[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).
The British journal of nutrition 03/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the maintenance energy requirements of adult dogs. Suitable publications were first identified, and then used to generate relationships amongst energy requirements, husbandry, activity level, methodology, sex, neuter status, dog size, and age in healthy adult dogs. Allometric equations for maintenance energy requirements were determined using log-log linear regression. So that the resulting equations could readily be compared with equations reported by the National Research Council, maintenance energy requirements in the current study were determined in kcal/kg0.75 body weight (BW). Ultimately, the data of 70 treatment groups from 29 publications were used, and mean (± standard deviation) maintenance energy requirements were 142.8±55.3 kcal.kgBW-0.75.day-1. The corresponding allometric equation was 81.5 kcal.kgBW-0.93.day-1 (adjusted R2 = 0.64; 70 treatment groups). Type of husbandry had a significant effect on maintenance energy requirements (P<0.001): requirements were greatest in racing dogs, followed by working dogs and hunting dogs, whilst the energy requirements of pet dogs and kennel dogs were least. Maintenance energy requirements were less in neutered compared with sexually intact dogs (P<0.001), but there was no effect of sex. Further, reported activity level tended to effect the maintenance energy requirement of the dog (P = 0.09). This review suggests that estimating maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be accurate, but that predictions that factor in husbandry, neuter status and, possibly, activity level might be superior. Additionally, more information on the nutrient requirements of older dogs, and those at the extremes of body size (i.e. giant and toy breeds) is needed.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e109681. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2<90%) via a face mask. Morphometric measurements were taken from DEXA images and compared before and after weight loss. Several oxygen indices were calculated and correlated with body fat variables evaluated by DEXA. All body fat variables improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2 increased from 27.9±19.2kPa to 34.8±24.4kPa, while FiO2 decreased from 0.74±0.31 to 0.66±0.35. Morphometric measurements improved significantly after weight loss. PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity.
The Veterinary Journal 08/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity is a common medical disorder in dogs, and can predispose to a number of diseases. Human obesity is a risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible association of weight loss on plasma and renal biomarkers of kidney health. ANIMALS: Thirty-seven obese dogs that lost weight were included in the study. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Three novel biomarkers of renal functional impairment, disease, or both (homocysteine, cystatin C, and clusterin), in addition to traditional markers of chronic renal failure (serum urea and creatinine, urine specific gravity [USG], urine protein-creatinine ratio [UPCR], and urine albumin corrected by creatinine [UAC]) before and after weight loss in dogs with naturally occurring obesity were investigated. RESULTS: Urea (P = .043) and USG (P = .012) were both greater after weight loss than before loss, whilst UPCR, UAC, and creatinine were less after weight loss (P = .032, P = .006, and P = .026, respectively). Homocysteine (P < .001), cystatin C (P < .001) and clusterin (P < .001) all decreased upon weight loss. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed associations between percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, more lean tissue loss; r = -0.67, r(2) = 0.45, P < .001) and before-loss plasma clusterin concentration (greater clusterin, more lean tissue loss; r = 0.48, r(2) = 0.23, P = .003). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These results suggest possible subclinical alterations in renal function in canine obesity, which improve with weight loss. Further work is required to determine the nature of these alterations and, most notably, the reason for the association between before loss plasma clusterin and subsequent lean tissue loss during weight management.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Risk of nutrient deficiency in dogs during caloric restriction is not currently known, while obesity is a growing concern. Objectives: To determine nutrients that might require further evaluation for the risk of deficiency during caloric restriction. Animals and methods: Five commercially available canine diets, representing a range of caloric density (2900-4240 kcal/kg metabolizable energy), were assessed for potential nutrient inadequacy if fed to a hypothetical overweight dog. Caloric density and typical nutrient analysis for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins were obtained from the manufacturer. Nutrient intake was calculated using ideal body weight for caloric intakes including 87, 79, 70, 61 and 52 kcal/kg(0.75) and compared with National Research Council recommended nutrient allowances (NRC-RA) for ideal weight. Results: No diets were less than NRC-RA when compared to NRC-RA (/1000 kcal). The five evaluated diets varied in terms of which nutrients were less than NRC-RA and the degree of restriction required for this to occur. All diets had at least one essential nutrient less than NRC-RA at 79 kcal/kg(0.75)/day and multiple nutrients less than NRC-RA at 70 kcal/kg(0.75)/day. Choline and selenium were the nutrients most often affected by caloric restriction but others were less than the NRC-RA with caloric restriction. Conclusions: Further research is needed to determine actual nutrient requirements in overweight dogs, and whether clinical nutrient deficiencies actually arise in vivo. Clinical importance: Weight loss plans for overweight dogs (particularly those with very low-energy requirements) should include consideration for nutrient adequacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained attention in human metabolic medicine given its associations with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Canine obesity is associated with the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and mild hypertension, but the authors are not aware of any existing studies examining the existence or prevalence of MS in obese dogs.Thirty-five obese dogs were assessed before and after weight loss (median percentage loss 29%, range 10-44%). The diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were modified in order to define canine obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD), which included a measure of adiposity (using a 9-point body condition score [BCS]), systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and fasting plasma glucose. By way of comparison, total body fat mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, whilst total adiponectin, fasting insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured using validated assays. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), cholesterol (P = 0.003), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and fasting insulin (P < 0.001) all decreased after weight loss, whilst plasma total adiponectin increased (P = 0.001). However, hsCRP did not change with weight loss. Prior to weight loss, 7 dogs were defined as having ORMD, and there was no difference in total fat mass between these dogs and those who did not meet the criteria for ORMD. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was less (P = 0.031), and plasma insulin concentration was greater (P = 0.030) in ORMD dogs. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, approximately 20% of obese dogs suffer from ORMD, and this is characterized by hypoadiponectinaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. These studies can form the basis of further investigations to determine path genetic mechanisms and the health significance for dogs, in terms of disease associations and outcomes of weight loss.
BMC Veterinary Research 08/2012; 8(1):147. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safe upper limit for inclusion of vitamin A in complete diets for growing dogs is uncertain, with the result that current recommendations range from 5.24 to 104.80 μmol retinol (5000 to 100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy (ME). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding four concentrations of vitamin A to puppies from weaning until 1 year of age. A total of forty-nine puppies, of two breeds, Labrador Retriever and Miniature Schnauzer, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Following weaning at 8 weeks of age, puppies were fed a complete food supplemented with retinyl acetate diluted in vegetable oil and fed at 1 ml oil/100 g diet to achieve an intake of 5·24, 13·10, 78·60 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000, 12 500, 75 000 and 100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) ME. Fasted blood and urine samples were collected at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 26, 36 and 52 weeks of age and analysed for markers of vitamin A metabolism and markers of safety including haematological and biochemical variables, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical examinations were conducted every 4 weeks. Data were analysed by means of a mixed model analysis with Bonferroni corrections for multiple endpoints. There was no effect of vitamin A concentration on any of the parameters, with the exception of total serum retinyl esters, and no effect of dose on the number, type and duration of adverse events. We therefore propose that 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) is a suitable safe upper limit for use in the formulation of diets designed for puppy growth.
The British journal of nutrition 02/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related biochemical analytes in obese cats before and after weight loss. Thirty-seven overweight neutered cats were studied, median body weight 6.85 kg (range, 4.70 to 10.30 kg), representing a range of ages and both sexes. An individualized weight-loss program was devised for each cat and monitored until completion. Body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whereas plasma concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs; eg, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A), hormones (eg, insulin, IGF-1, and adiponectin), and enzymes (eg, butyrylcholinesterase and paraoxonase type 1 [PON-1]) associated with inflammation and metabolic compounds (eg, glucose) were also measured. No significant changes were found in APPs after weight loss (P > 0.3), but significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P = 0.021) and IGF-1 (P = 0.036) were seen, whereas insulin (P < 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment (P = 0.005) decreased significantly. Plasma concentrations before weight loss of PON-1 (P = 0.004), adiponectin (P = 0.02), and IGF-1 (P = 0.048) were less in cats that failed to complete weight loss than cats that were successful, whereas glucose concentration was greater. Finally, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R = 0.71, P < 0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R = -0.52, P = 0.023). In conclusion, various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity, and these can be linked to outcomes of weight-loss programs. The changes that occur with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P=0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (P<0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P<0.001) and pain (P<0.001). However, there was no change in anxiety (P=0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (r(P)=0.43, P=0.02) and percentage body fat loss (r(P)=0.39, P=0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight.
The Veterinary Journal 11/2011; 192(3):428-34. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary factors (e.g. feeding treats and table scraps) can predispose to obesity in dogs, but it is not known whether they also influence success of weight loss. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine which pre-weight-loss factors were associated with outcome of their weight management regimen in dogs. Information from ninety-five dogs attending the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), was reviewed. The effect of different food types (e.g. dry, wet and home-prepared), feeding practices (e.g. method of portion size calculation and number of meals per day) and use of treats was assessed on outcome measures of the weight management regimen. Before weight loss, most owners (sixty-three out of ninety-five, 66 %) fed twice daily, used complete dry food (seventy-two out of ninety-five, 76 %) and calculated portion size either by measuring cup (thirty-six out of ninety-five, 38 %) or by visual estimation (thirty-seven out of ninety-five, 39 %). Feeding treats was common and included purchased treats (forty-one out of ninety-five, 43 %), table scraps (twenty-four out of ninety-five, 25 %), pet food (eighty-three out of ninety-five, 87 %) and human food (eighty-one out of ninety-five, 85 %). The majority of feeding practices did not influence any outcome measure for the weight-loss period (P>0.05 for all). However, metabolisable energy intake during weight loss was significantly higher in dogs fed dry food (P = 0.047) and lower in dogs fed purchased snacks before weight loss (P = 0.036). Thus, most pre-weight-loss factors have limited effect on outcomes of weight loss. The significance of the associations identified between feeding of dried food and purchased treats, and weight-loss energy intake, requires further study.
The British journal of nutrition 10/2011; 106 Suppl 1:S97-100. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( < 1 % change) was identified post-weight loss, when food intake was constant and activity levels were stable (assessed via owners' diary records). Post-weight-loss MER was indirectly estimated by determining dietary energy consumption during this stable weight period. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors that were associated with post-weight-loss MER. The mean length of stable weight after weight loss was 54 (SD 34.1) d. During this time, MER was 285 (SD 54.8) kJ/kg(0.75) per d. The rate of prior weight loss and food intake during the weight-loss phase was positively associated with post-weight-loss MER, while the amount of lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.
The British journal of nutrition 10/2011; 106 Suppl 1:S93-6. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD-1) is expressed in a number of tissues in rodents and humans and is responsible for the reactivation of inert cortisone into cortisol. Its gene expression and activity are increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) from obese humans and may contribute to the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The extent to which 11β-HSD-1 contributes to adipose tissue function in dogs is unknown; the aim of the present study was to examine 11β-HSD-1 gene expression and its regulation by proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents in canine adipocytes. Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of 11β-HSD-1 in canine adipose tissue and canine adipocytes differentiated in culture. The mRNA encoding 11β-HSD-1 was identified in all the major WAT depots in dogs and also in liver, kidney, and spleen. Quantification by real-time PCR showed that 11β-HSD-1 mRNA was least in perirenal and falciform depots and greatest in subcutaneous, omental, and gonadal depots. Greater expression was seen in the omental depot in female than in male dogs (P=0.05). Gene expression for 11β-HSD-1 was also seen in adipocytes, from both subcutaneous and visceral depots, differentiated in culture; expression was evident throughout differentiation but was generally greatest in preadipocytes and during early differentiation, declining as cells progressed to maturity. The inflammatory mediators lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor α had a main stimulatory effect on 11β-HSD-1 gene expression in canine subcutaneous adipocytes, but IL-6 had no significant effect. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a significant time- and dose-dependent increase in 11β-HSD-1 gene expression, with greatest effects seen at 24 h (2 nM: approximately 4-fold; 20 nM: approximately 14-fold; P=0.010 for both). When subcutaneous adipocytes were treated with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonist rosiglitazone, similar dose- and time-dependent effects were noted. However, no effects were seen when adipocytes from the gonadal WAT depot were treated with rosiglitazone. The induction of 11β-HSD-1 expression, by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and by lipopolysaccharide may have implications for the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated diseases in the dog.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regain after weight loss is widely reported in humans, but there is little information on this phenomenon in dogs. The current study aim was to determine long-term success of a weight loss regime and those factors linked with regain. Thirty-three obese dogs, that had successfully lost weight, were included, all enrolled between December 2004 and May 2009. After weight loss, dogs were switched to a maintenance regime and follow-up weight checks were performed periodically. A review of cases that had completed their weight programme was held during the summer of 2010 and a follow-up check was subsequently conducted, where dogs were reweighed and information was collected on current feeding practices. Median duration of follow-up was 640 days (119-1828 days). Fourteen dogs (42%) maintained weight, 3 (9%) lost >5% additional weight, and 16 (48%) gained >5% weight. Dogs fed a purpose-formulated weight loss diet regained less weight than those switched onto a standard maintenance diet (P=0.0016). Energy intake at the time of follow-up was significantly higher in those dogs fed a standard maintenance diet, compared with those that had remained on a purpose-formulated weight loss diet (P=0.017). These results suggest that weight regain occurs in about half of dogs after successful weight loss. Long-term use of a purpose-formulated weight management diet can significantly limit regain in the follow-up period, likely by limiting food intake.
The Veterinary Journal 05/2011; 192(1):65-70. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many pet cats and dogs are fed dry extruded kibbled food by measuring cup, yet the precision and accuracy of this feeding strategy is not known. Over 12 studies, we assessed precision and accuracy of weighing out food portions, of various dry kibbled foods, by measuring cup. Poor precision was noted in all studies, with intra- and inter-subject coefficients of variation ranging from 2 to 13% and 2 to 28% respectively. Variable accuracy was also noted, which ranged from an 18% under-estimate to an 80% over-estimate in portion size. No specific factors were associated with imprecision, but the degree of inaccuracy was negatively associated with portion size (R = -0.67, p = 0.022), and positively associated with the number of subjects participating in the study (R = 0.60, p = 0.048). This is the first study to document imprecision and inaccuracy of using measuring cups to estimate portions of extruded dry kibbled food. Over time, such errors could contribute to insidious weight gain in companion animals, potentially contributing to the development of obesity. Imprecision in measuring food portions could also contribute to failure of weight management programmes for obese animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiposity and obesity are increasing in dogs. We have examined here the endocrine function of canine adipose tissue and the regulation of production of inflammation-related adipokines by dog adipocytes. Adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNFalpha genes were expressed in the main adipose depots of dogs, but there were no major depot differences in mRNA levels. Each adipokine was expressed in canine adipocytes differentiated in culture and secreted into the medium (leptin undetected). IL-6, MCP-1 and TNFalpha were also expressed and secreted by preadipocytes; adiponectin and leptin were only expressed after adipocyte differentiation. The inflammatory mediators LPS and TNFalpha had major stimulatory effects on the expression and secretion of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNFalpha; there was a >5,000-fold increase in IL-6 mRNA level with LPS. IL-6 release into the medium was increased >50-fold over 24 h with LPS and TNFalpha, while MCP-1 release was increased 23- and 40-fold by TNFalpha and LPS, respectively. However, there was no effect, or small reductions, in adiponectin and leptin mRNA levels with the inflammatory mediators. Dexamethasone-stimulated leptin gene expression, had no effect on adiponectin expression, but decreased the expression and secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1. The PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone stimulated both adiponectin and leptin expression and inhibited the expression of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNFalpha; MCP-1 secretion was reduced. These results demonstrate that canine adipocytes express and secrete key adipokines and show that adipocytes of this species are highly responsive to inflammatory mediators with the induction of major increases in the production of inflammation-related adipokines.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 08/2010; 460(3):603-16. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess performance of a portable bioimpedance monitor for measurement of body composition in dogs.
24 client-owned dogs.
Percentage body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and with a portable bioimpedance monitor, and body condition score (BCS) was measured by use of a 9-integer scale.
Although the precision of the bioimpedance monitor was good, this varied among dogs. Body position (standing vs sternal) had no effect on bioimpedance results. There was a significant association between results determined via DEXA and bioimpedance, but this association was weaker than between DEXA and BCS. When agreement was assessed via Bland-Altman plot, the bioimpedance monitor under- and overestimated values at high and low body fat percentages, respectively. In 9 dogs, body fat measurements were taken before and after weight loss to determine the proportional loss of tissue mass during weight management. There was a significant difference in the estimated percentage of weight lost as fat between the DEXA and bioimpedance methods.
Although percentage body fat measured by use of a portable bioimpedance monitor correlated well with values determined via DEXA, the imprecision and inaccuracy in dogs with high percentage body fat could make the monitor inappropriate for clinical practice.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2010; 71(4):393-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.
The British journal of nutrition 04/2010; 103(8):1083-93. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is now a major disease of dogs, predisposing to numerous disorders including diabetes mellitus. Adipocytes are active endocrine cells, and human obesity is characterized by derangements in inflammatory adipokine production. However, it is unclear as to whether similar changes occur in dogs. The purpose of the current study was to assess insulin sensitivity and inflammatory adipokine profiles in dogs with naturally occurring obesity and to investigate the effect of subsequent weight loss. Twenty-six overweight dogs were studied, representing a range of breeds and both sexes. All dogs underwent a weight loss program involving diet and exercise. Body fat mass was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, and a panel of inflammatory adipokines (including acute-phase proteins, cytokines, and chemokines) were also analyzed. Body fat mass before weight loss was positively correlated with both plasma insulin concentrations (Kendall tau=0.30, P=0.044) and insulin:glucose ratio (Kendall tau=0.36, P=0.022), and both decreased after weight loss (P=0.0037 and 0.0063, respectively). Weight loss also led to notable decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein concentrations (P<0.05 for all), suggesting improvement of a subclinical inflammatory state associated with obesity. This study has demonstrated that in obese dogs, insulin resistance correlates with degree of adiposity, and weight loss improves insulin sensitivity. Concurrent decreases in TNF-alpha and adipose tissue mass suggest that in dogs, as in humans, this adipokine may be implicated in the insulin resistance of obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior to starting a weight loss programme, target weight (TW) is often estimated, using starting body condition score (BCS). The current study assessed how well such estimates perform in clinical practice. Information on body weight, BCS and body composition was assessed before and after weight loss in 28 obese, client-owned dogs. Median decrease in starting weight per BCS unit was 10% (5-15%), with no significant difference between dogs losing moderate (1-2 BCS points) or marked (3-4 BCS points) amounts of weight (P=0.627). Mean decrease in body fat per BCS unit change was 5% (3-9%). A model based on a change of 10% of starting weight per unit of BCS above ideal (5/9) most closely estimated actual TW, but marked variability was seen. Therefore, although such calculations may provide a guide to final TW in obese dogs, they can either over- or under-estimate the appropriate end point of weight loss.
Research in Veterinary Science 04/2009; 87(2):249-54. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A newly-formulated, high protein high fibre (HPHF) diet has recently been shown to improve satiety in dogs. The current study examined its performance during weight loss in client-owned dogs with naturally-occurring obesity. Fifteen dogs were fed the HPHF diet, whilst a matched 'control' group of 27 dogs, received a high protein medium fibre diet (HPMF), with an equivalent caloric density. Baseline characteristics (signalment, percentage overweight, and body fat percentage) were not significantly different between groups. However, percentage weight loss was greater (median [range] 31.8% [12.0-41.2%] vs. 20.0% [5.9-45.0%], P=0.016) and mean rate of weight loss faster (median [range] 1.0%/week [0.3-1.6%] vs. 0.7%/week [0.3-1.5%], P=0.028) on HPHF compared with HPMF. Percentage body fat mass decrease (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was also greater in dogs fed the HPHF diet (median (range] 58% [32-85%) vs. 37% [15-72%), P=0.002). Thus, a diet formulated to include high levels of both protein and fibre, improves outcome during weight loss in obese dogs.
The Veterinary Journal 02/2009; 183(3):294-7. · 2.42 Impact Factor