Progressively higher coronary calcium levels affect diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary angiography, decreasing sensitivity and specificity on a per-segment base. On a per-patient base, the best results in terms of diagnostic accuracy were obtained in the populations with very low and very high cardiovascular risk.
European Radiology 05/2009; 19(9):2127-35. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to correlate left main (LM) coronary artery dimensions with the presence of atherosclerosis by multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography (CA) and to assess coronary atherosclerotic plaques with a semiquantitative method.
Sixty-two consecutive patients (41 men, mean age 60+/-11) with suspected coronary artery disease underwent 64-MDCT coronary angiography. LM dimensions (length, ostial and bifurcation diameters), quantitative [location, Hounsfield unit (HU) attenuation] and qualitative (composition, shape) analysis of plaques within the LM were performed. All patients underwent conventional CA.
Thirty patients (mean age 55+/-10) without plaques in the LM presented the following average dimensions: length 10.6+/-6.1 mm, ostial diameter 5.5+/-0.7 mm, bifurcation diameter 4.9+/-0.9 mm. LM plaques (n=36) were detected in 32 patients (mean age 64+/-10) with the following LM average dimensions: length 11.3+/-4.0 mm, ostial diameter 6.0+/-1.2 mm and bifurcation diameter 6.0+/-1.2 mm. Plaques were calcified (40%, mean attenuation 742+/-191 HU), mixed (43%, mean attenuation 387+/-94 HU) or noncalcified (17%, mean attenuation 56+/-14 HU) and were frequently eccentric (77%). Age was significantly different in the two groups (p<0.05). LM diameters of patients with plaques were improved (p<0.05). A moderate correlation was found between the LM bifurcation diameter and the corresponding plaque area (r=0.56). Significant conventional CA lesions of the LM were present in just three patients (5%).
Increased LM diameters are associated with the presence of atherosclerosis. MDCT CA indicates relevant features of LM atherosclerotic burden, as rupture and subsequent thrombosis of vulnerable plaques may develop from lesions characterised as nonsignificant at conventional CA.
La radiologia medica 05/2009; 114(3):358-69. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the role of multislice computed tomography coronary angiography (MSCT-CA) and stress electrocardiography (ECG) in the diagnostic workup of patients with chronic chest pain.
MSCT-CA was performed in 43 patients (31 men, 12 women, mean age 58.8+/-7.7 years) with stable angina after a routine diagnostic workup involving stress ECG and conventional CA. The following inclusion criteria were adopted: sinus rhythm and ability to hold breath for 12 s. Beta-blockers were administered in patients with heart rate>or=70 beats/minute. In order to identify or exclude patients with significant stenoses (>or=50% lumen), we determined posttest likelihood ratios of stress test and MSCT-CA separately and of MSCT-CA performed after the stress test.
The pretest probability of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was 74%. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-5.3] and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2-0.7) for the stress test and 10.0 (95% CI: 1.8-78.4) and 0.0 (95% CI: 0.0-infinity) for MSCT-CA, respectively. MSCT-CA increased the posttest probability of significant CAD after a negative stress test from 50% to 86% and after a positive stress test from 88% to 100%. MSCT-CA correctly detected all patients without CAD.
Noninvasive MSCT-CA is a potentially useful tool in the diagnostic workup of patients with stable angina owing to its capability to detect or exclude significant CAD.
La radiologia medica 04/2009; 114(4):513-23. · 1.46 Impact Factor