[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bluetongue (BT) disease, caused by the non-enveloped Bluetongue virus (BTV) belonging to the Reoviridae family, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of wild and domestic ruminants. Currently, 26 different serotypes of BTV are recognized in the world, of which BTV-8 has been found to exhibit one of the most virulent manifestations of BT disease in livestock. In recent years incursions of BTV-8 in Europe have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality not only in sheep but also in cattle. The molecular and genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenesis is not known. To understand the genetic basis of BTV-8 pathogenicity we generated reassortant viruses by replacing the 3 most variable genes, S2, S6 and S10 of a recent isolate of BTV-8, in different combinations into the backbone of an attenuated strain of BTV-1. The growth profiles of these reassortant viruses were then analyzed in two different ovine cell lines derived from different organs, kidney and thymus. Distinct patterns for each reassortant virus in these two cell lines were observed. To determine the pathogenicity of these reassortant viruses, groups of BTV-susceptible sheep were infected with each of these viruses. The data suggested that the clinical manifestations of these two different serotypes, BTV-1 and BTV-8, were slightly distinct and BTV-1, when comprising all 3 genome segments of BTV-8, behaved differently to BTV-1. Our results also suggested that the molecular basis of BT disease is highly complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism used by Bluetongue Virus (BTV) to ensure the sorting and packaging of its 10 genomic segments is still poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the packaging constraints for two BTV genomic segments from two different serotypes. Segment 4 (S4) of BTV serotype 9 was sequentially mutated; and packaging of mutant ssRNAs was investigated by two newly developed RNA packaging assay systems, one in vivo and the other in vitro. Modelling of the mutated ssRNA suggested that a conformational motif formed by interaction of the 5' and the 3'ends of the molecule is necessary and sufficient for packaging. A similar structural signal was also identified in segment 8 (S8) of serotype 1. Furthermore, the same conformational analysis of secondary structures for positive-sense ssRNAs was used to generate a chimeric segment that maintained the putative packaging motif but contained unrelated internal sequences. This chimeric segment was successfully packaged, confirming that the motif identified directs the correct packaging of the segment.
Journal of General Virology 06/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (9 serotypes) is an Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, Bluetongue virus (BTV). However, these viruses are distinct at genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90%. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently sought. As part of a program to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We demonstrate the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage and characterization. Our data provide a new tool to investigate the AHSV replication, designing of ASHV vaccines and diagnosis.
Journal of General Virology 07/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses are the single most common cause of fatal and severe childhood diarrheal illness worldwide (>125 million cases annually). Rotavirus shares structural and functional features with many viruses, such as the presence of segmented double-stranded RNA genomes selectively and tightly packed with a conserved number of transcription complexes in icosahedral capsids. Nascent transcripts exit the capsid through 12 channels, but it is unknown whether these channels specialize in specific transcripts or simply act as general exit conduits; a detailed description of this process is needed for understanding viral replication and genomic organization. To this end, we developed a single molecule assay for capturing and identifying transcripts extruded from transcriptionally active viral particles. Our findings support a model in which each channel specializes in extruding transcripts of a specific segment that in turn is linked to a single transcription complex. Our approach can be extended to study other viruses and transcription systems.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Reoviridae family, which encodes its genes in ten linear dsRNA segments. BTV mRNAs are synthesised by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) as exact plus sense copies of the genome segments. Infection of mammalian cells with BTV rapidly replaces cellular protein synthesis with viral protein synthesis, but the regulation of viral gene expression in the Orbivirus genus has not been investigated.
Using an mRNA reporter system based on genome segment 10 of BTV fused with GFP we identify the protein characteristic of this genus, non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as sufficient to upregulate translation. The wider applicability of this phenomenon among the viral genes is demonstrated using the untranslated regions (UTRs) of BTV genome segments flanking the quantifiable Renilla luciferase ORF in chimeric mRNAs. The UTRs of viral mRNAs are shown to be determinants of the amount of protein synthesised, with the pre-expression of NS1 increasing the quantity in each case. The increased expression induced by pre-expression of NS1 is confirmed in virus infected cells by generating a replicating virus which expresses the reporter fused with genome segment 10, using reverse genetics. Moreover, NS1-mediated upregulation of expression is restricted to mRNAs which lack the cellular 3' poly(A) sequence identifying the 3' end as a necessary determinant in specifically increasing the translation of viral mRNA in the presence of cellular mRNA.
NS1 is identified as a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis. We propose a model of translational regulation where NS1 upregulates the synthesis of viral proteins, including itself, and creates a positive feedback loop of NS1 expression, which rapidly increases the expression of all the viral proteins. The efficient translation of viral reporter mRNAs among cellular mRNAs can account for the observed replacement of cellular protein synthesis with viral protein synthesis during infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reverse genetics technology for bluetongue virus (BTV) has been used in combination with complementing cell lines to recover defective BTV-1 mutants. To generate a potential disabled infectious single cycle (DISC) vaccine strain, we used a reverse genetics system to rescue defective virus strains with large deletions in an essential BTV gene that encodes the VP6 protein (segment S9) of the internal core. Four VP6-deficient BTV-1 mutants were generated by using a complementing cell line that provided the VP6 protein in trans. Characterization of the growth properties of mutant viruses showed that each mutant has the necessary characteristics for a potential vaccine strain: (i) viral protein expression in noncomplementing mammalian cells, (ii) no infectious virus generated in noncomplementing cells, and (iii) efficient replication in the complementing VP6 cell line. Further, a defective BTV-8 strain was made by reassorting the two RNA segments that encode the two outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) of a highly pathogenic BTV-8 with the remaining eight RNA segments of one of the BTV-1 DISC viruses. The protective capabilities of BTV-1 and BTV-8 DISC viruses were assessed in sheep by challenge with specific virulent strains using several assay systems. The data obtained from these studies demonstrated that the DISC viruses are highly protective and could offer a promising alternative to the currently available attenuated and killed virus vaccines and are also compliant as DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines.
Journal of Virology 07/2011; 85(19):10213-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the Reoviridae family, is an insect-borne animal pathogen. Virus release from infected cells is predominantly by cell lysis, but some BTV particles are also released from the plasma membrane. The nonstructural protein NS3 has been implicated in this process. Using alternate initiator methionine residues, NS3 is expressed as a full-length protein and as a truncated variant that lacks the initial 13 residues, which, by yeast-two hybrid analyses, have been shown to interact with a cellular trafficking protein S100A10/p11. To understand the physiological significance of this interaction in virus-infected cells, we have used reverse genetics to investigate the roles of NS3 and NS3A in virus replication and localization in both mammalian and insect vector-derived cells. A virus expressing NS3 but not NS3A was able to propagate in and release from mammalian cells efficiently. However, growth of a mutant virus expressing only NS3A was severely attenuated, although protein expression, replication, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesis, and particle assembly in the cytoplasm were observed. Two of three single-amino-acid substitutions in the N-terminal 13 residues of NS3 showed phenotypically similar effects. Pulldown assay and confocal microscopy demonstrated a lack of interaction between NS3 and S100A10/p11 in mutants with poor replication. The role of NS3/NS3A was also assessed in insect cells where virus grew, albeit with a reduced titer. Notably, however, while wild-type particles were found within cytoplasmic vesicles in insect cells, mutant viruses were scattered throughout the cytoplasm and not confined to vesicles. These results provide support for a role for the extreme amino terminus of NS3 in the late stages of virus growth in mammalian cells, plausibly in egress. However, both NS3 and NS3A were required for efficient BTV growth in insect cells.
Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(10):4783-91. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae, is an insect-vectored pathogen of horses of concern to the equine industry. Studies on AHSV replication and pathogenesis have been hampered by the lack of reverse genetics allowing targeted mutation of viral genomes. We demonstrate that AHSV single-stranded RNA synthesized in vitro (core transcripts) is infectious and that there are distinct primary and secondary stages of the replication cycle. Transfection with a mixture of core transcripts from two different serotypes or a mixture of core transcripts and a T7 derived transcript resulted in the recovery of reassortant viruses. Recovery of infectious ASHV from nucleic acid will benefit investigation of the virus and the generation of attenuated vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many cellular multi-protein complexes are naturally present in cells at low abundance. Baculovirus expression offers one approach to produce milligram quantities of correctly folded and processed eukaryotic protein complexes. However, current strategies suffer from the need to produce large transfer vectors, and the use of repeated promoter sequences in baculovirus, which itself produces proteins that promote homologous recombination. One possible solution to these problems is to construct baculovirus genomes that express each protein in a complex from a separate locus within the viral DNA. However current methods for selecting such recombinant genomes are too inefficient to routinely modify the virus in this way.
This paper reports a method which combines the lambda red and bacteriophage P1 Cre-recombinase systems to efficiently generate baculoviruses in which protein complexes are expressed from multiple, single-locus insertions of foreign genes. This method is based on an 88 fold improvement in the selection of recombinant viruses generated by red recombination techniques through use of a bipartite selection cassette. Using this system, seven new genetic loci were identified in the AcMNPV genome suitable for the high level expression of recombinant proteins. These loci were used to allow the recovery two recombinant virus-like particles with potential biotechnological applications (influenza A virus HA/M1 particles and bluetongue virus VP2/VP3/VP5/VP7 particles) and the mammalian chaperone and cancer drug target CCT (16 subunits formed from 8 proteins).
1. Use of bipartite selections can significantly improve selection of modified bacterial artificial chromosomes carrying baculovirus DNA. Furthermore this approach is sufficiently robust to allow routine modification of the virus genome. 2. In addition to the commonly used p10 and polyhedrin loci, the ctx, egt, 39k, orf51, gp37, iap2 and odv-e56 loci in AcMNPV are all suitable for the high level expression of heterologous genes. 3. Two protein, four protein and eight protein complexes including virus-like particles and cellular chaperone complexes can be produced using the new approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped insect-borne virus, is released from infected cells by multiple pathways. Unlike other nonenveloped viruses, in addition to cell lysis the newly synthesized virus particles also appear to use a unique "budding" process. The nonstructural protein NS3, the only membrane protein encoded by BTV in infected cells, has been implicated in this process, since it appears to interact not only with the outermost viral capsid protein VP2 but also with a component of the cellular ESCRT pathway. However, to date it had not been possible to obtain direct evidence for the involvement of NS3 in BTV morphogenesis due to the lack of a genetic system that would allow introducing the targeted mutation in NS3 gene. In this study, we have used the recently developed T7 transcript-based reverse genetics system for BTV to introduce mutations in the sequence of NS3 into the viral genome and have investigated the effect of these mutations in the context of a replicating virus. While certain NS3 mutations exhibited drastic effects on newly synthesized virus release, others had less pronounced effects. In particular, mutations of two residues in the Tsg101 binding motif, the putative L domain of NS3, altered normal virus egress patterns and left nascent particles tethered to the cellular membrane, apparently arrested in the process of budding. In cells infected with a mutant virus that was incapable of an NS3-VP2 interaction, no budding particles were visualized. These data suggest that NS3 may act like the membrane protein of enveloped viruses and is responsible for intracellular trafficking and budding of virus particles. NS3 is thus a bridge between the maturing virion particles and cellular proteins during virus egress.
Journal of Virology 05/2009; 83(13):6806-16. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bluetongue virus (BTV), an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of both wild ruminants and livestock, has had a severe economic impact in agriculture in many parts of the world. The investigation of BTV replication and pathogenesis has been hampered by the lack of a reverse genetics system. Recovery of infectious BTV is possible by the transfection of permissive cells with the complete set of 10 purified viral mRNAs derived in vitro from transcribing cores (M. Boyce and P. Roy, J. Virol. 81:2179-2186, 2007). Here, we report that in vitro synthesized T7 transcripts, derived from cDNA clones, can be introduced into the genome of BTV using a mixture of T7 transcripts and core-derived mRNAs. The replacement of genome segment 10 and the simultaneous replacement of segments 2 and 5 encoding the two immunologically important outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, are described. Further, we demonstrate the recovery of infectious BTV entirely from T7 transcripts, proving that synthetic transcripts synthesized in the presence of cap analogue can functionally substitute for viral transcripts at all stages of the BTV replication cycle. The generation of BTV with a fully defined genome permits the recovery of mutations in a defined genetic background. The ability to generate specific mutants provides a new tool to investigate the BTV replication cycle as well as permitting the generation of designer vaccine strains, which are greatly needed in many countries.
Journal of Virology 07/2008; 82(17):8339-48. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) infection process and morphogenesis have been hampered due to the biosafety conditions required to handle this virus, making alternative systems such as recombinant virus-like particles, that may facilitate understanding of these processes are highly desirable. In this report we present the expression and characterization of RVFV structural proteins N, Gn and Gc and demonstrate the efficient generation of RVFV virus-like particles (VLPs) using a baculovirus expression system.
A recombinant baculovirus, expressing nucleocapsid (N) protein of RVFV at high level under the control of the polyhedrin promoter was generated. Gel filtration analysis indicated that expressed N protein could form complex multimers. Further, N protein complex when visualized by electron microscopy (EM) exhibited particulate, nucleocapsid like-particles (NLPs). Subsequently, a single recombinant virus was generated that expressed the RVFV glycoproteins (Gn/Gc) together with the N protein using a dual baculovirus vector. Both the Gn and Gc glycoproteins were detected not only in the cytoplasm but also on the cell surface of infected cells. Moreover, expression of the Gn/Gc in insect cells was able to induce cell-cell fusion after a low pH shift indicating the retention of their functional characteristics. In addition, assembly of these three structural proteins into VLPs was identified by purification of cells' supernatant through potassium tartrate-glycerol gradient centrifugation followed by EM analysis. The purified particles exhibited enveloped structures that were similar to the structures of the wild-type RVFV virion particle. In parallel, a second recombinant virus was constructed that expressed only Gc protein together with N protein. This dual recombinant virus also generated VLPs with clear spiky structures, but appeared to be more pleomorphic than the VLPs with both glycoproteins, suggesting that Gc and probably also Gn interacts with N protein complex independent of each other.
Our results suggest that baculovirus expression system has enormous potential to produce large amount of VLPs that may be used both for fundamental and applied research of RVFV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mature form of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein of lentiviruses is a heterodimer composed of the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) possesses a TM glycoprotein with a cytoplasmic tail of approximately 53 amino acids which is unusually short compared with that of the other lentiviral glycoproteins (more than 100 residues). To investigate the relevance of the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain to Env-mediated viral functions, we characterized the biological properties of a series of Env glycoproteins progressively shortened from the carboxyl terminus. All the mutant Env proteins were efficiently expressed in feline cells and processed into the SU and TM subunits. Deletion of 5 or 11 amino acids from the TM C-terminus did not significantly affect Env surface expression, fusogenic activity or Env incorporation into virions, whereas removal of 17 or 23 residues impaired Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Further truncation of the FIV TM by 29 residues resulted in an Env glycoprotein that was poorly expressed at the cell surface, exhibited only 20% of the wild-type Env fusogenic capacity and was inefficiently incorporated into virions. Remarkably, deletion of the TM C-terminal 35 or 41 amino acids restored or even enhanced Env biological functions. Indeed, these mutant Env glycoproteins bearing cytoplasmic domains of 18 or 12 amino acids were found to be significantly more fusogenic than the wild-type Env and were efficiently incorporated into virions. Interestingly, truncation of the TM cytoplasmic domain to only 6 amino acids did not affect Env incorporation into virions but abrogated Env fusogenicity. Finally, removal of the entire TM cytoplasmic tail or deletion of as many as 6 amino acids into the membrane-spanning domain led to a complete loss of Env functions. Our results demonstrate that despite its relatively short length, the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain plays an important role in modulating Env-mediated viral functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously characterized a series of small in-frame deletions within the C-terminal third of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp41 cytoplasmic domain that significantly impair the incorporation of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein into particles and Env-mediated virus entry. Among these mutations, removal of Env residues 832-837 caused the most drastic defective phenotype. In the present study, we introduced the Delta832-837 deletion into the PBj1.9 molecular clone and investigated the effect of this env mutation on virus replication in the CEMx174 cell line. This in-frame deletion was found to severely compromise virus replication. Interestingly, long-term culture of the PBjEnvDelta832-837 mutant led to the emergence of two independent populations of revertant viruses that, while differing in the time point at which they appear, encode truncated gp41 cytoplasmic tails of similar lengths. The first emergent virus population contained a premature stop codon mutation at Env residue 778, whereas the late-appearing population harbored a stop codon mutation at Env residue 774, which results in the truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail to 52 and 48 amino acids, respectively. Analysis of derivatives of PBjEnvDelta832-837 containing either the Tyr778stop or the Trp774stop mutations demonstrated that these second-site changes were sufficient to reverse the Env incorporation and infectivity defects imposed by the original Delta832-837 deletion, as well as to confer to the Env double mutants essentially wild-type replication kinetics. Our results thus provide further insight into the mechanisms underlying SIV adaptation to novel selective forces.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 08/2004; 20(7):733-41. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The matrix (MA) protein of the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) is encoded by the amino-terminal region of the Gag precursor and is the component of the viral capsid that lines the inner surface of the virus envelope. Previously, we identified domains in the SIV MA that are involved in the transport of Gag to the plasma membrane and in particle assembly. In this study, we characterized the role in the SIV life cycle of highly conserved residues within the SIV MA region spanning the two N-terminal alpha-helices H1 and H2. Our analyses identified two classes of MA mutants: (i) viruses encoding amino acid substitutions within alpha-helices H1 or H2 that were defective in envelope (Env) glycoprotein incorporation and exhibited impaired infectivity and (ii) viruses harboring mutations in the beta-turn connecting helices H1 and H2 that were more infectious than the wild-type virus and displayed an enhanced ability to incorporate the Env glycoprotein. Remarkably, among the latter group of MA mutants, the R22L/G24L double amino acid substitution increased virus infectivity eightfold relative to the wild-type virus in single-cycle infectivity assays, an effect that correlated with a similar increase in Env incorporation. Furthermore, the R22L/G24L MA mutation partially or fully complemented single-point MA mutations that severely impair or block Env incorporation and virus infectivity. Our finding that the incorporation of the Env glycoprotein into virions can be upregulated by specific mutations within the SIV MA amino terminus strongly supports the notion that the SIV MA domain mediates Gag-Env association during particle formation.
Journal of Virology 11/2003; 77(20):10881-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have an envelope (Env) glycoprotein with an unusually long cytoplasmic domain of 164 amino acids. In this article, we have characterized a series of SIV Env truncation mutants in which the cytoplasmic domain was progressively shortened from its carboxyl terminus by 20 amino acids. Expression by means of the vaccinia virus system showed that all of the SIV Env mutants were expressed and processed into the surface and transmembrane (TM) subunits. When the ability of the Env mutants to associate with SIV Gag particles was examined, we found that deletion of 20 to 80 residues from the carboxyl terminus of the SIV TM cytoplasmic tail abrogated the incorporation of the Env glycoprotein into particles. By contrast, further truncation of the SIV TM protein by 100 to 140 amino acids restored the ability of the Env protein to associate with Gag particles. Interestingly, mutants bearing a 44- or 24-amino acid cytoplasmic domain were incorporated at levels significantly higher than those of the wild-type Env. Single-cycle infectivity assays showed that Env mutants bearing cytoplasmic tails of 144 to 64 amino acids were highly inefficient at mediating virus entry. By contrast, truncation of the cytoplasmic domain to 44 or 24 amino acids drastically enhanced virus infectivity with respect to that conferred by the full-length Env protein. Our results demonstrate that small variations in the length of the SIV Env cytoplasmic domain dramatically influence Env-mediated viral functions.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 12/2001; 17(17):1615-24. · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) assembly, we examined the suitability of the vaccinia vector system to reproduce FIV particle formation. To this end, we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the FIV gag gene. Biochemical and electron microscopy analyses of cells infected with this recombinant virus showed that the FIV Gag polyprotein self-assembled into lentivirus-like particles that were released into the culture medium. As a first step in the identification of molecular determinants in FIV Gag that are involved in virus assembly, we performed a site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the N-terminal matrix (MA) domain of the FIV Gag precursor. To this end, a series of amino acid substitutions and small in-frame deletions were introduced into the FIV MA and the mutated FIV gag gene constructs were expressed by means of the vaccinia system. Characterization of the assembly phenotype of these FIV Gag mutants led to the identification of amino acidic regions within the MA domain that are necessary for efficient transport of the Gag precursor to the plasma membrane and particle assembly. Our results reveal the role that the FIV MA plays in virus morphogenesis and contribute to the understanding of the assembly process in non-primate lentiviruses.
Virus Research 08/2001; 76(1):103-13. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which lentivirus envelope (Env) glycoproteins are packaged into budding virions is poorly understood. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) contains an Env protein with an unusually long cytoplasmic tail. To investigate the role of this domain in the incorporation of the SIV Env into virions, we generated a series of SIV Env mutants carrying small in-frame deletions within the cytoplasmic domain. The effects of these mutations on Env synthesis, processing, and association with Gag particles were analyzed by means of the vaccinia virus expression system. All of the mutant Env glycoproteins were synthesized and processed in a manner similar to that of the wild-type Env. However, deletions affecting domains C-terminal to residue 832 in the SIV Env protein significantly impaired Env incorporation into particles. Cell surface biotinylation assays showed that this phenotype could not be attributed to inefficient cell surface expression of the Env mutants. Furthermore, when the Env deletion mutants were tested for their ability to mediate virus entry in single-cycle infectivity assays, those mutations that impaired Env incorporation also caused a severe defect in virus infectivity. Our results suggest that domains in the C-terminal third of the SIV Env protein are required for Env incorporation into particles and Env-mediated virus entry.