[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance: Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a neuropathological hallmark of PD. We investigated whether the presence or absence of LBs correlates with different clinical features in LRRK2-related PD. Observations: We describe genetic, clinical, and neuropathological findings of 37 cases of LRRK2-related PD including 33 published and 4 unpublished cases through October 2013. Among the different mutations, the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation was most frequently associated with LB pathology. Nonmotor features of cognitive impairment/dementia, anxiety, and orthostatic hypotension were correlated with the presence of LBs. In contrast, a primarily motor phenotype was associated with a lack of LBs. Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinicopathological correlations in a series of LRRK2-related PD cases. Findings from this selected group of patients with PD demonstrated that parkinsonian motor features can occur in the absence of LBs. However, LB pathology in LRRK2-related PD may be a marker for a broader parkinsonian symptom complex including cognitive impairment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), and sequence variations at the LRRK2 locus are associated with increased risk for sporadic PD. LRRK2 contains both GTPase and kinase domains flanked by protein interaction motifs, and mutations associated with familial PD have been described for both catalytic domains. LRRK2 has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, and recent evidence pinpoints to an important role for LRRK2 in modulating a variety of intracellular membrane trafficking pathways. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, by studying the classical, well-understood, degradative trafficking pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we show that LRRK2 regulates endocytic membrane trafficking in a Rab7-dependent manner. Mutant LRRK2 expression causes a slight delay in early-to-late endosomal trafficking, and a pronounced delay in trafficking out of late endosomes, which become aberrantly elongated into tubules. This is accompanied by a delay in EGFR degradation. The LRRK2-mediated deficits in EGFR trafficking and degradation can be reverted upon coexpression of active Rab7 and of a series of proteins involved in bridging the EGFR to Rab7 on late endosomes. Effector pull-down assays indicate that pathogenic LRRK2 decreases Rab7 activity both in cells overexpressing LRRK2, as well as in fibroblasts from pathogenic mutant LRRK2 PD patients as compared to healthy controls. Together, these findings provide novel insights into a previously unknown regulation of Rab7 activity by mutant LRRK2 which impairs membrane trafficking at very late stages of the endocytic pathway.
Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
The morphology and distribution of local-circuit neurons (interneurons) were examined, by calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin immunocytochemistry, in the frontal cortex (area 8) in two patients with frontal lobe dementia of non-Alzheimer type associated with classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and in seven normal cases. The density of calbindin D-28k immunoreactive cells was dramatically reduced in ALS patients, but the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons was preserved. Decreased density of calbindin D-28k-immunoreactive neurons, which are mainly located in the upper cortical layers, may interfere with the normal processing of cortico-cortical connections, whereas integrity of parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells may be associated with the preservation of the major inhibitory intracortical circuits in patients with frontal lobe dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell death is an integral part of cell turnover in many tissues, and proper corpse clearance is vital to maintaining tissue homeostasis in all multicellular organisms. Even in tissues with high cellular turnover, apoptotic cells are rarely seen because of efficient clearance mechanisms in healthy individuals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, two parallel and partly redundant conserved pathways act in cell corpse engulfment. The pathway for cytoskeletal rearrangement requires the small GTPase CED-10 Rac1 acting for an efficient surround of the dead cell. The CED-10 Rac pathway is also required for the proper migration of the distal tip cells (DTCs) during the development of the C. elegans gonad. Parkin, the mammalian homolog of the C. elegans PDR-1, interacts with Rac1 in aged human brain and it is also implicated with actin dynamics and cytoskeletal rearrangements in Parkinsons's disease, suggesting that it might act on engulfment. Our genetic and biochemical studies indicate that PDR-1 inhibits apoptotic cell engulfment and DTC migration by ubiquitylating CED-10 for degradation.
Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1120. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of the nervous system characterized by axonopathy in spinal cords and/or cerebral demyelination, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in plasma and tissues. The disease is caused by malfunction of the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal transporter of VLCFA or VLCFA-CoA. In the mouse, ABCD1 loss causes late onset axonal degeneration in the spinal cord, associated with locomotor disability resembling the most common phenotype in patients, adrenomyeloneuropathy. We have formerly shown that an excess of the VLCFA C26:0 induces oxidative damage, which underlies the axonal degeneration exhibited by the Abcd1(-) mice. In the present study, we sought to investigate the noxious effects of C26:0 on mitochondria function. Our data indicate that in X-ALD patients' fibroblasts, excess of C26:0 generates mtDNA oxidation and specifically impairs oxidative phosphorylation triggering mitochondrial ROS production from electron transport chain complexes. This correlates with impaired Complex V phosphorylative activity, as visualized by high-resolution respirometry on spinal cord slices of Abcd1(-) mice. Further, we identified a marked oxidation of key OXPHOS system subunits in Abcd1(-) mouse spinal cords at presymptomatic stages. Altogether, our results illustrate some of the mechanistic intricacies by which the excess of a fatty acid targeted to peroxisomes, activates a deleterious process of oxidative damage to mitochondria, leading to a multifaceted dysfunction of this organelle. These findings may be of relevance for patient management while unveiling novel therapeutic targets for X-ALD.
Human Molecular Genetics 04/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The coexistence of different molecular types of classical protease-resistant prion protein in the same individual have been described, however, the simultaneous finding of these with the recently described protease-sensitive variant or variably protease-sensitive prionopathy has, to the best of our knowledge, not yet been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old Caucasian woman showed a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease clinical phenotype with reactive depression, followed by cognitive impairment, akinetic-rigid Parkinsonism with pseudobulbar syndrome and gait impairment with motor apraxia, visuospatial disorientation, and evident frontal dysfunction features such as grasping, palmomental reflex and brisk perioral reflexes. She died at age 77. Neuropathological findings showed: spongiform change in the patient's cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamus and molecular layer of the cerebellum with proteinase K-sensitive synaptic-like, dot-like or target-like prion protein deposition in the cortex, thalamus and striatum; proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the same regions; and elongated plaque-like proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Molecular analysis of prion protein after proteinase K digestion revealed decreased signal intensity in immunoblot, a ladder-like protein pattern, and a 71% reduction of PrPSc signal relative to non-digested material. Her cerebellum showed a 2A prion protein type largely resistant to proteinase K. Genotype of polymorphism at codon 129 was valine homozygous. CONCLUSION: Molecular typing of prion protein along with clinical and neuropathological data revealed, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of the coexistence of different protease-sensitive prion proteins in the same patient in a rare case that did not fulfill the current clinical diagnostic criteria for either probable or possible sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. This highlights the importance of molecular analyses of several brain regions in order to correctly diagnose rare and atypical prionopathies.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 10/2012; 6(1):348.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secretory sorting receptors carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and secretogranin III (SgIII) critically activate peptidic messengers and targeting them at the regulated secretory pathway. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the wide range of changes includes impaired function of key secretory peptidic cargos such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neuropeptides. Here, we analyzed CPE and SgIII in the cerebral cortex of AD patients and transgenic mice. In the normal human cortex, a preferential location in dendrites and perikarya was observed for CPE, whereas SgIII was mainly associated with axons and terminal-like buttons. Interestingly, SgIII and CPE were consistently detected in astroglial cell bodies and thin processes. In AD cortices, a strong wide accumulation of both sorting receptors was detected in dystrophic neurites surrounding amyloid plaques. Occasionally, increased levels of SgIII were also observed in plaque associate-reactive astrocytes. Of note, the main alterations detected for CPE and SgIII in AD patients were faithfully recapitulated by APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. These results implicate for the first time the sorting receptors for regulated secretion in amyloid β-associated neural degeneration. Because CPE and SgIII are essential in the process and targeting of neuropeptides and neurotrophins, their participation in the pathological progression of AD may be suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is a systemic disease with variegated non-motor deficits and neurological symptoms, including impaired olfaction, autonomic failure, cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms, in addition to the classical motor symptoms. Many non-motor symptoms appear before or in parallel with motor deficits and then worsen with disease progression. Although there is a relationship, albeit not causal, between motor symptoms and the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs) and neurites filled with abnormal α-synuclein, other neurological alterations are independent of the amount of α-synuclein inclusions in neurons and neurites, thereby indicating that different mechanisms probably converge in the degenerative process. This may apply to complex alterations interfering with olfactory and autonomic nervous systemfunctions, emotions, sleep regulation, and behavioral, cognitive and mental performance. Involvement of the cerebral cortex leading to impaired behavior and cognition is related to several convergent altered factors including: a. dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic cortical innervation; b. synapses; c. cortical metabolism; d. mitochondrial function and energy production; e. oxidative damage; f. transcription; g. protein expression; h. lipid composition; and i. ubiquitin–proteasome system and autophagy, among others. This complex situation indicates that multiple subcellular failure in selected cell populations is difficult to reconcilewith a reductionistic scenario of a single causative cascade of events leading to non-motor symptoms in PD. Furthermore, these alterationsmay appear at early stages of the disease and may precede the appearance of substantial irreversible cell loss by years. These observations have important implications in the design of therapeutic approaches geared to prevention and treatment of PD.
Neurobiology of Disease 06/2012; 46(3):508-26. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-synuclein is a key protein in Lewy body diseases (LBDs) and a major component of Lewy bodies and related aberrant cytoplasmic and neuritic inclusions. Regional differences in α-synuclein have been associated with selective neuronal vulnerability to Lewy pathology. Furthermore, phosphorylation at serine 129 (Ser129) and α-synuclein truncation have been considered crucial in the pathogenesis of Lewy inclusions. The present study shows consistent reduction in α-synuclein protein expression levels in the human substantia nigra and nucleus basalis of Meynert compared with other brain regions independently of age and pathology. Phosphorylated α-synuclein at Ser129 is naturally increased in these same regions, thus inversely related with the total amount of α-synuclein. In contrast, truncated α-synuclein is naturally observed in control and diseased brains and correlating with the total amount of α-synuclein. Several truncated variants have been identified where some of these variants are truncated at the C-terminal domain, whereas others are truncated at the N-terminal domain, and all are present in cases with and without Lewy pathology. Although accumulation of truncated α-synuclein variants and phosphorylated α-synuclein occurs in Lewy bodies, α-synuclein phosphorylation and truncation can be considered constitutive in control and diseased brains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In definite Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), morphological and immunohistochemical patterns are useful to identify molecular subtypes. Severe cerebellar pathology and hippocampal involvement helps to identify VV subtypes. The rare VV1 variant (<1%), more frequent in young individuals, is additionally characterized by the presence of ballooned neurones in affected areas. In 1985, Cartier et al. described a family cluster of three individuals with an ataxic CJD form, showing, in addition to severe cerebellar and hippocampal involvement, the presence of frequent Hirano bodies (HB) in CA1 pyramidal neurones. HB are frequently found in aged individuals with Alzheimer pathology although they are not a specific finding.
In this study, we evaluated the presence of HB in hippocampi of 54 genetically and molecularly characterized CJD cases, aiming to elucidate whether additional morphological features could be helpful to point to molecular subtypes.
We identified nine cases (four VV1, one out of three MV2K, three out of six MV2K+2C and one MV carrying a 96-base pair insertion) with abundant, partly bizarre and clustered HB in CA1 sector, not observed in other subtypes. The presence of HB was independent of hippocampal involvement by the disease itself.
Clusters of abundant HB might be found in rare CJD subtypes such as VV1, MV2K/MV2K+2C and some genetic cases. In addition to histopathological and PrP immunohistochemical deposition patterns, their presence might be a useful additional morphologic feature that could point to the molecular subtype, especially when genetic and/or Western blot analyses are not available.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 07/2011; 38(2):153-61. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-Hu antibodies are usually present in patients with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuropathy (PEM/SN), and anti-Hu IgG is found in the nucleus of neurons in the autopsy of these patients. To investigate the clinical effect and distribution of anti-Hu IgG in the nervous system in an experimental animal model, we injected intraperitoneally anti-Hu IgG from five patients with PEM/SN to mice daily for 1 or 2 weeks. The IgG distribution in the nervous system was analyzed by an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique in animals sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. In one group of mice the nervous system was fixed by perfusion and in another (autopsy group) by immersion after keeping the dead animal 16 h at 4°C. None of the mice showed clinical or pathological abnormalities. IgG immunoreactivity was similar in the nervous system of mice injected with anti-Hu or control IgG. In the perfusion-fixed mice, IgG was present in leptomeninges, choroid plexus and extracellular space of Gasserian and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the autopsy group, there was IgG immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of neurons of many areas of the brain and in more than 90% of neurons of DRG. Neuronal nuclear IgG deposits were only rarely observed. We conclude that anti-Hu antibodies alone probably are not responsible for the PEM/SN syndrome. IgG diffusion into the cytoplasm of neurons is a post-mortem artifact, but this model did not reproduce the predominant nuclear IgG staining observed in autopsies from PEM/SN patients.
European Journal of Neurology 01/2011; 3(4):319 - 323. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of rare fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) represents the most common form of TSE and can be classified into sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic and variant forms. Genetic cases are related to prion protein gene mutations but they only account for 10-20% of cases. Here we report an apparently sporadic CJD case with negative family history carrying a mutation at codon 178 of prion protein gene. This mutation is a de novo mutation as the parents of the case do not show it. Furthermore the presence of three different alleles (wild type 129M-178D and 129V-178D and mutated 129V-178N), confirmed by different methods, indicates that this de novo mutation is a post-zygotic mutation that produces somatic mosaicism. The proportion of mutated cells in peripheral blood cells and in brain tissue was similar and was estimated at approximately 97%, suggesting that the mutation occurred at an early stage of embryogenesis. Neuropathological examination disclosed spongiform change mainly involving the caudate and putamen, and the cerebral cortex, together with proteinase K-resistant PrP globular deposits in the cerebrum and cerebellum. PrP typing was characterized by a lower band of 21 kDa. This is the first case of mosaicism described in prion diseases and illustrates a potential etiology for apparently sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. In light of this case, genetic counseling for inherited and sporadic forms of transmissible encephalopathies should take into account this possibility for genetic screening procedures.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 10/2010; 153B(7):1283-91. · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in humans included in the group of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies or prion diseases. The vast majority of sCJD cases are molecularly classified according to the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) conformations along with polymorphism of codon 129 of the PRNP gene. Recently, a novel human disease, termed "protease-sensitive prionopathy", has been described. This disease shows a distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotype and it is associated to an abnormal prion protein more sensitive to protease digestion.
We report the case of a 75-year-old-man who developed a clinical course and presented pathologic lesions compatible with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and biochemical findings reminiscent of "protease-sensitive prionopathy". Neuropathological examinations revealed spongiform change mainly affecting the cerebral cortex, putamen/globus pallidus and thalamus, accompanied by mild astrocytosis and microgliosis, with slight involvement of the cerebellum. Confluent vacuoles were absent. Diffuse synaptic PrP deposits in these regions were largely removed following proteinase treatment. PrP deposition, as revealed with 3F4 and 1E4 antibodies, was markedly sensitive to pre-treatment with proteinase K. Molecular analysis of PrPSc showed an abnormal prion protein more sensitive to proteinase K digestion, with a five-band pattern of 28, 24, 21, 19, and 16 kDa, and three aglycosylated isoforms of 19, 16 and 6 kDa. This PrPSc was estimated to be 80% susceptible to digestion while the pathogenic prion protein associated with classical forms of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were only 2% (type VV2) and 23% (type MM1) susceptible. No mutations in the PRNP gene were found and genotype for codon 129 was heterozygous methionine/valine.
A novel form of human disease with abnormal prion protein sensitive to protease and MV at codon 129 was described. Although clinical signs were compatible with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the molecular subtype with the abnormal prion protein isoforms showing enhanced protease sensitivity was reminiscent of the "protease-sensitive prionopathy". It remains to be established whether the differences found between the latter and this case are due to the polymorphism at codon 129. Different degrees of proteinase K susceptibility were easily determined with the chemical polymer detection system which could help to detect proteinase-susceptible pathologic prion protein in diseases other than the classical ones.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontal cortex samples from frozen human brains were used to assess tissue respiration; content of mitochondria; mitochondrial oxygen uptake; activity of respiratory complexes and of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS); content of cytochromes a, b, and c; oxidative damage (protein carbonyls and TBARS); and expression of Mn-SOD in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in comparison with those of normal healthy controls. Brain cortex and mitochondrial O(2) uptake and complex I activity were significantly lower in PD and DLB, whereas mtNOS activity, cytochrome content, expression of Mn-SOD, mitochondrial mass, and oxidative damage were significantly higher in the frontal cortex in PD and DLB. The decreases in tissue and mitochondrial O(2) uptake and in complex I activity are considered the consequences of mitochondrial oxidative damage. The increases in mtNOS activity and in mitochondrial mass are interpreted as an adaptive response of the frontal cortex that involves increased NO signaling for mitochondrial biogenesis. The adaptive response would partially compensate for mitochondrial dysfunction in these neurodegenerative diseases and would afford a human evolutionary response to shortage of ATP in the frontal cortex.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2009; 46(12):1574-80. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myotilinopathies are a group of muscle disorders caused by mutations in the MYOT gene. It was first described in two families suffering from limb girdle muscle dystrophy type 1 (LGMD 1A), and later identified in a subset of dominant or sporadic patients suffering from myofibrillar myopathy, as well as in a family with spheroid body myopathy. Disease phenotypes associated with MYOT mutations are clinically heterogeneous and include pure LGMD forms as well as late-onset distal myopathies. We report here on a 53-year-old male suffering from a unique clinical profile characterized by generalized symmetrical increase in muscle bulk leading to a Herculean appearance. Muscle weakness and stiffness in the lower extremities were the patient's main complaints. Muscle MRI showed extensive fatty infiltration in the thigh and leg muscles and a muscle biopsy showed a myofibrillar myopathy with prominent protein aggregates. Gene sequencing revealed a Ser55Phe missense mutation in the myotilin gene. The mutation was identified in his older brother, who presented a mild hypertrophic appearance and had a myopathic pattern in EMG, despite not presenting any of the complaints of the proband and having normal muscle strength. This finding, and his deceased father and paternal aunt's similar gait disorders, suggest that this is in fact a new autosomal dominant kindred. The present observations further expand the spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with mutations in the myotilin gene.