Frank J Secreto

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MI, United States

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Publications (21)80.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Massively parallel sequencing analyses have revealed a common mutation within the MYD88 gene (MYD88L265P) occurring at high frequencies in many non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) including the rare lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Using whole-exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing and allele-specific PCR, we validate the initial studies and detect the MYD88L265P mutation in the tumor genome of 97% of WM patients analyzed (n=39). Due to the high frequency of MYD88 mutation in WM and other NHL, and its known effects on malignant B-cell survival, therapeutic targeting of MYD88 signaling pathways may be clinically useful. However, we are lacking a thorough characterization of the role of intermediary signaling proteins on the biology of MYD88L265P-expressing B cells. We report here that MYD88L265P signaling is constitutively active in both WM and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells leading to heightened MYD88L265P, IRAK and TRAF6 oligomerization and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we have identified the signaling protein, TAK1, to be an essential mediator of MYD88L265P-driven signaling, cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion in malignant B cells. Our studies highlight the biological significance of MYD88L265P in NHL and reveal TAK1 inhibition to be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of WM and other diseases characterized by MYD88L265P.
    Blood Cancer Journal 01/2014; 4:e183. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway has been associated with the pathogenesis and progression of both solid and hematologic malignancies. We have detected constitutive activation of STAT5 in malignant B cells derived from patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM). While shRNA-mediated knockdown of the STAT5A and STAT5B isoforms did not affect cellular proliferation, loss of STAT5 significantly decreased IgM secretion. A similar dose-dependent inhibition of IgM secretion was observed when WM cell lines were treated with a small molecule inhibitor of STAT5. These data suggest that STAT5 is involved in regulating IgM production in WM, and that inhibition of STAT5 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for lowering IgM levels in WM patients.
    Blood 12/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BAFF-R is the primary BAFF receptor that is responsible for promoting B-cell development and survival. Malignant B-cells exploit the BAFF/BAFF receptor system and high serum BAFF levels or genetic alterations in BAFF receptors have been found in B-cell cancers. BAFF signaling impacts pro-survival pathways, however, other than NF-κB2, little is known about the specific pathways activated by individual BAFF receptors. Using a novel BAFF-R expression model we now demonstrate that activation of BAFF-R, independent of TACI and BCMA, can induce phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Expression of an activated form of BAFF-R also enhanced a pro-survival gene expression pattern, including the novel BAFF-regulated gene Pin1, whose expression was PI3K-dependent. Additionally, we show that TRAF6 is essential for mediating BAFF-R-dependent activation of Akt. Together these data describe a novel role for TRAF6 in BAFF-R-specific activation of the PI3K pathway and provide evidence suggesting a new role for Pin1 in BAFF-R signaling.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 11/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the effect of TGF-β on malignant B cells in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been previously evaluated, studies to specifically define the role of TGF-β in tumor immunity in B-cell NHL are limited. We found that soluble TGF-β, secreted by both lymphoma cells and intratumoral T cells, is present in the serum of patients with B-cell NHL. Soluble TGF-β promoted regulatory T (Treg) cells by enhancing expression of Foxp3 in CD4(+) T cells and suppressed effector helper T (TH) cells by inhibiting expression of IFN-γ and IL-17. Blockade of the IL-2 signaling pathway diminished the effect of soluble TGF-β on T cell differentiation. Furthermore, we found that membrane-bound TGF-β is expressed specifically on the surface of malignant B cells in B-cell NHL. TGF-β was able to bind to the surface of lymphoma B cells through an interaction with heparan sulfate (HS) but not through the TGF-β receptor. We showed that pretreatment of lymphoma B cells with TGF-β significantly inhibits the proliferation and cytokine production of intratumoral T cells. Taken together, these results suggest that tumor-associated soluble and membrane-bound TGF-β are involved in the regulation of intratumoral T cell differentiation and function in B-cell NHL.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59456. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokines within the tumor microenvironment play an important role in supporting the growth and survival of B cell malignancies. One such cytokine, IL-21, promotes the growth of myeloma and Hodgkin lymphoma cells while inducing apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, the biologic significance of IL-21 has not been examined in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), a B-cell lymphoma characterized by elevated serum IgM and a lymphoplasmacytic bone marrow infiltrate. We report here on the presence of IL-21 in the bone marrow of patients with WM and have identified activated T cells as the source of this cytokine. We readily detected the IL-21 receptor on malignant WM B cells and demonstrate that IL-21 significantly increases both IgM secretion and cellular proliferation of these cells with no effect on viability. IL-21 rapidly induces phosphorylation of STAT3 in WM cells, and treatment of the WM cell line MWCL-1 with a STAT3 inhibitor abolished the IL-21-mediated increases in cellular proliferation and IgM secretion. IL-21 also increased the expression of known STAT3 targets involved in B cell differentiation including BLIMP-1, XBP-1, IL-6 and IL-10. Overall our data indicate that IL-21 in the bone marrow microenvironment significantly affects the biology of WM tumor cells through a STAT3-dependent mechanism.
    Blood 09/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic aberrations, including trisomies 3 and 18, and, well-defined IGH translocations, have been described in marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), however, these known genetic events are present in only a subset of cases. Here, we report the cloning of an IGH translocation partner on chromosome X, t(X;14)(p11.4;q32) that deregulates expression of an poorly characterized orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR34. Elevated GPR34 gene expression was detected independent of the translocation in multiple subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and distinguished a unique molecular subtype of MZL. Increased expression of GPR34 was also detected in tissue from brain tumors and surface expression of GPR34 was detected on human MZL tumor cells and normal immune cells. Over-expression of GPR34 in lymphoma and HeLa cells resulted in phosphorylation of ERK, PKC, and CREB; induced CRE, AP1, and NF-κB-mediated gene transcription; and increased cell proliferation. In summary, these results are the first to identify a role for a GPR34 in lymphoma cell growth, provide insight into GPR34-mediated signaling, identify a genetically unique subset of MZL that express high levels of GPR34, and suggest that MEK inhibitors may be useful for treatment of GPR34-expressing tumors.
    Blood 09/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (Lef) 1 is a high mobility group protein best known as a Wnt-responsive transcription factor that associates with β-catenin. Lef1ΔN is a short isoform of Lef1 that lacks the first 113 amino acids and a well characterized high affinity β-catenin binding domain present in the full-length protein. Both Lef1 isoforms bind DNA and regulate gene expression. We previously reported that Lef1 is expressed in proliferating osteoblasts and blocks osteocalcin expression. In contrast, Lef1ΔN is only detectable in the later stages of osteoblast differentiation and promotes osteogenesis in vitro. Here, we show that Lef1ΔN retains the ability to interact physically and functionally with β-catenin. Unlike what has been reported in T cells and colon cancer cell lines, Lef1ΔN activated gene transcription in the absence of exogenous β-catenin and cooperated with constitutively active β-catenin to stimulate gene transcription in mesenchymal and osteoblastic cells. Residues at the N terminus of Lef1ΔN were required for β-catenin binding and the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes. To determine the role of Lef1ΔN on bone formation in vivo, a Lef1ΔN transgene was expressed in committed osteoblasts using the 2.3-kb fragment of the type 1 collagen promoter. The Lef1ΔN transgenic mice had higher trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibias and L5 vertebrae. Histological analyses of tibial sections revealed no differences in osteoblast, osteoid, or osteoclast surface areas. However, bone formation and mineral apposition rates as well as osteocalcin levels were increased in Lef1ΔN transgenic mice. Together, our data indicate that Lef1ΔN binds β-catenin, stimulates Lef/Tcf reporter activity, and promotes terminal osteoblast differentiation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2011; 286(13):10950-10959. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (Lef) 1 is a high mobility group protein best known as a Wnt-responsive transcription factor that associates with β-catenin. Lef1ΔN is a short isoform of Lef1 that lacks the first 113 amino acids and a well characterized high affinity β-catenin binding domain present in the full-length protein. Both Lef1 isoforms bind DNA and regulate gene expression. We previously reported that Lef1 is expressed in proliferating osteoblasts and blocks osteocalcin expression. In contrast, Lef1ΔN is only detectable in the later stages of osteoblast differentiation and promotes osteogenesis in vitro. Here, we show that Lef1ΔN retains the ability to interact physically and functionally with β-catenin. Unlike what has been reported in T cells and colon cancer cell lines, Lef1ΔN activated gene transcription in the absence of exogenous β-catenin and cooperated with constitutively active β-catenin to stimulate gene transcription in mesenchymal and osteoblastic cells. Residues at the N terminus of Lef1ΔN were required for β-catenin binding and the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes. To determine the role of Lef1ΔN on bone formation in vivo, a Lef1ΔN transgene was expressed in committed osteoblasts using the 2.3-kb fragment of the type 1 collagen promoter. The Lef1ΔN transgenic mice had higher trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibias and L5 vertebrae. Histological analyses of tibial sections revealed no differences in osteoblast, osteoid, or osteoclast surface areas. However, bone formation and mineral apposition rates as well as osteocalcin levels were increased in Lef1ΔN transgenic mice. Together, our data indicate that Lef1ΔN binds β-catenin, stimulates Lef/Tcf reporter activity, and promotes terminal osteoblast differentiation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(13):10950-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (Hdac) inhibitors are used clinically to treat cancer and epilepsy. Although Hdac inhibition accelerates osteoblast maturation and suppresses osteoclast maturation in vitro, the effects of Hdac inhibitors on the skeleton are not understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how the pan-Hdac inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; a.k.a. vorinostat or Zolinza(TM)) affects bone mass and remodeling in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice received daily SAHA (100mg/kg) or vehicle injections for 3 to 4weeks. SAHA decreased trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular number in the distal femur. Cortical bone at the femoral midshaft was not affected. SAHA reduced serum levels of P1NP, a bone formation marker, and also suppressed tibial mRNA levels of type I collagen, osteocalcin and osteopontin, but did not alter Runx2 or osterix transcripts. SAHA decreased histological measures of osteoblast number but interestingly increased indices of osteoblast activity including mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate. Neither serum (TRAcP 5b) nor histological markers of bone resorption were affected by SAHA. P1NP levels returned to baseline in animals which were allowed to recover for 4weeks after 4weeks of daily SAHA injections, but bone density remained low. In vitro, SAHA suppressed osteogenic colony formation, decreased osteoblastic gene expression, induced cell cycle arrest, and caused DNA damage in bone marrow-derived adherent cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that bone loss following treatment with SAHA is primarily due to a reduction in osteoblast number. Moreover, these decreases in osteoblast number can be attributed to the deleterious effects of SAHA on immature osteoblasts, even while mature osteoblasts are resistant to the harmful effects and demonstrate increased activity in vivo, indicating that the response of osteoblasts to SAHA is dependent upon their differentiation state. These studies suggest that clinical use of SAHA and other Hdac inhibitors to treat cancer, epilepsy or other conditions may potentially compromise skeletal structure and function.
    Bone 01/2011; 48(5):1117-26. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (Hdac)3 is a nuclear enzyme that contributes to epigenetic programming and is required for embryonic development. To determine the role of Hdac3 in bone formation, we crossed mice harboring loxP sites around exon 7 of Hdac3 with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the osterix promoter. The resulting Hdac3 conditional knockout (CKO) mice were runted and had severe deficits in intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. Calvarial bones were significantly thinner and trabecular bone volume in the distal femur was decreased 75% in the Hdac3 CKO mice due to a substantial reduction in trabecular number. Hdac3-CKO mice had fewer osteoblasts and more bone marrow adipocytes as a proportion of tissue area than their wildtype or heterozygous littermates. Bone formation rates were depressed in both the cortical and trabecular regions of Hdac3 CKO femurs. Microarray analyses revealed that numerous developmental signaling pathways were affected by Hdac3-deficiency. Thus, Hdac3 depletion in osterix-expressing progenitor cells interferes with bone formation and promotes bone marrow adipocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that Hdac3 inhibition is detrimental to skeletal health.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(7):e11492. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone is one of the few tissues in the body with the capacity to regenerate and repair itself. Fractures usually are completely repaired in a relatively short time, but in a small percentage of cases, healing never occurs and nonunion is the result. Fracture repair and bone regeneration require the localized reactivation of signaling cascades that are crucial for skeletal development. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is one such developmental pathway whose role in bone formation and regeneration recently has been appreciated. During the past decade, much has been learned about how Wnt pathways regulate bone mass. Small molecules and biologics aimed at this pathway are now being tested as potential new anabolic agents. This article reviews recent data demonstrating that Wnt pathways are active during fracture repair and that increasing the activities of Wnt pathway components accelerates bone regeneration.
    Current Osteoporosis Reports 08/2009; 7(2):64-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphoid Enhancer Binding Factor (Lef) 1 is a transcriptional effector of the Wnt/Lrp5/beta-catenin signaling cascade, which regulates osteoblast differentiation, bone density, and skeletal strength. In this study, we describe the expression and function of an alternative Lef1 isoform in osseous cells. Lef1DeltaN is a naturally occurring isoform driven by a promoter (p2) within the intron between exons 3 and 4 of Lef1. Lef1DeltaN is induced during late osteoblast differentiation. This is converse to the expression pattern of the full-length Lef1 protein, which as we previously showed, decreases during differentiation. Agonists of osteoblast maturation differentially affected Lef1DeltaN expression. BMP2 stimulated Lef1DeltaN expression, whereas Wnt3a blocked basal and BMP2-induced expression of Lef1DeltaN transcripts during osteoblast differentiation. We determined that the Lef1DeltaN p2 promoter is active in osteoblasts and Runx2 regulates its activity. Stable overexpression of Lef1DeltaN in differentiating osteoblasts induced the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, osteocalcin and type 1 collagen. Taken together, our results suggest Lef1DeltaN is a crucial regulator of terminal differentiation in osseous cells.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2009; 221(2):480-9. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need to develop new bone anabolic agents because current bone regeneration regimens have limitations. The Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) pathway has emerged as a regulator of bone formation and regeneration. To review the molecular basis for Wnt pathway modulation and discuss strategies that target it and improve bone mass. Data in peer-reviewed reports and meeting abstracts are discussed. Neutralizing inhibitors of Wnt signaling have emerged as promising strategies. Small-molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta increase bone mass, lower adiposity and reduce fracture risk. Neutralizing antibodies to Dickkopf 1, secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 and sclerostin produce similar outcomes in animal models. These drugs are exciting breakthroughs but are not without risks. The challenges include tissue-specific targeting and consequently, long-term safety.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 05/2009; 13(4):485-96. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The actions of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been extensively investigated regarding their ability to act through estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) to perturb estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) growth. However, many BCs also express ERbeta, along with multiple estrogen receptor (ER) splice variants such as ERbetacx, an ERbeta splice variant incapable of binding ligand. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of ER action in BC cells, we stably expressed ERalpha, ERbeta, or ERbetacx under doxycycline (Dox) control in Hs578T cells. Microarrays performed on E2 or 4OH-tamoxifen (4HT) treated Hs578T ERalpha and ERbeta cells revealed distinct ligand and receptor-dependent patterns of gene regulation, while the induction of ERbetacx did not alter gene expression patterns. E2 stimulation of Hs578T ERbeta cells resulted in a 27% decrease in cellular proliferation, however, no significant change in proliferation was observed following the exposure of Hs578T ERalpha or ERbeta cells to 4HT. Expression of ERbetacx in Hs578T cells did not effect cellular proliferation. Flow cytometry assays revealed a 50% decrease in E2-stimulated Hs578T ERbeta cells entering S-phase, along with a 17% increase in G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. We demonstrate here that ERalpha and ERbeta regulate unique gene expression patterns in Hs578T cells, and such regulation likely is responsible for the observed isoform-specific changes in cell proliferation. Hs578T ER expressing cell-lines provide a unique BC model system, permitting the comparison of ERalpha, ERbeta, and ERbetacx actions in the same cell-line.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 09/2007; 101(5):1125-47. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen (E2) is involved in mediating many important functions relevant to osteoblast biology through the actions of the estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta. To further understand the mechanisms of ER-specific regulation, we used microarray and reverse transcription-PCR analyses of E2-treated U2OS-ERalpha or -ERbeta cells and identified retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) as a major E2-regulated gene. RBBP1 is a retinoblastoma cofactor involved in the control of osteoblastic proliferation. Although RBBP1 mRNA levels rapidly increased after 2 h of E2 treatment in both U2OS-ER-expressing lines, a sustained induction was only observed in U2OS-ERalpha cells. Examination of the RBBP1 genomic sequence revealed an ER response element and a Sp1 site located within the first intron. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that E2-dependent ERalpha binding to the intron 1 enhancer region was constitutive, whereas ERbeta binding was transient, consistent with the mRNA time course. Interestingly, transient transfection and receptor mutational studies revealed that RBBP1 induction by ERalpha only requires the Sp1 site, whereas ERbeta utilizes both the Sp1 and estrogen response elements binding sites for maximal E2-dependent activation. Stable U2OS transfectants containing a deletion of the ERalpha activation function 1 (AF1) resulted in a temporal mRNA induction profile similar to that of wild type ERbeta. Further, overexpression and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses also demonstrated that E2-dependent RBBP1 induction is SRC2-dependent for both ER isoforms. These results describe an E2-dependent, ER isoform-specific transcriptional activation of the RBBP1 gene, which in part, is explained by the differential activity of ER AF1 and enhancer element binding.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2006; 281(39):28596-604. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article is based on a presentation given at the Advances in Skeletal Anabolic Agents for the Treatment of Osteoporosis meeting. This meeting included an overview of advances in the genomic actions of estrogen (E2) in osteoblast (OB) cells, followed by recent studies in this laboratory. It has been well documented that E2 and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) serve as regulators of skeletal homoostasis and are the primary clinical therapies for the prevention of bone loss. E2 directly regulates selective gene expression and activity of OBs and osteoclasts (OCs) and indirectly regulates OB-OC coupling via specific paracrine factors. an overview with recent updates of the classical estrogen receptor (ER) genomic pathway is briefly described. This pathway involves E2 or SERM binding to the ER isoforms (ERα and ER), binding of the complex to target gene promoters, and the association of specific nuclear coregulators, which can either participate in the activation or inhibition of gene transcription. Other important recent advancements such as ligand-induced ER structural changes and the rapid interactions of receptors and coregulators with chromatin are also described. Studies in this laboratory have recently demonstrated ER isoform-specific actions of ERs on human OB gene expression and cell proliferation. In a U2OS osteoblastic cell model expressing ERα, ER, or both isoforms, specific patterns of E2-induced gen expression using gene microarrays are observed. The results of these studies raise interesting possibilities to the understanding of tissue- and disease-specific responses (including steroid resistance) and the use of selective ER isoform inhibitors/activators in steroid therapy. An ER isoform-specific interaction with coregulators could explain the isoform-specific gene regulation.
    Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism 01/2006; 4(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The 17beta-estradiol (E2) receptor isoforms [estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta] bind E2 and selective ER modulators (SERMs) as homodimers (alpha/alpha or beta/beta) or heterodimers (alpha/beta) to regulate gene expression. Although recent studies have shown that ER homodimers regulate unique sets of E2-responsive genes, little information exists regarding the transcriptional actions of the ERalpha/beta heterodimer. This paper describes the development of a U2OS human osteosarcoma (osteoblast) cell line stably expressing both ERalpha and ERbeta isoforms at a ratio of 1:4, a ratio reported to exist in normal, mature osteoblast cells derived from cancellous bone. The regulation of endogenous genes by E2 and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen were measured in these cells using gene microarrays and real-time RT-PCR. Both E2 and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen were shown to regulate unique sets of endogenous genes in the U2OS-ERalpha/beta heterodimer cell line (20% and 27% of total, respectively), compared with all the genes regulated in U2OS-ER homodimer cell lines. Furthermore, two novel E2-regulated genes, retinoblastoma binding protein 1 and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, were found to contain estrogen response element-like sequences that directly bind the ERalpha/beta heterodimer. These results suggest that the expression of both ER isoforms, forming functional ERalpha/beta heterodimers, result in unique patterns of gene regulation, many of which are distinct from the genes regulated by the ER homodimers.
    Molecular Endocrinology 07/2005; 19(6):1555-68. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    D G Monroe, F J Secreto, T C Spelsberg
    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 01/2004; 3(4):357-62; discussion 381. · 2.45 Impact Factor
  • Cardiovascular Pathology - CARDIOVASC PATHOL. 01/2004; 13(3):187-187.
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    ABSTRACT: Reports that estrogen treatment modulates arachidonic acid metabolism by bone and bone cells are found in the literature. However, conflicting indications of the relationship that exists between estrogen and arachidonic acid metabolism emerge from the analysis of those reports. The present studies were undertaken to determine if estrogen effected the production of prostaglandins (PG) in human osteoblast-like (hOB) cell cultures derived from adults, under basal or cytokine-stimulated conditions. A 48-hour estrogen pretreatment did not modify hOB cell PG biosynthesis on a qualitative basis, and PGE2 formation predominated under all tested conditions. Estrogen pretreatment did lead to increased PGE2 production in specimens stimulated conjointly with transforming growth factor-beta1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( p < 0.001). No changes in PGE2 production were observed in estrogen pretreated specimens stimulated singly with either tested cytokine, nor in samples in which either TGFbeta or TNF was replaced by interleukin-1beta. Anti-estrogen (ICI 164,384) inclusion prevented the estrogen-dependent increase in PGE2 production in the TGFbeta plus TNF-stimulated samples. These results suggest that an estrogen effect on bone cell prostaglandin biosynthesis may be most evident and significant under conditions in which the cells are exposed to multiple osteotropic cytokines, a condition that applies during the bone remodeling process.
    Calcified Tissue International 01/2004; 73(6):565-74. · 2.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

294 Citations
80.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Division of Hematology
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Rochester, MI, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Division of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2004
    • West Virginia University
      • Department of Biology
      Morgantown, WV, United States