Paul Fredric Brain

Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (193)321.56 Total impact

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individual variations of plasma levels of hormones testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), before (pre) and after (post) Kumite (real fight) and Kata (ritualized fight) were measured in male karate athletes and analyzed in relation with the agonistic outcome (i.e. winning or losing the fight) and personality trait measures. T and C increased only during Kumite contest and pre- and post-competition C levels were higher in losers than winners. Losers showed higher levels of harm avoidance and anxiety as well as lower level of novelty seeking than winners. Importantly, novelty seeking negatively correlates with pre C and the higher the level of risk assessment, emotionality and insecurity indexes the higher the pre C level. In conclusion, personality traits might be an important factor asymmetry between athletes influencing both the probability of winning or losing an agonistic interaction and the different anticipatory endocrine response to the incipient fight.
    Aggressive Behavior 05/2009; 35(4):324-33. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • International Conference on Land Degradation in Arid Environments: from 08-14 March 2009, Held at Conference Room: 119, Building: Administrative Building, Kuwait University, Khaldiya Campus; 03/2009
  • M. Al-Hashem, P. F. Brain
    Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology 01/2009; 3(1):56-59.
  • Mona A Al-Hashem, P. Brain
    edited by Jason B. Aronoff, 01/2009; Nova Science Publishers, Inc. New York., ISBN: 978-1-60692-993-3
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    ABSTRACT: An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.
    Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 03/2008; 11(4):589-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Animals (including human beings) show complex interactions with their own species, other species, and the environment. An encounter between two animals such as that of rodent aggression (described by Grant and Mackintosh, 1963) 27 involves intricate behavioral patterns, presumably expressing a variety of motivations. Over the past 20 years encounters between rats or mice staged by investigators within the laboratory have been advocated for the evaluation of behavioral effects of drug actions upon the central nervous system (CNS). The utilization of detailed ethological studies of diverse species-specific activities seems to have distinct advantages over the analysis of single behavioral parameters since they may facilitate: (1) Distinguishing between specific and nonspecific drug effects. For example, low doses of benzodiazepines have a specific anxiolytic action, whereas high doses are generally depressant. The specificity of drug action can also be assessed by examining the complete behavioral profile (2) Comparisons between drugs, which have the same effect on a single measure
    02/2008: pages 687-739;
  • Paul F. Brain
    Holocene. 01/2008; 18(7):1147-1147.
    International Zoo Yearbook 12/2007; 23(1):121 - 125.
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    ABSTRACT: Using indicator species to monitor the effects of oil pollution was thought to be useful to assess whether local desert reptiles and their insect prey could fulfill such a role in an area damaged in the second Gulf War (1990). Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot, and clear sites) located at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field were compared with control areas outside this region in study conducted in 2002. Five Acanthodactylus scutellatus lizards from each study and control site were humanely killed and stored in a freezer at -20 degrees C until analysis. Ants from the same sites were also collected and treated in a similar manner. Lizard and ant whole body tissues were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs). The study concentrated on sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), EPA priority pollutants used as indicators of petrogenic HC contamination. There were significantly different concentrations of total PAHs in lizards and ants among all four study sites. Of the 16 PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene were present in both lizard and ant samples from the Greater Al-Burgan oil field sites irrespective of the apparent degree of pollution but were undetectable in materials from the control sites. The range of total PAHs in lizards was 26.5-301 ng g(-1) and it was 6.7-82.1 ng g(-1) in ants. Concentrations increased progressively along an expected contamination gradient. Total PAHs were detected in biota even in an area (clear site) that did not appear, virtually, to contain petroleum soil pollution which supports the value of indicator biota species. For all three sites where PAHs were found in biota, the ratio of total PAHs in ants to lizards was consistently 3.3-3.4. These data show that, although 12 years have passed since the Kuwait oil spill catastrophe, all sites are still contaminated with PAHs. Use of lizard and ant materials in monitoring such desert locations seems to be an effective strategy.
    Ecotoxicology 12/2007; 16(8):551-5. · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Dan W. Forman, Paul F. Brain
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-specific aggression was investigated in a wild colony of Water voles between 1999 and 2004 in South Wales, UK. The occurrence and location (i.e. on the head, neck, body or tail) of bite wounds were recorded for adult and juvenile male and female voles. The greatest (33%) incidence of bite wounds were recorded on juvenile females and the lowest (18%) in adult females. Seasonal analysis of wound data in adults revealed that females were more likely to be bitten during the breeding season whereas bite patterns in males did not vary seasonally. Analysis of bite pattern topography revealed that most Water voles seemingly attempt to bite vulnerable target areas of the body (namely the head and tail). This is in contrast with studies on rats and mice where competitive forms of attack (particularly involving males) largely avoid these areas of the attacked animal's body. Targeting vulnerable areas is normally a characteristic of defensive modes of attack. Patterns of bite topography and agonistic behaviour in this species seem to reflect competitive interactions between individuals, particularly between territorial females and their female offspring, over access to essential resources. Aggr. Behav. 32:599–603. 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Aggressive Behavior 10/2006; 32(6):599 - 603. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two forms of competitive encounters namely Randori (free fight) and Kata (highly ritualized fight) were studied in 22 professional male judo fighters. The dyadic, symmetrical (in terms of body weight and fighting ability) encounters were videotaped to assess relationships between agonistic behavior and individual variations in plasma levels of testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1β) measured before and after the competition. Unremarkably, winners showed longer attack but devoted less time to defensive behaviors when compared to losers. T increased only during Randori but the individual pre- and post-competition T levels recorded in such fights were strongly correlated with the corresponding measures in the Kata for the same individuals. Interestingly, the pre- and post-Randori competition T levels were higher in losers than in winners and T variations positively correlated with the frequencies of attacks and with the duration of defensive postures. The T response shows individual variation and seems to reflect evaluation of the likelihood of winning or losing. Both Randori and Kata induced a marked C increase, although the pre- and post-Randori hormonal titers were higher than those found for the Kata. IL-6 significantly increased between the pre- and the post-Randori competition, but no such changes occurred during the Kata. No correlations were found between individual pre- and post-competition C and IL-6 and IL-1β levels in either Randori or Kata. This suggests that C and cytokine release are unrelated to emotional or cognitive perception of the possible outcome of fighting but are a consequence of general motor activity. Martial arts appear to provide good human models to understand: (a) the relationships between conflict, hormones and the immune system and (b) the relationships between mood and physiological responses to competitive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 32:1–9, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Aggressive Behavior 07/2006; 32(5):481 - 489. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Paul F. Brain, Angela E. Poole
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    ABSTRACT: Recent experiments concerning the possible role of components of the pituitary–adrenocortical axis (ACTH and glucocorticoids) in isolation-induced intermale fighting behavior in laboratory strains of mice are reviewed. A series of experiments which investigate factors that may influence the successful demonstration of this relationship are described. Differences in performances in standard-opponent tests of some outbred strains of albino mice are indicated, as well as an interesting positive correlation between the aggressiveness and the relative adrenal weights of the strains employed. Long-acting preparations of both ACTH and ACTH 4–10, injected throughout a period of isolation, suppressed fighting behavior in intact TO-strain mice in subsequent standard-opponent and trained-fighter tests. After it had been confirmed that vigorous isolation-induced fighting could be obtained in bilaterally castrated mice which had been subcutaneously implanted with testosterone pellets, the effects of long-acting preparations of ACTH, ACTH 4–10, ACTH 1–10, and ACTH 4–10 D-phe on the fighting behavior of such animals were studied. A significant suppression of fighting behavior was evident only with respect to ACTH, suggesting that ACTH 4–10 may have its action on this behavior in a manner rather different from that of the parent molecule. Some evidence was also obtained indicating that the zinc used in the preparation of long-acting injections of ACTH and its analogs may also cause a decline in the level of fighting behavior, in a standard-opponent test, in TO-strain mice which had been castrated and testosterone implanted. While such a finding does not affect the validity of the recorded behavioral influences of ACTH and ACTH 4–10 described earlier, it does seem likely that the presence of this substance in placebo injections would make the demonstration of the actions of the pep tides difficult, as there would be a low level of fighting in all categories. Rather less impressive results were obtained with respect to the influences of ACTH preparations and zinc on castrated—implanted CFW mice.The studies identify a number of the factors which may influence the successful demonstration of a relationship between the functioning of the pituitary—adrenocortical axis and isolation-induced agonistic behavior in the mouse. A number of general, if tentative, conclusions may also be listed. It seems likely, in spite of the interpretational difficulties caused by what seems to be a complex and rather unstable relationship, that ACTH and glucocorticoids may have profound influences on this type of fighting behavior in this species. One may also conclude that the evidence for an extraadrenal influence of ACTH on this behavior appears stronger as a result of these and related studies and that the actions of ACTH and its analogs on murine fighting behavior may be logically related to the actions of these compounds on the acquisition and extinction of conditioned avoidance reactions in hypophysectomized rats. The possible utility of such actions to the natural territorial habit of the adult male mouse is also indicated.
    Aggressive Behavior 02/2006; 1(1):39 - 69. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Paul F. Brain, Angela E. Poole
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Isolation-induced intermale fighting in laboratory mice can be dramatically reduced under most circumstances by castration. This behavior in castrates may, however, be restored, or even accentuated, by androgen replacement. Experiments on the effects of sex steroids on such fighting in castrated mice, which, for want of a better term, are designated as “aggressive,” have been recently described. These mice are housed with a female until 10 days after siring a litter and are, thereafter, housed individually for a further 14 days before castration and subsequent hormone treatment. Such mice show substantial levels of fighting in “standard-opponent” tests even before isolation. Although castration results in reduced fighting in these mice, this behavior is rarely completely abolished in all individuals. It seems likely that steroid treatment of aggressive mice maintains or intensifies an already present motivation. Treatments in these studies consisted of daily oil-based intramuscular injections for 14 days preceding and throughout behavioral testing. The standard-opponent tests were 7 min encounters with adult, subordinate, grouped males in the cleaned home cages of experimental mice. The steroids investigated included estradiol benzoate (EB), 19-hydroxytestosterone (19-OHT), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), and Sα-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), either singly or in combination. The results suggest that (a) on a dosage basis, estrogens were at least as effective as androgens in maintaining fighting in castrated aggressive mice; (b) 19-OHT (one of the metabolic intermediates between testosterone and 17 β-estradiol) was also effective but somewhat less so than the same dose of EB; (c) the three naturally occurring androgens investigated all effectively maintained fighting at comparatively low doses (50 μg/day) which compares with a replacement dose of 500 μg/day of T in some studies in traditional castrated mice (e.g., Luttge and Hall, 1973); (d) aromatization is not essential for a behavioral action of androgens as DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, maintained fighting in these mice; (e) whereas a two-site (central motivational and peripheral penile) action seems probable in the influence of androgens on sexual behavior in castrated rats (e.g., Parrott, 1975), DHT did not augment the action of EB on fighting in castrated aggressive mice, indicating that only a central action of steroids was required in the aggressor.
    Aggressive Behavior 02/2006; 2(1):55 - 76. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Angela E. Poole, Paul F. Brain
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of a single dose (1 mg) of cyproterone acetate administered on either day 1 or day 20 of life on the adult behaviors of male and female TO strain albino mice were studied. The mice were tested both in a “standard opponent”-type situation and in a similar test using a hormonally primed receptive female, after being gonadectomized and maintained with testosterone propionate as adults. Neonatal treatment with this compound had little effect on subsequent fighting behavior in either sex, but clear evidence was produced that this treatment masculinized the sexual behavioral potentialities of the females, an effect which was apparent in animals which had been injected on either day 1 or day 20 of life. Indications were obtained that females treated neonatally with cyproterone acetate were capable of differentiating between the male and female “opponents” in a manner similar to the male. The effects of this treatment on fighting behavior consequently appear to be dissimilar to the effects of neonatal castration in this species. However, the effects on mounting behavior in the females, evidenced in adulthood, seem Likely to be a consequence of the weak androgenic properties of the antiandrogen. The administration of cyproterone acetate neonatally appears to have a more dramatic effect on the adult weights of endocrine organs in females than in mates.
    Aggressive Behavior 02/2006; 1(2):165 - 176. · 2.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

745 Citations
321.56 Total Impact Points


  • 1972–2013
    • Swansea University
      • • Biomedical and Physiological Research Group
      • • Department of Psychology
      Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1983–2009
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1994–2006
    • University of Wales
      • Department of Psychology
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1995–2002
    • University of Valencia
      • Facultad de Psicología
      Valencia, Valencia, Spain
  • 2000
    • King Abdulaziz University
      Djidda, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 1986
    • Al-Mustansiriya University
      Baghdād, Mayorality of Baghdad, Iraq
  • 1982
    • Gower College Swansea
      Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom