[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovering bioactive compounds from natural plants, the potential of using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) was examined on black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) leaves, with ethanol/water as solvents. The superheated PLE process showed a higher recovery of most constituents and antioxidative activity, compared to reflux extraction, with a significantly improved recovery of the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) content and DPPH radical scavenging ability. For a broad range of ethanol aqueous solutions and temperatures, 50% EtOH and 200 °C (static time: 25 min) gave the best performance, in terms of the TP and TF (75% EtOH) content yield and DPPH scavenging ability (25% EtOH). Under the optimised extraction conditions, eight main antioxidative compounds were isolated and identified with HPLC-ABTS+ assay guidance and assessed for radical scavenging activity. The superheated extraction process for black bamboo leaves enhanced the antioxidant properties by increasing the extraction of the phenolic components.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists are well established for their effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Acute profound thrombocytopenia is a rare complication of abciximab. We present a case which was managed successfully for the rare complication of acute profound thrombocytopenia after using abciximab and an intra-aortic balloon pump for the treatment of a no-reflow phenomenon and consecutive cardiogenic shock during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) condition was developed for the simultaneous determination of five major phlorotannins from an extract of Eisenia bicyclis (Kjellman) Setchell with good linearity (r(2)>0.999). Based on this method, the seasonal variations and extraction characteristics, in terms of total extraction yield and the content of the phlorotannins, were investigated under various extraction conditions. In results, the yields and phlorotannins were increased two-to-four times in summer (June-October) and then, were decreased to normal levels in winter (November-March). In the extraction of E. bicyclis, ethanol percentage in water, extraction time and washing time significantly affected the yield of the extract and the phlorotannins, whereas the temperature and the sample/solvent ratio impacted the extraction to a lesser degree. These results will be useful information in the application of this macroalga in the commercial areas related to nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum indicum L. flower (CIF) has been widely used as tea in Korea. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the hot water extract of CIF (HCIF) in in vitro and in vivo systems. METHODS: Hepatoprotective activities were evaluated at 250 to 1000 mug/ml concentrations by an in vitro assay using normal human hepatocytes (Chang cell) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) against CCl4-induced cytotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2E1, which is a key indicator of hepatic injury, was detected by western blot analysis using rabbit polyclonal anti-human CYP2E1 antibody. An in vivo hepatoprotective activity assay was performed at 1000 to 4000 mug/ml concentrations on CCl4-induced acute toxicity in rats, and the serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by standard enzyme assays. RESULTS: The hepatoprotective effects of HCIF significantly reduced the levels of GOT (60.1%, P = 0.000) and GPT (64.5%, P = 0.000) compared with the vehicle control group (CCl4 alone). The survival rates of HepG2 and Chang cells were significantly improved compared with the control group [82.1% (P = 0.034) and 62.3% (P = 0.002), respectively]. HCIF [50 mg/kg body weight (BW)] treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of GOT (49.5%, P = 0.00), GPT (55.5%, P = 0.00), ALP (30.8%, P = 0.000) and LDH (45.6%, P = 0.000) compared with the control group in this in vivo study. The expression level of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein was also significantly decreased at the same concentration (50 mg/kg BW; P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: HCIF inhibited bioactivation of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and downregulates CYP2E1 expression in vitro and in vivo.
Chinese Medicine 04/2013; 8(1):7. · 1.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hexane extracts of needles and defoliated twigs of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel from two distant populations, located in the southwest and the east (i.e., Lake Baikal region and Sakhalin Island) of the species distribution range were studied by GC/MS analysis. Composition and retention indices of major components were determined. A drastic composition divergence for the extracts of P. pumila needles and defoliated twigs, depending on growth location, was established. Needle extracts from the eastern population sample contained mainly labdane-type acids (anticopalic acid derivatives), whereas the predominant components of needle extracts from the other population sample were abietane-type acids (abietic, neoabietic acids) and isopimarane-type diterpenoids (sandaracopimaric acid, sandaracopimaradien-3β-ol). The main components of defoliated twig extracts from Sakhalin Island population sample were abietane-type acids and cembrane-type diterpenoids, while content of these compounds in the extracts of the southwestern marginal population sample was remarkably lower.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypothesis
Needle lavage is frequently performed before consideration of surgical removal in shoulders with calcific tendinitis because this may avoid surgery. However, its role in nonoperative treatment has not been fully investigated in terms of clinical and radiographic response. We hypothesized that needle decompression and subacromial steroid injection would show good clinical results in chronic calcific tendinitis patients.
Materials and methods
Thirty-five shoulders in 30 consecutive patients with painful calcific tendinitis were treated by ultrasound-guided needle decompression and subacromial corticosteroid injection. Patients were prospectively evaluated using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Constant scores at 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. Size and morphology of the calcific deposits were compared with those in baseline radiographs at each visit.
At 6 months after the index procedure, 25 shoulders (71.4%) showed ASES and Constant score improvements from 48.0 and 53.7 to 84.6 and 87.9, respectively (P < .01). Ten shoulders (28.6%) showed no symptom relief at the last follow-up. In shoulders with pain improvement, the mean size of calcific deposits reduced from 13.6 to 5.6 mm (P < .01), and in shoulders with no pain improvement or that underwent operation, mean size was 13.1 mm at initial visits and 12.7 mm at final visits (P = .75).
Shoulders showing little evidence of deposit size reduction at 6 months after needle decompression are less likely to achieve symptomatic improvement and may be considered as candidates for surgical removal.
Needle decompression with subacromial steroid injection is effective in 71.4% of calcific tendinitis within 6 months. The size of calcific deposits in patients that achieved symptom relief was reduced.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since microbial gene sequencing was utilized for etiologic diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis, cases of Bartonella endocarditis have been reported in various countries. Herein we report the first case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis, which was confirmed for the first time in Korea by 16S rRNA gene sequencing from the excised valve. A 75-yr-old woman was hospitalized due to dyspnea. Echocardiography demonstrated large oscillating vegetation at the aortic valve. Blood culture was negative. She underwent valve replacement and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from excised valve identified Bartonella quintana. She was successfully treated with combined use of ceftriaxone and gentamicin.
Journal of Korean medical science 11/2012; 27(11):1433-5. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is one of important anti-oxidative molecules to overcome the oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to investigate the clinical relationship between serum concentration of Trx-1 on the pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (prePCI) and myocardial damage amount in the patients with acute myocardial infarction with the culprit lesion in only the left anterior descending artery on coronary angiography (n = 100). Initial value of creatine kinase (CK) was 368.3 ± 531.4 U/L, and MB isoenzyme of CK (CK-MB) level was 22.92 ± 33.8 ng/mL, and cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) level was 0.61 ± 1.6 ng/mL. Positive correlations were observed between prePCI Trx-1 level and initial CK (P = 0.005, r = 0.281), and cTnT (P < 0.001, r = 0.453), peak CK (P = 0.001, r = 0.316) in all patients, but the statistical relation was observed only in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (P = 0.008, r = 0.329 for initial CK, P = 0.001, r = 0.498 for initial cTnT, P = 0.005, r = 0.349 for peak CK), not in Non-STEMI patients. Conclusively, we consider prePCI serum Trx-1 as a predictor for myocardial damage amount in patients with STEMI.
Journal of Korean medical science 10/2012; 27(10):1162-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea, which are rich in polyphenols, may exhibit antiobesity effects by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. However, the bioavailability of some polyphenols is poor due to either degradation or absorption difficulties in the gastrointestinal tract, thus making their beneficial effects doubtful. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three beverages on lipolysis and the contribution of their major polyphenols during simulated digestion. During simulated digestion, gomchui tea was the most potent at inhibiting gastrointestinal lipolysis, whereas green tea was the least potent. The strongest lipase inhibitor among purified major polyphenols was a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, IC(50) = 1.8 ± 0.57 μM), followed by di-O-caffeoylquinic acid isomers (DCQA, IC(50) from 12.7 ± 4.5 to 40.4 ± 2.3 μM), which are gomchui tea polyphenols. However, the stability of DCQA was greater than that of EGCG when subjected to simulated digestion. Taken together, gomchui tea, which has DCQA as the major polyphenol, showed stronger lipolysis inhibitory activity during simulated digestion compared to both green tea and coffee.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2012; 60(29):7152-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether edible seaweed, Eisenia bicyclis, is effective in blunting the negative influence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on rat retinas and of oxidative stress-induced transformed retinal ganglion cell (RGC-5 cell line) death. The ethanol extract of E. bicyclis (EEEB) significantly attenuated the negative insult of L: -buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine plus glutamate on RGC-5 cells. Treatment of the RGC-5 cells with EEEB reduced the reactive oxygen species and recovered the reduced glutathione level caused by various radical species such as H(2)O(2), OH·, or O(2)·(-). Moreover, EEEB inhibited lipid peroxidation on rat brain homogenates caused by sodium nitroprusside. Applying NMDA to the retina affected the thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) produced a positive effect on ganglion cells. Importantly, EEEB protected the thinning of IPL and increased TUNEL positive cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Five phlorotannin derivatives were isolated using chromatographic methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis which has been known as an antioxidant. In conclusion, EEEB has a neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the major constituents of this extract, phlorotannins, could possibly be active compounds due to their antioxidative potency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz, a commercial leafy vegetable, contains caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (CQAs) as major phenolic constituents. The HPLC chromatograms of leaf extracts collected from different areas in Korea showed a significant variation in CQA amount, and two tri-O-caffeoylquinic acids (triCQAs) were purified and structurally identified by NMR and MS from this plant. Radical scavenging activities among CQAs were found to be increased in proportion to the number of caffeoyl groups. Since this plant prefers damp and shady growth conditions, the effects of sunlight were investigated by growing plantlets in sunlight and shade for four weeks. Greater leaf thickness and higher phenolic contents were found for leaves grown in sunlight than in shade. Four major CQAs-5-mono-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-monoCQA), and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (diCQA)-were induced by solar irradiation, whereas the content of these compounds decreased steadily in shade leaves. The leaves of L. fischeri clearly showed adaptation responses to sunlight, and these characteristics can be exploited for cultivation of this plant for potential use as a nutraceutical and functional food.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2012; 60(22):5597-603. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrophilic guide wire-related renal artery perforation (RAP) and subsequent retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) during coronary angiography (CAG) is very rare. We present the case of a 68-year-old woman who suffered accidental hydrophilic 0.035-inch guide wire piercing-related RAP and RPH during CAG and coronary intervention. This RAP was diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography and selective renal angiography, and was successfully treated by transcatheter polyvinyl alcohol injection.
The Canadian journal of cardiology 05/2012; 28(5):612.e5-7. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied CdSe Quantum dot-Liposome Complexes (QLCs), which are GUVs (Giant Unilamellar Vesicles) incorporated with quantum dots (QDs) loaded into the DOPC lipid bilayer. QLCs were prepared by employing the electroswelling method combined with spin coating techniques. Hexadecylamine (HDA) coated CdSe QDs of five different sizes from blue- (radius ~2.05 nm) to red-emission (~3.5 nm) were used to examine what size of QDs can be loaded into the DOPC lipid bilayer. Blue (radius ~2.05 nm), green (~2.25 nm), and yellow (~2.65 nm)-emission QDs were successfully inserted in the lipid bilayer. However, we did not observe any QLCs for the orange-emission QDs (~3.0-3.15 nm) and red-emission ones (~3.5 nm). This QD size dependence of the incorporation into the lipid bilayer is partly supporting the predictions in our published theoretical work. DOPC lipids showed a much smaller QLC yield than that of asolectin which is a mixture of many different kinds of lipids. Our model explains this large difference in the population qualitatively. The existence of QDs in the lipid bilayer at a nanometer scale was confirmed by employing laser-scanning confocal microscopy, Cryo-TEM, and negative staining and sectioning TEM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fucoxanthin, one of the main marine carotenoids, is abundant in macro- and microalgae. Here, fucoxanthin was isolated and structurally identified as the major carotenoid in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, such as liquid chromatography-positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. This pigment was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and a number of extraction procedures were assessed to investigate the effect of solvent type, extraction time, temperature, and extraction method (maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction). Among the investigated solvents, ethanol provided the best fucoxanthin extraction yield (15.71 mg/g freeze-dried sample weight). Fucoxanthin content in the extracts produced by the different methods was quite constant (15.42-16.51 mg/g freeze-dried sample weight) but increased steeply based on the percentage of ethanol in water, emphasizing the importance of ethanol in the extraction. The results indicate that P. tricornutum is a rich source of fucoxanthin (at least ten times more abundant than that in macroalgae) that is easily extracted with ethanol, suggesting potential applications in human and animal food, health, and cosmetics.
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 02/2012; 166(7):1843-55. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gradient HPLC coupled to Diode Array Detector (DAD), MS/MS and NMR was applied to the rapid structure determination of major compounds of methanol extracts from leaves and roots of Petasites japonicus. The relative antioxidant capacities of the compounds were evaluated by an HPLC system with post-column on-line antioxidant detection based on 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging. Six compounds were successfully separated on a reverse-phase C(18) column and were identified as 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), fukinolic acid (FA), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA), quercetin-3-O-(6″-acetyl)-β-glucopyranoside (QAG), 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4,5-DCQA) and kaempferol-3-O-(6″-acetyl)-β-glucopyranoside (KAG) by MS/MS and (1)H NMR data. Among these compounds, those containing a caffeoyl moiety (5-CQA, FA, 3,5- and 4,5-DCQA) showed relatively strong radical scavenging capacity, with 3,5-DCQA having the greatest radical scavenging capacity in leaf (23.09% of total antioxidant capacity) and root (26.47%) extracts. The relative radical scavenging portion of QAG was only 3.41% in the leaves and KAG did not show any radical scavenging activity. These results demonstrate that the hyphenated HPLC techniques can be successfully applied to rapidly identify structures and evaluate antioxidant activities without prior purification of compounds from plant tissues of P. japonicus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central access device is commonly used as a route of chemotherapuetic agents in patients with malignant diseases for its convenient and safety for insertion. This report describes a case of 66-year-old man with colon cancer who suffered a rare complication in which a chemoport embolized into the inferior vena cava and it was successfully retrieved by a percutaneous approach using a goose neck snare.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aortic aneurysm is one several well-known cardiovascular complications in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPCKD). Commonly affected site of aortic aneurysm and its related dissection in ADPCKD is abdominal aorta. Long standing hypertension, haemodialysis, old age are closely related with discovering of aortic aneurysm and dissection in ADPCKD. However, thoracic aortic aneurysms and its related severe aortic regurgitations (ARs) are rare in younger patients suffering from ADPCKD, especially ones who have normal renal function. Here, we report a case involving a 27-year-old Asian male patient with severe AR due to an ascending aneurysm of the thoracic aorta associated with ADPCKD. The patient had normal renal function without Marfan's habitus. The AR and thoracic aortic aneurysm were corrected surgically.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The redox system is an important anti-oxidative system composed of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and peroxiredoxin (PRx). The fine details of PRx expression and its protective effects in various cells in cardiovascular tissue under oxidative stress created by hydrogen peroxide have not been fully elucidated.
Oxidative stress was induced by adding hydrogen peroxide at 0.25 mM for 2 hours to rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (rCMCs), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (rVSMCs), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry and the expression patterns of the six PRx isoforms were evaluated by western blotting in the three cell lines after hydrogen peroxide stimulation. Apoptosis and the cell survival signal pathway were evaluated by PRx1 gene delivery using lentiviral vector in hydrogen peroxide stimulated rCMCs versus green fluorescence protein gene delivery.
Hydrogen peroxide induced 25% apoptosis in rCMCs. Furthermore, the PRx1 and 5 isoforms were found to be overexpressed in hydrogen peroxide treated rCMCs, and PRx1 overexpression by gene delivery was found to reduce hydrogen peroxide induced rCMCs apoptosis significantly. In addition, this effect was found to originate from cell survival pathway modification.
Hydrogen peroxide induced significant oxidative stress in rCMCs, rVSMCs, and HUVECs, and PRx1 overexpression using a lentiviral vector system significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide induced rCMCs apoptosis by upregulation of cell survival signals and downregulation of apoptotic signals. These findings suggest that PRx1 could be used as a treatment strategy for myocardial salvage in conditions of oxidative stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrograde approach through the collateral channels was recently proposed as one of the most promising current techniques for percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusion in coronary arteries (CTO). This report describes the case of a 68-year-old man in whom CTO was successfully crossed with a wire by the retrograde approach using septal collateral, but the patient suffered from a complication with septal myocardial infarction demonstrated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.