[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to involve several physiological and pathological phenomena. In this study, we utilized a microplate measurement system (MMS) approach based on the deflection of a flexible micro-cantilever to measure cell stiffness (in Pa) and adhesion force (in nN) of a single cell during EMT with nN resolution. Our results demonstrated that after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT (tEMT), NMuMG cells became stiffer due to thicker and more abundant F-actin and displayed stronger vinculin accumulation after long-term cell-substrate adhesion. The MMS could distinguish differences in compressive stiffness (219 ± 10 and 287 ± 14 Pa), tensile stiffness (114 ± 14 and 132 ± 12 Pa), and adhesion force (150 ± 42 and 192 ± 31 nN) between cells before and after tEMT. However, without proper development of the F-actin structure and adequate adherent time, the mechanical differences were diminished. After tEMT, the cells with increased stiffness and a cell-substrate adhesion force benefited by migrating more rapidly and had more invasiveness. Thus, this technology has the potential to benefit research focused on cancer diagnosis, drug development, and cell-substrate interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo, the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in seconds during cancer cells intravasation and extravasation. Although it has been established that cellular stiffness can change as a cancer cell transformed, the precise relationship between TGF-beta1-induced mesenchymal stem cell mechanics and cancer prognosis remains unclear. Accordingly, it is hard to define the effects of EMT on cell mechanical properties (CMs), tumor recurrence and metastasis risks. This study bridges physical and pathological disciplines to reconcile single-cell mechanical measurements of tumor cells.Methods and results: We developed a microplate measurement system (MMS) and revealed the intrinsic divergent tumor composition of retrieval cells by cell stiffness and adhesion force and flow cytometry analysis. After flow cytometry sorting, we could measure the differences in CMs of the Sca-1+-CD44+ (mesenchymal-stem-cell-type) and the other subgroups. As well as the stiffer and heterogeneous compositions among tumor tissues with higher recurrence risk were depicted by MMS and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An in vitro experiment validated that Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells acquired higher CMs and motility after EMT, but abrogated by SB-505124 inhibition. Concomitantly, the CD31, MMP13 and TGF-beta1 enriched micro-environment in the tumor was associated with higher recurrence and distal lung metastasis risks. Furthermore, we report a comprehensive effort to correlate CMs to tumor-prognosis indicators, in which a decreased body weight gain ratio (BWG) and increased tumor weight (TW) were correlated with increased CMs.
Together, we determined that TGF-beta1 was significantly associated with malignant tumor progressing. In terms of clinical applications, local tumor excision followed by MMS analysis offers an opportunity to predict tumor recurrence and metastasis risks.
Cancer Cell International 03/2014; 14(1):20. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm2 and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm2. Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm2 had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm2. Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm2. Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm2 and 8 J/cm2) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e103348. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have become a popular stem cell source because of their abundant supplies, high differentiation ability and the fact that they present few ethical concerns. Suspension culture, a type of three-dimensional culture, is a more suitable model for mimicking cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions than is two-dimensional monolayer culture. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of suspension culture on the viability and differentiation potential of hADSCs.
Different densities of hADSCs were cultured in ultra-low-attachment surface plates. The morphology and mean diameter of the resultant aggregates were determined by means of microscopy. The viability of the aggregates was evaluated with the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, lactate dehydrogenase and live/dead assays. To detect osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and adipogenesis in hADSCs in suspension culture, cell aggregates were stained to determine cell function, and the expression of specific markers was evaluated through the use of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
The hADSCs remained viable in suspension culture and formed cell aggregates. The diameter of the majority of the aggregates was in the range of 50-200 μm, regardless of cell density. The aggregation of the hADSCs served to maintain cell survival. In addition, the results of the histomorphometric and gene expression analyses showed that the hADSCs were more efficiently induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes in suspension culture than in two-dimensional monolayer culture.
Suspension culture can be used to maintain cell viability and contributes to the effective differentiation of hADSCs, providing an alternative cell growth strategy for application to stem cell-based regenerative medicine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the potential for a better recovery outcome for the Achilles tendon at an early healing stage when a mixed biomaterial-tenocyte injection is used. The experimental animals underwent single limb Achilles tendon transection followed by suturing repair. A solution of either hyaluronic acid with or without tenocytes or normal saline was randomly chosen to be injected around the injury site after surgery. To obtain the comprehensive recovery condition of the rats on different management protocols, the animals were evaluated histologically, mechanically, and functionally. A significant difference in the recovery condition was found in the injured tendon injected with the hyaluronic acid solution with tenocytes compared with the other groups. Tendon stiffness and the locomotion abilities of the rats with healing Achilles tendons were improved in the hyaluronic acid with tenocyte transplantation group. The acceleration of the inflammatory phase in rats with the hyaluronic acid with tenocyte injections might be the major reason for the better functional outcomes.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 09/2013; · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves several physiological and pathological phenomena and endows cells with invasive and migratory properties. However, the effects of substrate stiffness and topography on the migration of cells before or after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT (tEMT) are unknown. Herein, we seed control or tEMT NMuMG cells on the 2D patterns consisted of 1 μm or 5 μm line-widths and groove or cone patterns on either 2 MPa (1.96 ± 0.48 MPa) or 4 MPa (3.70 ± 0.74 MPa) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. After tEMT, the increased expression of α-SMA with vinculin in focal adhesion (FA) sites led to an acceleration of tEMT cell motility. On the 2 MPa substrate, the most influenced substrate was the 1 μm, cone-patterned substrate, where the tEMT cells' motility decelerated by 0.13 μm/min (36% slower than the cells on groove pattern). However, on the 5 μm, groove-patterned substrate, where the tEMT cells demonstrated the most rapid motility relative to the control cells, with an increment of 0.18 μm/min (100%). Among the different physical cues from substrate, the cone pattern could impede the migration speed of tEMT cells. Furthermore, we recommend the groove-patterned with a 5 μm line-width substrate as a useful tool to differentiate control and tEMT cells by migration speed.
Cell Communication & Adhesion 09/2013; · 1.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repairing articular cartilage is clinically challenging. We investigated a simple, effective and clinically feasible cell-based therapeutic approach using a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold seeded with autologous endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) to repair a full-thickness osteochondral defect in rabbits using a one-step surgery.
EPC obtained by purifying a small amount of peripheral blood from rabbits were seeded into a highly porous, biocompatible PLGA scaffold, namely, EPC-PLGA, and implanted into the osteochondral defect in the medial femoral condyle. Twenty two rabbits were randomized into one of three groups: the empty defect group (ED), the PLGA-only group or the EPC-PLGA group. The defect sites were evaluated 4 and 12 weeks after implantation.
At the end of testing, only the EPC-PLGA group showed the development of new cartilage tissue with a smooth, transparent and integrated articular surface. Moreover, histological analysis showed obvious differences in cartilage regeneration. At week 4, the EPC-PLGA group showed considerably higher TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 expression, a greater amount of synthesized glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and a higher degree of osteochondral angiogenesis in repaired tissues. At week 12, the EPC-PLGA group showed enhanced hyaline cartilage regeneration with a normal columnar chondrocyte arrangement, higher SOX9 expression, and greater GAG and collagen type II content. Moreover, the EPC-PLGA group showed organized osteochondral integration, the formation of vessel-rich tubercular bone and significantly higher bone volume per tissue volume and trabecular thickness.
The present EPC-PLGA cell delivery system generates a suitable in situ microenvironment for osteochondral regeneration without the supplement of exogenous growth factors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 08/2013; · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J⋅cm(-2). Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J⋅cm(-2) significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J⋅cm(-2) showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.International Journal of Oral Science (2013) 5, doi:10.1038/ijos.2013.38; published online 21 June 2013.
International Journal of Oral Science 06/2013; · 2.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: One potential mechanism through which obesity exerts adverse effects on the vascular system is by increasing aortic stiffness, a change known to be predictive of increased cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology that links obesity to aortic stiffening.Approach and Results-Obese (ob/ob) mice were used to examine physical, morphological, and molecular changes in the aorta in response to obesity. ob/ob mice had increased aortic pulse wave velocity and tissue rigidity. ob/ob aorta exhibited decreases of lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity and cross-linked elastin, and increases of elastin fragmentation and elastolytic activity. The aortas of ob/ob mice were surrounded by a significant amount of proinflammatory and pro-oxidative perivascular adipose tissue. In vitro studies revealed that the conditioned medium from differentiated adipocytes or the perivascular adipose tissue of ob/ob mice attenuated LOX activity. Furthermore, inhibition of LOX in wild-type lean mice caused elastin fragmentation and induced a significant increase in pulse wave velocity. Finally, we found that obese humans had stiffer arteries and lower serum LOX levels than do normal-weight humans. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that obesity resulted in aortic stiffening in both humans and mice, and established a causal relationship between LOX downregulation and aortic stiffening in obesity.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young's modulus (Eeff) relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77384. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue regeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating damaged tissues. However, the inflammatory microenvironment that exists at a local injury site might restrict reconstruction. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been widely applied to retard the inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LPLI on human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in an inflammatory environment. We showed that the hADSCs expressed Toll-like Receptors (TLR) 1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR6 and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8)). LPLI markedly inhibited LPS-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at an optimal dose of 8 J/cm(2). The inhibitory effect triggered by LPLI might occur through an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. These data collectively provide insight for further investigations of the potential application of anti-inflammatory treatment followed by stem cell therapy.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54067. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency (RF) is often used as a supplementary and alternative method to alleviate pain for chronic tendinopathy. Whether or how it would work for acute tendon injury is not addressed in the literatures. Through detailed pain and gait monitoring, we hypothesized that collagenase-induce acute tendinopathy model may be able to answer these questions. Gait parameters, including time, distance, and range of motion, were recorded and analyzed using a walking track equipped with a video-based system. Expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), and galanin were used as pain markers. Beta-III tubulin and Masson trichrome staining were used as to evaluate nerve sprouting, matrix tension, and degeneration in the tendon. Of fourteen analyzed parameters, RF significantly improved stance phase, step length, preswing, and intermediary toe-spread of gait. Improved gait related to the expression of substance P, CGRP, and reduced nerve fiber sprouting and matrix tension, but not galanin. The study indicates that direct RF application may be a valuable approach to improve gait and pain in acute tendon injury. Altered gait parameters may be used as references to evaluate therapeutic outcomes of RF or other treatment plan for tendinopathy.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:402692. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remedying patellofemoral osteochondral defects using clinical therapy remains challenging. Construct-based and cell-based regenerative medicine with in vitro physical stimuli has been progressively implemented. However, the effect of physical stimuli in situ in knee joints with degradable constructs is still not well-documented. Therefore, we studied whether it was practical to achieve articular cartilage repair using a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) construct in addition to early short-term continuous passive motion (CPM) for treatment of full-thickness osteochondral defects in the lower-weigh bearing (LWB) zone of the femoral trocheal groove. Twenty-six rabbits were randomly allocated into either intermittent active motion (IAM) or CPM treatment groups with or without PLGA constructs, termed PLGA construct-implanted (PCI) and empty defect knee models, respectively. Gross observation, histology, inflammatory cells, which were identified using H&E staining, total collagen and alignment, studied qualitatively using Masson's trichrome staining, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), identified using Alcian blue staining, and newly formed bone, observed using micro-CT, were evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. Repair of osteochondral defects in the PCI-CPM group was more promising than all other groups. The better osteochondral defect repair in the PCI-CPM group corresponded to smooth cartilage surfaces, no inflammatory reaction, hyaline cartilaginous tissues composition, sound collagen alignment with positive collagen type II expression, higher GAG content, mature bone regeneration with osteocyte, clear tidemark formation, and better degradation of PLGA. In summary, the use of a simple PLGA construct coupled with passive motion promotes positive healing and may be a promising clinical intervention for osteochondral regeneration in LWB defects.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering 09/2012; · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenic therapy is a promising approach for tissue repair and regeneration. However, recent clinical trials with protein delivery or gene therapy to promote angiogenesis have failed to provide therapeutic effects. A key factor for achieving effective revascularization is the durability of the microvasculature and the formation of new arterial vessels. Accordingly, we carried out experiments to test whether intramyocardial injection of self-assembling peptide nanofibers (NFs) combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could create an intramyocardial microenvironment with prolonged VEGF release to improve post-infarct neovascularization in rats. Our data showed that when injected with NF, VEGF delivery was sustained within the myocardium for up to 14 days, and the side effects of systemic edema and proteinuria were significantly reduced to the same level as that of control. NF/VEGF injection significantly improved angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and cardiac performance 28 days after myocardial infarction. NF/VEGF injection not only allowed controlled local delivery but also transformed the injected site into a favorable microenvironment that recruited endogenous myofibroblasts and helped achieve effective revascularization. The engineered vascular niche further attracted a new population of cardiomyocyte-like cells to home to the injected sites, suggesting cardiomyocyte regeneration. Follow-up studies in pigs also revealed healing benefits consistent with observations in rats. In summary, this study demonstrates a new strategy for cardiovascular repair with potential for future clinical translation.
Science translational medicine 08/2012; 4(146):146ra109. · 10.76 Impact Factor