Alessandro Palumbo

University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (92)181.29 Total impact

  • Circulation 09/2013; 128(13):e202. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is known that 9-31% of women and 4-14% of men experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have normal coronary arteries or non-significant coronary disease at angiography. Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) can non-invasively identify the presence of coronary plaques even in the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis. This study evaluated the role of 64-slice CTCA in detecting and characterising coronary atherosclerosis in patients with a documented AMI but without significant coronary artery stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with AMI but without significant coronary stenosis at coronary angiography (CA) underwent late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) and CTCA. Only the 50 patients with an area of MI identified by LGE-CMR were included in the study. All of the coronary segments were assessed for the presence of coronary plaques. CTCA identified 101 plaques against the 41 identified by CA: 61 (60.4%) located in infarct-related arteries (IRAs) and 40 (39.6%) in non-IRAs. In the IRAs, 22 plaques were non-calcified, 17 mixed, and 22 calcified; in the non-IRAs, five plaques were non-calcified, eight mixed, and 27 calcified (p=0.005). Mean plaque area was significantly greater in the IRAs than in the non-IRAs (6.1±5.4 mm(2) vs 4.2±2.1 mm(2), p=0.03); there was no significant difference in mean percentage stenosis (33.5%±14.6 vs 31.7%±12.2, p=0.59), but the mean remodelling index was significantly different (1.25±0.41 vs 1.08±0.21, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CTCA detects coronary atherosclerotic plaques in segments of non-stenotic coronary arteries that are underestimated by CA, and identifies a different distribution of plaque types in IRAs and non-IRAs. It may therefore be valuable for diagnosing coronary atherosclerosis in AMI patients without any significant coronary stenosis.
    Circulation 11/2012; · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the accuracy of computed tomography coronary angiography (CT-CA) for detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% lumen reduction) in intermediate/high-risk asymptomatic patients. A total of 183 consecutive asymptomatic individuals (92 men; mean age 54±11 years) with more than one major risk factor (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, family history, smoking) and an inconclusive or nonfeasible noninvasive stress test result (stress electrocardiography, stress echocardiography, nuclear stress scintigraphy) underwent CT-CA in an outpatient setting. All patients underwent conventional coronary angiography (CAG) within 4 weeks. Data from CT-CA were compared with CAG regarding the presence of significant CAD (≥50% lumen reduction). Mean calcium score was 177±432, mean heart rate during the CT-CA scan was 58±8 bpm and the prevalence (per-patient) of obstructive CAD was 19%. CT-CA showed single-vessel CAD in 9% of patients, two-vessel CAD in 9% and three-vessel CAD in 0%. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CT-CA were 100% (90-100), 98% (96-99), 97% (85-99), 100% (97-100), respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 151 and 0, respectively. CT-CA is an excellent noninvasive imaging modality for excluding significant CAD in intermediate/ high-risk asymptomatic patients with inconclusive or nonfeasible noninvasive stress test.
    La radiologia medica 09/2011; 116(8):1161-73. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA), coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and Morise clinical score in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 722 patients (480 men; 62.7±10.9 years) who were referred for further cardiac evaluation underwent CACS and contrast-enhanced CTCA to evaluate the presence and severity of CAD. Of these, 511 (71%) patients were without previous history of CAD. Patients were stratified according to the Morise clinical score (low, intermediate, high), to CACS (0-10, 11-100, 101-400, 401-1,000, >1,000) and to CTCA (absence of CAD, nonsignificant CAD, obstructive CAD). Patients were followed up for the occurrence of major events: cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina and revascularisation. Significant CAD (>50% luminal narrowing) was detected in 260 (36%) patients; nonsignificant CAD (<50% luminal narrowing) in 250 (35%) and absence of CAD in 212 (29%). During a mean follow-up of 20±4 months, 116 events (21 hard) occurred. In patients with normal coronary arteries on CTCA, the major event rate was 0% vs. 1.7% in patients with nonsignificant CAD and 7.3% in patients with significant CAD (p<0.0001). Three hard events (14%) occurred in patients with CACS≤100 and two (9.5%) in patients with intermediate Morise score; one revascularisation was observed in a patient with low Morise score. At multivariate analysis, diabetes, obstructive CAD and CACS >1,000 were significant predictors of events (p<0.05). An excellent prognosis was noted in patients with a normal CTCA (0% event rate). CACS ≤100 and low-intermediate Morise score did not exclude the possibility of events at follow-up.
    La radiologia medica 09/2011; 116(8):1188-202. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a 24-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The patient showed no coronary artery disease on conventional coronary angiography (CAG). Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) performed thereafter allowed the highly probable diagnosis of the culprit lesion (i.e. vulnerable plaque) and of the infarcted area. We demonstrated the impact of integrated non-invasive imaging in defining the diagnosis of STEMI with normal coronary arteries on CAG.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 03/2011; 12(3):184-5. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the predictive value of CT coronary angiography (CT-CA) in the stratification of patients with acute chest pain. We enrolled 48 patients (31 males and 17 females, mean age 61.0 +/- 14yrs) with acute chest pain of suspected coronary origin, without diagnostic alterations of the ECG and/or increase of the myocardial biomarkers. Sixty-four slice CT-CA was performed within 48-72 hours. Depending on the clinical judgment, the patients were dismissed or underwent conventional coronary angiography (CAG). Patients underwent clinical follow-up at 6 months, recording the prevalence of major cardiovascular events. One patient was excluded from the analysis because of poor image quality. CT-CA showed no coronary artery disease in 38.3% (18/47) of the patients, no significant coronary artery disease (<50% lumen reduction) in 31.9% (15/47) of the patients, significant coronary artery disease (> or = 50% lumen reduction) in 29.8% (14/47) of the patients. In 87.2% (41/47) of the patients no indication for CAG was present. In 6 (12,8%) patients with significant stenosis at CT-CA indication for CAG was present. In 50% (3/6) of these patients, CAG showed no significant coronary artery disease and in the remaining 50%(3/6) CAG was followed by percutaneous coronary angioplasty. At follow-up no major cardiovascular events were observed. CT-CA showed high sensitivity for the detection of significant coronary artery disease and a negative predictive value at 6-month follow-up.
    Acta bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis 12/2010; 81(3):157-64.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography (CA) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis (> or = 50% lumen reduction) as compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in a population of patients with chest pain and high risk. 44 patients (30 male; mean age 60.2+/- 12.1 yrs) with chest pain were prospectively enrolled. In patients with heart rate > or = 70 bpm an oral dose of 100 mg of beta-blocker was administered. For CT-CA (Sensation 64, Siemens, Germany) an intravenous bolus of 100 ml of iodinated contrast material (Iomeron 400, Bracco, Italy) was injected. The average scan time was 13.3 +/- 0.9s. Two observers evaluated CT-CA vs. ICA as a reference standard for the detection of significant (> or = 50% lumen reduction) coronary artery stenosis. ICA demonstrated the absence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in 13.6% of the patients (6/44), the presence of non significant CAD 4.6% (2/44), single vessel disease in 27.2% (12/44) and multi-vessel disease in 54.6% (24/44) of the patients. None of the patients was excluded from the study population. Ninety-three significant obstructive coronary lesions were observed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of CT-CA were 98.6% (70/71), 92.4% (97/105), 89.7% (70/78) and 99% (97/98), respectively. All patients with at least one significant coronary lesion were correctly identified by CT-CA. CT-CA is a reliable alternative to ICA in a selected population of patients with chest pain and high risk.
    Acta bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis 12/2010; 81(1):47-53.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of exercise ECG (ex-ECG) versus 64-slice CT coronary angiography (CT-CA) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis in a population with low-to-intermediate pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Retrospective single centre. Tertiary academic hospital. 177 consecutive patients (88 men, 89 women, mean age 53.5±7.6 years) with chest pain and low-to-intermediate pre-test likelihood of CAD were retrospectively enrolled. All patients underwent ex-ECG, CT-CA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). A lumen diameter reduction of ≥50% was considered as significant stenosis for CT-CA. Ex-ECG was classified as positive, negative or non-diagnostic. were compared with ICA. Diagnostic accuracy of CT-CA and ex-ECG was calculated using ICA as the reference standard. A parallel comparative analysis using a cut-off value of 70% for significant lumen reduction was also performed too. Results ICA disclosed an absence of significant stenosis (≥50% luminal narrowing) in 85.3% (151/177) patients, single-vessel disease in 9.0% (16/177) patients and multivessel disease in 5.6% (10/177) patients. Prevalence of obstructive disease at ICA was 14.7% (26/177). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values at the patient level were 100.0%, 98.7%, 92.9%, 100%, respectively, for CT-CA and 46.2%, 16.6%, 8.7%, 64.1%, respectively, for ex-ECG. Agreement between CT-CA and ex-ECG was 20.9%. CT-CA performed equally well in men and women, while ex-ECG had a better performance in men. After considering the cut-off value of 70% for significant stenosis, the difference between CT-CA and ex-ECG remained significant (p<0.01), with a low agreement (21.5%). CT-CA provides optimal diagnostic performance in patients with atypical chest pain and low-to-intermediate risk of CAD. Ex-ECG has poor diagnostic accuracy in this population. Concerns are related to risk of radiation dose versus the benefits of correct disease stratification.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 11/2010; 96(24):1973-9. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of coronary artery stenosis has progressively shifted over the past decades, from surgical (CABG) to percutaneous (PCI and stenting). The recent introduction of drug-eluting stents further reduced the occurrence of in-stent re-stenosis (ISR). However, a non-negligible number of patients need imaging/functional tests when symptoms recur. Multi-Slice CT Coronary Angiography (CT-CA) is a clinical reality for the evaluation of coronary artery stenosis, but still under evaluation in the follow-up of coronary stents. Several factors may impair proper depiction of in-stent lumen even with the most recent CT equipments. In highly selected populations CT-CA may play a clinical role even though the performance requirements both from the technical standpoint (i.e., CT scanner) and from the training (i.e., operators' experience) are still very demanding. In the meantime CT technology should improve towards higher contrast, spatial and temporal resolution in order to achieve the results that may be proper for clinical implementation.
    Acta bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis 09/2010; 81(2):87-93.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic value of multidetector computed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography in a diabetic population known to have or suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with that in nondiabetic individuals. Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. Three hundred thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 303 patients without DM underwent unenhanced 64-detector row CT, at which a calcium score was obtained, followed by CT angiography. Multidetector CT coronary angiograms were retrospectively classified as normal, showing nonobstructive CAD (<or=50% luminal narrowing), or showing obstructive CAD (>50% luminal narrowing). During follow-up after CT angiography, major events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring hospitalization) and total events (major events plus coronary revascularizations) were recorded for each patient. Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to compare survival rates. In the group of 313 patients with DM, there were 213 men, and the mean age was 62 years +/- 11 (standard deviation). In the group of 303 patients without DM, there were 203 men, and the mean age was 63 years +/- 11. The mean number of diseased segments (5.6 vs 4.4, P = .001) and the rate of obstructive CAD (51% vs 37%, P < .001) were higher in patients with DM. Patients were followed up for a mean of 20 months +/- 5.4 (range, 6-44 months). At multivariate analysis, DM (P < .001) and evidence of obstructive CAD (P < .001) were independent predictors of outcome. Obstructive CAD remained a significant multivariate predictor for both patients with DM and patients without DM. In both patients with DM and patients without DM with absence of disease, the event rate was 0%. The event rate increased to 36% in patients without DM but with obstructive CAD and was highest (47%) in patients with DM and obstructive CAD. In both patients with DM and patients without DM, multidetector CT coronary angiography provides incremental prognostic information over baseline clinical variables, and the absence of atherosclerosis at CT coronary angiography is associated with an excellent prognosis. Multidetector CT coronary angiography might be a clinically useful tool for improving risk stratification in both patients with DM and patients without DM.
    Radiology 07/2010; 256(1):83-92. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to define the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of intracoronary enhancement on the absolute density values of coronary plaques during multislice computed tomography. We studied seven ex-vivo left coronary artery specimens surrounded by olive oil and filled with isotonic saline and four solutions with decreasing dilutions of contrast material: control (isotonic saline), 1/200, 1/80, 1/50, and 1/20. The multislice computed tomography protocol was: slice/collimation 32 x 2 x 0.6 mm and rotation time 330 ms. The attenuation (Hounsfield units) value of atherosclerotic plaques was measured for each dilution in lumen, plaque (noncalcified coronary wall thickening), calcium, and surrounding oil. In-vivo assessment was performed in 12 patients (nine men; mean age 58.7 +/- 9.9 years) who underwent two subsequent multislice computed tomography scans (arterial and delayed) after intravenous administration of a single bolus of contrast material. The attenuation values of lumen and plaques during arterial and delayed computed tomography were compared. The results were compared with one-way analysis of variance and correlated with Pearson's test. Mean lumen (45 +/- 38-669 +/- 151 HU) and plaque (11 +/- 35-101 +/- 72 HU) attenuation differed significantly (P < 0.001) among the different dilutions. The attenuation of lumen and plaque of coronary plaques showed moderate correlation (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). The mean attenuation value in vivo for the arterial and delayed phase scans differed significantly (P < 0.001) for lumen (325 +/- 70 and 174 +/- 46 HU, respectively) and plaque (138 +/- 71 and 100 +/- 52 HU, respectively). Coronary plaque attenuation values are significantly modified by differences in lumen contrast densities both ex vivo and in vivo. This should be taken into account when considering the distinction between lipid and fibrous plaques.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 05/2010; 11(5):337-44. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) compared with invasive coronary angiography for in-stent restenosis (ISR) detection. MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and BioMed Central database searches were performed until April 2009 for original articles. Inclusion criteria were (1) 64-MDCT was used as a diagnostic test for ISR, with >50% diameter stenosis selected as the cut-off criterion for significant ISR, using invasive coronary angiography and quantitative coronary angiography as the standard of reference; (2) absolute numbers of true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative results could be derived. Standard meta-analytic methods were applied. Nine studies with a total of 598 patients with 978 stents included were considered eligible. On average, 9% of stents were unassessable (range 0-42%). Accuracy tests with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing 64-MDCT vs invasive coronary angiography showed that pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (random effect model) values were: 86% (95% CI 80-91%), 93% (95% CI 91-95%), 12.32 (95% CI 7.26-20.92), 0.18 (95% CI 0.12-0.28) for binary ISR detection. The symmetric area under the curve value was 0.94, indicating good agreement between 64-MDCT and invasive coronary angiography. 64-MDCT has a good diagnostic accuracy for ISR detection with a particularly high negative predictive value. However, still a relatively large proportion of stents remains uninterpretable. Accordingly, only in selected patients, 64-MDCT may serve as a potential alternative noninvasive method to rule out ISR.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 04/2010; 17(3):470-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the impact of tube current (mAs) in delayed-enhancement computed tomography (CT) imaging for assessing acute reperfused myocardial infarction in a porcine model. In five domestic pigs (mean weight 24 kg), the circumflex coronary artery was balloon-occluded for 2 h and then reperfused. After 5 days, CT imaging was performed following administration of iodinated contrast material. A 64-slice CT system was used to perform first-pass coronary angiography with a tube current of 15 mAs/kg [Arterial Phase (ART)] followed by two delayed-enhancement (DE) scans 15 min after contrast material administration, with a tube current of 15 mAs/kg and 37.5 mAs/kg, respectively (DE(1) and DE(2)). The mean heart rate decreased to 51±9 beats/min after administration of zatebradine (10 mg/kg IV). The data set was reconstructed during the end-diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Areas with DE, no reflow and remote myocardium [remote left ventricular (LV)] were calculated. CT values expressed in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using five regions of interest (ROI): DE, no reflow, remote LV, LV cavity (LV lumen) and in air, respectively. Differences, correlations, image quality [signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)] and contrast resolution [contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)] were calculated. Significant differences were found between attenuation of areas of DE, no reflow and remote LV (p<0.001) within the different scans. There was a fair correlation between DE and no-reflow attenuation (r=0.6; p<0.001). In DE(1) vs. DE(2), areas of DE and no reflow were not significantly different (p>0.05). The SNR and CNR were not significantly different in DE(1) vs. DE(2) (p>0.05). Tube current does not significantly affect infarction area, image quality or contrast resolution of DE imaging with CT.
    La radiologia medica 03/2010; 115(7):1003-14. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared cardiac computed tomography (CT) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (ECC) for assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using real-world data from a large patient population. We studied 450 patients (284 males; mean age 64±12 years; range 12-88) who underwent CT and ECC due to suspected coronary artery disease. For CT, we used multiphase short-axis reconstructions and evaluated them with a dedicated software tool that uses Simpson's rule to compute LV volumes. For ECC, computation was based on the biplane Simpson's method. Results in terms of EF were compared with the paired Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and Bland-Altman analysis. EF was 52%±15% for CT and 55%±13% for ECC. Statistically significant differences, albeit with good correlation, were observed between the measurements (r=0.71; p<0.05). ECC showed a slight tendency to overestimate EF. When the population was divided into subgroups according to EF, this was underestimated by ECC in the subgroup with EF >50% and overestimated in those with EF 35%-50% and <35%, with consistently significant differences between ECC and CT (p<0.05) and progressively lower levels of agreement. In the real-world assessment of EF, ECC provides significantly different data from CT, with a bias that increases proportionally to LV systolic dysfunction.
    La radiologia medica 03/2010; 115(7):1015-27. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to estimate surplus radiation dose in retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCT-CA) due to the slope-up and slope-down of the tube current using prospectively ECG-triggered tube modulation. We used an anthropomorphic phantom with an ECG-gated retrospective protocol and a DSCT scanner (Definition, Siemens). We used four tube current modulation algorithms: narrow pulsing window, with tube current reduction to 20% (A) and 4% (B) of peak current; and wide pulsing window, with tube current reduction to 20% (C) and 4% (D). Each algorithm was applied at five heart rates (HR=45, 60, 75, 90 and 120 bpm) with adaptive pitch values (0.2-0.5). Data sets were reconstructed in 5% increments from 0-95% of the R-R interval. Noise was measured at each R-R step in order to identify low noise (100% dose), medium noise (slope-up/down) and high noise (4/20% dose). Width of the transition window (slope-up/slope-down from 4/20% to 100% dose) was calculated. The surplus dose due to slope-up/slope-down was calculated. Surplus dose was 19% (A), 34% (B), 14% (C) and 21% (D). The transition window lasted 10%+10% (slope-up + down) for HR <75 bpm and all HR in C (except for 120 bpm; 25%+15%), 15%+15% for HR >90 bpm (A). For C and D, instead, the slope-up increased with progressively higher HR (10%-25% of the R-R interval, except for 90 bpm, 10%), whereas the slope-down remained constant at 5% (except for 120 bpm; 10%). The adaptive ECG-pulsing windows produced an increment of the surplus dose with increasing HR. The transition window was a constant source of surplus radiation dose in the range of 14%-34%.
    La radiologia medica 02/2010; 115(1):36-50. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors sought to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) for assessing left ventricular (LV) function parameters in a large patient population. The study was conducted on 181 patients who underwent cardiac MRI and cardiac CT for various indications. For MRI, we used two-dimensional cine balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) sequences, and for CT we used multiphase short-axis reconstructions. Volume data sets were evaluated with dedicated software. Results were compared with a paired, two-tailed Student's t test, Pearson's correlation (r), and Bland-Altman analysis. A high level of concordance was observed between cardiac MRI and CT. Ejection fraction (EF) was 53+/-14% for MRI vs. 53%+/-15% for CT. There was good correlation for EF (r=0.71; p>0.05) and end-systolic volume (r=0.74; p>0.05). End-diastolic volume (74+/-23 ml at MRI vs. 71+/-19 ml at CT; r=0.58; p<0.05) and myocardial mass (63+/-20 g at MRI and 56+/-18 g at CT; r=0.89; p<0.01) showed statistically significant differences, although the discrepancy had no clinical impact. MRI and CT show a good level of agreement in assessing LV function parameters, and both can be used interchangeably in clinical practice.
    La radiologia medica 02/2010; 115(5):702-13. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In cases where conventional aortocoronary grafts cannot be used, No-React bovine internal mammary artery is a possible alternative. The aim of this study was to assess the patency and clinical performance of bovine internal mammary artery as a coronary bypass conduit, using 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. Eleven patients (mean age, 68.2 + or - 5.9 years) received 11 bovine grafts between 2002 and 2006. Eight of these patients were alive after a mean follow-up of 29.4 + or - 16.3 months. Their mean additive EuroSCORE was 6.5 + or - 3.2. The mean number of distal anastomoses was 2.5 + or - 0.5. Six grafts were anastomosed to the right coronary artery, 2 to the left anterior descending artery, and 3 to the circumflex artery. All 11 bovine grafts were found to be occluded after 14.1 + or - 3.6 months. This demonstrates very poor results with the bovine coronary graft, thus we do not recommend its use, and we suggest considering an hybrid approach in selected cases.
    Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 02/2010; 18(1):59-64.
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    Radiologia Medica - RADIOL MED. 01/2010; 115(5):702-713.
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    Radiologia Medica - RADIOL MED. 01/2010; 115(3):368-384.
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    Radiologia Medica - RADIOL MED. 01/2010; 115(3):354-367.

Publication Stats

736 Citations
181.29 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2013
    • University Hospital of Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Ospedale Maggiore di Lodi
      Lodi, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2010
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Cardiology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2009
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • University of Verona
      • Department of Pathology
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 2006
    • Università degli studi di Palermo
      • Department of internal medicine and medical specialties (DIMIS)
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • 2004–2006
    • Università degli Studi di Trieste
      Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy