[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a complex group of neurodegenerative disorders with great genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, over 30 genes/loci have been associated with more than 20 different clinical forms of ARCA. Genetic heterogeneity combined with highly variable clinical expression of the cerebellar symptoms and overlapping features complicate furthermore the etiological diagnosis of ARCA. The determination of the most frequent mutations and corresponding ataxias, as well as particular features specific to a population, are mandatory to facilitate and speed up the diagnosis process, especially when an appropriate treatment is available.
We explored 166 patients (115 families) refered to the neurology units of Algiers central hospitals (Algeria) with a cerebellar ataxia phenotype segregating as an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and mutational screening was performed by PCR and direct sequencing or by targeted genomic capture and massive parallel sequencing of 57 genes associated with inherited cerebellar ataxia phenotypes.
In this work we report the clinical and molecular results obtained on a large cohort of Algerian patients (110 patients/76 families) with genetically determined autosomal recessive ataxia, representing 9 different types of ARCA and 23 different mutations, including 6 novel ones. The five most common ARCA in this cohort were Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2, autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1.
We report here a large cohort of patients with genetically determined autosomal recessive ataxia and the first study of the genetic context of ARCA in Algeria. This study showed that in Algerian patients, the two most common types of ataxia (Friedreich ataxia and ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency) coexist with forms that may be less common or underdiagnosed. To refine the genotype/phenotype correlation in rare and heteregeneous diseases as autosomal recessive ataxias, more extensive epidemiological investigations and reports are necessary as well as more accurate and detailed clinical characterizations. The use of standardized clinical and molecular protocols would thus enable a better knowledge of the different forms of ARCA.
BMC Medical Genetics 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12881-015-0180-3 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tel2-interacting proteins 1 and 2 (TTI1 and TTI2) physically interact with telomere maintenance 2 (TEL2) to form a conserved trimeric complex called the Triple T complex. This complex is a master regulator of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKKs) abundance and DNA damage response signaling. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and high-throughput sequencing in a large consanguineous multiplex family, we found that a missense c.1307T>A/p.I436N mutation in TTI2 causes a human autosomal recessive condition characterized by severe cognitive impairment, microcephaly, behavioral troubles, short stature, skeletal anomalies and facial dysmorphic features. Immunoblotting experiment showed decreased amount of all Triple T complex components in the patient skin fibroblasts. Consistently, a drastically reduced steady-state level of all PIKKs tested were also observed in the patient cells. Combined with previous observations, these findings emphasises the role of the TTI2 gene in the aetiology of intellectual disability (ID) and further support the role of PIKK signaling in brain development and functioning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Human Mutation 11/2013; 34(11). DOI:10.1002/humu.22399 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) represent the most frequent neuromuscular diseases in humans (1/3,500–6,000 live male births), characterized by an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance and therefore affecting mainly male individuals. DMD and BMD are allelic disorders resulting from genetic defects, mostly intragenic deletions, in the dystrophin gene. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we have analyzed 170 male patients from unrelated families originating from Algeria, showing that 68 % of them harbored deletion events affecting the known 5′ or 3′ hot spot regions. The distal portion was predominantly involved (85 %), whereas 37 distinctive patterns of deletion were identified in our panel. The extent of deletion varied from 1 to 32 exons, although the average number was about four exons. The lack of seven exons (45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51 and 52), each alone or in combination, represented about 78 % of the alterations encountered, while exon 48 was most frequently involved (50 %). The effect of the deletions showed that the reading frame rule proved mostly true, correlating with the clinical diagnosis suggested. Moreover, the c.525delT mutation in the γ-sarcoglycan gene was present in non-deleted patients (7 %), suggesting that clinical features can still be misleading. Finally, multiplex PCR proved to be a simple, fast and low-cost approach for the molecular diagnosis of dystrophinopathies in Algeria, whereas our data could contribute to the creation of a national registry of DMD/BMD patients in our country, which would give them hope to an access to already available genotype-based therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tel2‐interacting proteins 1 and 2 (TTI1 and TTI2) physically interact with telomere maintenance 2 (TEL2) to form a conserved trimeric complex called the Triple T complex. This complex is a master regulator of phosphoinositide‐3‐kinase‐related protein kinase (PIKKs) abundance and DNA damage response signaling. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and high‐throughput sequencing in a large consanguineous multiplex family, we found that a missense c.1307T>A/p.I436N mutation in TTI2 causes a human autosomal recessive condition characterized by severe cognitive impairment, microcephaly, behavioral troubles, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphic features. Immunoblotting experiment showed decreased amount of all Triple T complex components in the patient skin fibroblasts. Consistently, a drastically reduced steady‐state level of all PIKKs tested was also observed in the patient cells. Combined with previous observations, these findings emphasises the role of the TTI2 gene in the etiology of intellectual disability and further support the role of PIKK signaling in brain development and functioning.
Human Mutation 01/2013; 34(11). · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of rare inherited diseases is becoming more and more complex as an increasing number of clinical conditions appear to be genetically heterogeneous. Multigenic inheritance also applies to the autosomal recessive progressive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs), for which 14 genes have been identified and more are expected to be discovered. We used homozygosity mapping as a guide for identification of the defective locus in patients with ARCA born from consanguineous parents. Patients from 97 families were analyzed with GeneChip Mapping 10K or 50K SNP Affymetrix microarrays. We identified six families homozygous for regions containing the autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) gene, two families homozygous for the ataxia-telangiectasia gene (ATM), two families homozygous for the ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) gene, and one family homozygous for the AOA type 2 (AOA2) gene. Upon direct gene testing, we were able to identify a disease-related mutation in all families but one of the two kindred homozygous at the ATM locus. Although linkage analyses pointed to a single locus on chromosome 11q22.1-q23.1 for this family, clinical features, normal levels of serum alpha-foetoprotein as well as absence of mutations in the ATM gene rather suggest the existence of an additional ARCA-related gene in that interval. While the use of homozygosity mapping was very effective at pointing to the correct gene, it also suggests that the majority of patients harbor mutations either in the genes of the rare forms of ARCA or in genes yet to be identified.
Journal of Neurology 01/2011; 258(1):56-67. DOI:10.1007/s00415-010-5682-5 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous mutations in the ASPM gene are a major cause of autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH). Here we report on a consanguineous Algerian family in which three out of five children presented with severe microcephaly, simplified cortical gyration, mild to severe mental retardation and low to low-normal birth weight. Given the parental consanguinity with the unaffected parents being third cousins once removed, the most probable pattern of inheritance was autosomal recessive. Linkage and mutational analyses identified compound heterozygous truncating mutations within the ASPM gene segregating with MCPH (c.2389C>T [p.Arg797X] and c.7781_7782delAG [p.Gln2594fsX6]). These results highlight some of the pitfalls of genetic analysis in consanguineous families. They also suggest that low birth weight may be a feature of MCPH, a finding that needs confirmation, and confirm that ASPM mutations are associated with simplified cortical gyration.
European journal of medical genetics 04/2009; 52(4):180-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.03.013 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CMT2B1, an axonal subtype (MIM 605588) of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, is an autosomal recessive motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by progressive muscular and sensory loss in the distal extremities with chronic distal weakness. The genetic defect associated with the disease is, to date, a unique homozygous missense mutation, p.Arg298Cys (c.892C>T), in the LMNA gene. So far, this mutation has only been found in affected individuals originating from a restricted region of North Western Africa (northwest of Algeria and east of Morocco), strongly suggesting a founder effect. In order to address this hypothesis, genotyping of both STRs and intragenic SNPs was performed at the LMNA locus, at chromosome 1q21.2-q21.3, in 42 individuals affected with CMT2B1 from 25 Algerian families. Our results indicate that the affected individuals share a common ancestral haplotype in a region of about 1.0 Mb (1 cM) and that the most recent common ancestor would have lived about 800-900 years ago (95% confidence interval: 550 to 1300 years).
Annals of Human Genetics 06/2008; 72(Pt 5):590-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00456.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, foot and hand deformities, and electrophysiological changes. The CMT4H subtype is an autosomal recessive demyelinating form of CMT that was recently mapped to a 15.8-Mb region at chromosome 12p11.21-q13.11, in two consanguineous families of Mediterranean origin, by homozygosity mapping. We report here the identification of mutations in FGD4, encoding FGD4 or FRABIN (FGD1-related F-actin binding protein), in both families. FRABIN is a GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), specific to Cdc42, a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (Rho GTPases). Rho GTPases play a key role in regulating signal-transduction pathways in eukaryotes. In particular, they have a pivotal role in mediating actin cytoskeleton changes during cell migration, morphogenesis, polarization, and division. Consistent with these reported functions, expression of truncated FRABIN mutants in rat primary motoneurons and rat Schwann cells induced significantly fewer microspikes than expression of wild-type FRABIN. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mutations in a Rho GEF protein being involved in CMT.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2007; 81(1):1-16. DOI:10.1086/518428 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive forms of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (ARCMT2) disease are frequent in some areas, such as North Africa and the Middle East, since consanguineous marriages are still common there. Recently, a unique homozygous mutation in LMNA, which encodes lamin A/C, a component of the nuclear envelope, was identified in members of three Algerian families with ARCMT2 linked to chromosome 1q21.2-q21.3. In the present study we describe a group of 21 ARCMT2 patients from seven unrelated Algerian families with the same R298C mutation in the lamin A/C gene and marked variability of the clinical phenotype. There is a wide range of age of onset, from 6 to 27 years, with a mean of 14.4 +/- 4.6 years. The course of the disease varies considerably from one patient to another. Twelve patients with a disease duration of 10-15 years had a severe CMT phenotype with distal wasting and weakness of all four limbs and areflexia associated with involvement of the proximal lower limb muscles. In contrast, nine patients had the classical CMT phenotype with mild functional disability without proximal lower limb involvement after a disease duration of 5-18 years. Electrophysiological studies showed a median motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in the normal range in almost all the patients. MNCV and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values were inversely correlated with the disease duration and the MNCV was strictly related to the CMAP, strongly supporting a pure axonal process without a demyelinating component. Six patients had a nerve biopsy, which revealed severe rarefaction of myelinated fibres in all cases and an increased density of unmyelinated fibres in the majority of cases. In conclusion, the ARCMT2 associated with the R298C mutation differs from other types of ARCMT2. The variability among patients in the age of onset and the course of the disease strongly suggests the action of modifying genes, which remain to be identified.