Harshpal Singh Sachdev

Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (36)470.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Child stunting (low height-for-age) is a marker of chronic undernutrition and predicts children's subsequent physical and cognitive development. Around one third of the world's stunted children live in India. Our study aims to assess the impact, cost-effectiveness, and scalability of a community intervention with a government-proposed community-based worker to improve growth in children under two in rural India. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial in two rural districts of Jharkhand and Odisha (eastern India). The intervention tested involves a community-based worker carrying out two activities: (a) one home visit to all pregnant women in the third trimester, followed by subsequent monthly home visits to all infants aged 0-24 months to support appropriate feeding, infection control, and care-giving; (b) a monthly women's group meeting using participatory learning and action to catalyse individual and community action for maternal and child health and nutrition. Both intervention and control clusters also receive an intervention to strengthen Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees. The unit of randomisation is a purposively selected cluster of approximately 1000 population. A total of 120 geographical clusters covering an estimated population of 121,531 were randomised to two trial arms: 60 clusters in the intervention arm receive home visits, group meetings, and support to Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees; 60 clusters in the control arm receive support to Committees only. The study participants are pregnant women identified in the third trimester of pregnancy and their children (n = 2520). Mothers and their children are followed up at seven time points: during pregnancy, within 72 hours of delivery, and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after birth. The trial's primary outcome is children's mean length-for-age Z scores at 18 months. Secondary outcomes include wasting and underweight at all time points, birth weight, growth velocity, feeding, infection control, and care-giving practices. Additional qualitative and quantitative data are collected for process and economic evaluations. This trial will contribute to evidence on effective strategies to improve children's growth in India. ISRCTN register 51505201 ; Clinical Trials Registry of India number 2014/06/004664.
    BMC Public Health 04/2015; 15(1):384. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1655-z · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes that was attributable to these four cardiometabolic risk factors for all countries and regions from 1980 to 2010. METHODS: We used data for exposure to risk factors by country, age group, and sex from pooled analyses of population-based health surveys. We obtained relative risks for the effects of risk factors on cause-specific mortality from meta-analyses of large prospective studies. We calculated the population attributable fractions for each risk factor alone, and for the combination of all risk factors, accounting for multicausality and for mediation of the effects of BMI by the other three risks. We calculated attributable deaths by multiplying the cause-specific population attributable fractions by the number of disease-specific deaths. We obtained cause-specific mortality from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 Study. We propagated the uncertainties of all the inputs to the final estimates. FINDINGS: In 2010, high blood pressure was the leading risk factor for deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes in every region, causing more than 40% of worldwide deaths from these diseases; high BMI and glucose were each responsible for about 15% of deaths, and high cholesterol for more than 10%. After accounting for multicausality, 63% (10·8 million deaths, 95% CI 10·1-11·5) of deaths from these diseases in 2010 were attributable to the combined effect of these four metabolic risk factors, compared with 67% (7·1 million deaths, 6·6-7·6) in 1980. The mortality burden of high BMI and glucose nearly doubled from 1980 to 2010. At the country level, age-standardised death rates from these diseases attributable to the combined effects of these four risk factors surpassed 925 deaths per 100 000 for men in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, but were less than 130 deaths per 100 000 for women and less than 200 for men in some high-income countries including Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, and Spain. INTERPRETATION: The salient features of the cardiometabolic disease and risk factor epidemic at the beginning of the 21st century are high blood pressure and an increasing effect of obesity and diabetes. The mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors has shifted from high-income to low-income and middle-income countries. Lowering cardiometabolic risks through dietary, behavioural, and pharmacological interventions should be a part of the global response to non-communicable diseases.
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    ABSTRACT: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y.OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood.DESIGN: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa.RESULTS: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from -0.6 (Brazil) to -2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3-0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: -0.3 (Brazil) to -1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater.CONCLUSIONS: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2014; 100(3). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.084368 · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • Harshpal Singh Sachdev
    International Journal of Epidemiology 06/2014; 43(3):653-4. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyu109 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. METHODS: We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We investigated body-mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose concentration, height, years of attained schooling, and related categorical indicators of adverse outcomes in young adults. With linear and logistic regression models, we assessed how these outcomes relate to birthweight and to statistically independent measures representing linear growth and weight gain independent of linear growth (relative weight gain) in three age periods: 0-2 years, 2 years to mid-childhood, and mid-childhood to adulthood. FINDINGS: We obtained data for 8362 participants who had at least one adult outcome of interest. A higher birthweight was consistently associated with an adult body-mass index of greater than 25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1·28, 95% CI 1·21-1·35) and a reduced likelihood of short adult stature (0·49, 0·44-0·54) and of not completing secondary school (0·82, 0·78-0·87). Faster linear growth was strongly associated with a reduced risk of short adult stature (age 2 years: 0·23, 0·20-0·52; mid-childhood: 0·39, 0·36-0·43) and of not completing secondary school (age 2 years: 0·74, 0·67-0·78; mid-childhood: 0·87, 0·83-0·92), but did raise the likelihood of overweight (age 2 years: 1·24, 1·17-1·31; mid-childhood: 1·12, 1·06-1·18) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·12, 1·06-1·19; mid-childhood: 1·07, 1·01-1·13). Faster relative weight gain was associated with an increased risk of adult overweight (age 2 years: 1·51, 1·43-1·60; mid-childhood: 1·76, 1·69-1·91) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·07, 1·01-1·13; mid-childhood: 1·22, 1·15-1·30). Linear growth and relative weight gain were not associated with dysglycaemia, but a higher birthweight was associated with decreased risk of the disorder (0·89, 0·81-0·98). INTERPRETATION: Interventions in countries of low and middle income to increase birthweight and linear growth during the first 2 years of life are likely to result in substantial gains in height and schooling and give some protection from adult chronic disease risk factors, with few adverse trade-offs. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    The Lancet 03/2013; 382(9891). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60103-8 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    Paul Garner, David Taylor-Robinson, Harshpal Singh Sachdev
    The Lancet 03/2013; 381(9876). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60600-5 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. RESULTS: Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. CONCLUSION: Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2013; 163(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.02.002 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Tarun Gera, Harshpal Singh Sachdev, Erick Boy
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    ABSTRACT: The utility of iron fortification of food to improve iron deficiency, anemia, and biological outcomes is not proven unequivocally. The objectives were to evaluate 1) the effect of iron fortification on hemoglobin and serum ferritin and the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia, 2) the possible predictors of a positive hemoglobin response, 3) the effect of iron fortification on zinc and iron status, and 4) the effect of iron-fortified foods on mental and motor development, anthropometric measures, and infections. Randomized and pseudorandomized controlled trials that included food fortification or biofortification with iron were included. Data from 60 trials showed that iron fortification of foods resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin (0.42 g/dL; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.56; P < 0.001) and serum ferritin (1.36 μg/L; 95% CI: 1.23, 1.52; P < 0.001), a reduced risk of anemia (RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.71; P < 0.001) and iron deficiency (RR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62; P < 0.001), improvement in other indicators of iron nutriture, and no effect on serum zinc concentrations, infections, physical growth, and mental and motor development. Significant heterogeneity was observed for most of the evaluated outcomes. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression for hemoglobin suggested a higher response with lower trial quality (suboptimal allocation concealment and blinding), use of condiments, and sodium iron edetate and a lower response when adults were included. Consumption of iron-fortified foods results in an improvement in hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and iron nutriture and a reduced risk of remaining anemic and iron deficient.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2012; 96(2):309-24. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.111.031500 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaques represent preclinical markers of atherosclerosis. We sought to describe predictors of CIMT and carotid plaques, including early life growth, in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In 2006-2009, we performed B-mode carotid ultrasound on 600 participants (mean [SD] age 36 [1.1] years; 45% women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort to evaluate CIMT and carotid plaques (>1mm). Height and weight were recorded at birth, 2 and 11years of age. Data on CVD risk factors, anthropometry, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected in 1998-2002. RESULTS: Mean (SD) CIMT for men and women was 0.91 (0.12) and 0.86 (0.13) mm, respectively. Carotid plaque was present in 33% of men and 26% of women. Waist circumference in 1998-2002 was positively associated with CIMT (β coefficient 0.26mm [0.17, 0.36] per SD) and carotid plaque (OR 1.27 [1.06,1.52] per SD) in 2006-2009. Higher triglycerides, PAI-1, insulin resistance, and diastolic blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, and lower HDL-cholesterol and physical activity predicted higher CIMT and/or plaque (p<0.05). Longer length at 2years was associated with higher CIMT (p<0.05). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for adult waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first prospective data from India showing that early life growth, adult socio-demographics, and CVD risk factors predict future CIMT and/or carotid plaque. These relationships appear primarily mediated through central adiposity, highlighting the importance of maintaining a healthy weight in early adulthood to prevent CVD.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2012; 167(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.03.180 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Anjana Gulani, Harshpal S Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: Otitis media (OM) is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent OM. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent OM in adults and children of different ages. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2012, Issue 1) which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Groups' Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1950 to February week 1, 2012) and EMBASE (1974 to February 2012). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing OM. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There was a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite OM during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of OM in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of OM (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse events but a small minority of children were reported to have vomited shortly after ingestion of the supplements. The trial evidence included is generally of good quality, with a low risk of bias. Evidence on whether zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence of OM in healthy children under the age of five years living in low- and middle-income countries is mixed. There is some evidence of benefit in children being treated for marasmus (severe malnutrition) but this is based on one small trial and should therefore be treated with caution.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 4(6):CD006639. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD006639.pub3 · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • Siddhartha Gogia, Harshpal S Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc deficiency is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Zinc is essential for the formation and migration of neurons along with the formation of neuronal synapses. Its deficiency could interfere with the formation of neural pathways and with neurotransmission, thus affecting behavior (for example, attention, activity, engagement, temperament) and development (for example, gross and fine motor skills, social skills). Zinc supplementation provided to infants and children is a possible strategy to improve the mental and motor development of infants and children at high risk of zinc deficiency. To assess the effects of zinc supplementation compared to placebo on measures of psychomotor development or cognitive function in children. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Latin American Database (LILACS) on 1 December 2011. We searched EMBASE and CENTRAL 2011 Issue 12 on 19 January 2012. We searched Dissertation Abstracts International and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials on 30 November 2011. Randomized or quasi-randomized placebo-controlled trials involving synthetic zinc supplementation provided to infants or children (less than five years of age) were eligible. Two review authors screened search results, selected studies, assessed the studies for their risk of bias and extracted data. We included 13 trials in this review.Eight studies reported data on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) in 2134 participants. We combined the data in a meta-analysis to assess the effect on development as measured by the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). There was no significant effect of zinc supplementation: the mean difference between the zinc supplementation and placebo groups on the MDI was -0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.06 to 1.06; P = 0.53; I(2) = 70%) and the mean difference between the groups for the PDI was 1.54 (95% CI -2.26 to 5.34; P = 0.43; I(2) = 93%). Most studies had low or unclear risk of bias but there was significant heterogeneity, which was not adequately explained by our subgroup analyses. The overall quality of evidence was considered 'moderate'.Two trials provided data on motor milestone attainment. There was no significant difference in the time to attainment of milestones between the placebo group and the zinc supplementation group in either of the studies.No study provided data on cognition score or intelligence quotient (IQ) or on adverse effects of zinc supplementation. There is no convincing evidence that zinc supplementation to infants or children results in improved motor or mental development.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 12(12):CD007991. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD007991.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations between birth weight (BW), infancy, and childhood weight gain and adult body composition. Subjects included participants of five birth cohort studies from low and middle income nations (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, and South Africa; n = 3432). We modeled adult body composition as a function of BW and conditional weight gain (CW), representing changes in weight trajectory relative to peers, in three age intervals (0-12 months, 12-24 months, 24 months-mid childhood). In 34 of 36 site- and sex-specific models, regression coefficients associated with BW and CWs were higher for adult fat-free than for fat mass. The strength of coefficients predicting fat-free mass relative to those predicting fat mass was greatest for BW, intermediate for CWs through 24 months, and weaker thereafter. However, because fat masses were smaller and showed larger variances than fat-free masses, weaker relationships with fat mass still yielded modest but significant increases in adult % body fat (PBF). CW at 12 months and mid-childhood tended to be the strongest predictors of PBF, whereas BW was generally the weakest predictor of PBF. For most early growth measures, a 1 SD change predicted less than a 1% change in adult body fat, suggesting that any health impacts of early growth on changes in adult body composition are likely to be small in these cohorts. BW and weight trajectories up to 24 months tend to be more strongly associated with adult fat-free mass than with fat mass, while weight trajectories in mid-childhood predict both fat mass and fat-free mass.
    American Journal of Human Biology 01/2012; 24(1):5-13. DOI:10.1002/ajhb.21227 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2011; 41(3):621-6. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyq251 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation can decrease the mortality and morbidity of low birthweight infants in low income countries. Randomised controlled trial. Large government hospital in New Delhi, India. 2079 low birthweight infants born at term (>37 weeks' gestation). Primary outcome was admission to hospital or death during the first six months of life. Main secondary outcome was growth. Weekly vitamin D supplements for six months at a dose of one recommended nutrient intake per day (35 µg/week). Infants were visited weekly at home for observed supplementation and were brought to the clinic monthly for clinical examination and anthropometric measurements. Between group differences were not significant for death or hospital admissions (92 among 1039 infants in the vitamin D group v 99 among 1040 infants in the placebo group; adjusted rate ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.29; P = 0.68), or referral to the outpatient clinic for moderate morbidity. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in better vitamin D status as assessed by plasma calcidiol levels at six months. In adjusted analyses, vitamin D treatment significantly increased standard deviation (z) scores at six months for weight, length, and arm circumference and decreased the proportion of children with stunted growth (length for age z score ≤ 2) or with arm circumference z scores of 2 or less. A weekly dose of vitamin D resulted in better vitamin D status and benefited the classic vitamin D function of bone growth but did not decrease the incidence of severe morbidity or death among young low birthweight infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415402.
    BMJ (online) 05/2011; 342:d2975. DOI:10.1136/bmj.d2975 · 16.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triglycerides is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is especially important in Indians because of high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors determine triglyceride levels. In a birth cohort from India, hypertriglyceridemia was found in 41% of men and 11% of women. Subjects who had high triglycerides had more rapid body mass index (BMI) or weight gain than rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence. We analysed polymorphisms in APOA5, hepatic lipase and PPARγ genes and investigated their association with birth weight and serial changes in BMI. Polymorphisms in APOA5 (-1131T > C, S19W), PPARγ (Pro12Ala) and hepatic lipase (-514C > T) were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction digestion in 1492 subjects from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC). We assessed whether these polymorphisms influence lipid and other variables and serial changes in BMI, both individually and together.The risk allele of APOA5 (-1131C) resulted in 23.6 mg/dl higher triglycerides as compared to normal allele (P < 0.001). Risk allele of HL (-514T) was associated with significantly higher HDL2 levels (P = 0.002). Except for the marginal association of PPARγ Pro12Ala variation with a lower conditional weight at 6 months, (P = 0.020) and APOA5 S19W with a higher conditional BMI at 11 yrs of age (P = 0.030), none of the other associations between the gene polymorphisms and serial changes in body mass index from birth to young adulthood were significant. The promoter polymorphism in APOA5 was associated with raised serum triglycerides and that of HL with raised HDL2 levels. None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 05/2011; 10:68. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-10-68 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2011; 57(17):1765-74. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.083 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weight gain and growth in early life may influence adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic cardiovascular risk factors. Follow-up of a birth cohort in New Delhi, India, whose weight and height were measured every 6 months until age 21 years. Body mass index (BMI) at birth, during infancy (2 years), childhood (11 years) and adulthood (26-32 years) and BMI gain between these ages were analysed in 886 men and 640 women with respect to adult fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations. All the pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic risk factors were higher in participants with higher adiposity. In women, BMI at birth and age 2 years was inversely related to fibrinogen (P = 0.002 and 0.05) and, after adjusting for adult adiposity, to hsCRP (P = 0.02 and 0.009). After adjusting for adult adiposity, BMI at 2 years was inversely related to hsCRP and PAI-1 concentrations (P < 0.001 and 0.02) in men. BMI gain between 2 and 11 years and/or 11 years to adulthood was positively associated with fibrinogen and hsCRP in women and with hsCRP and PAI-1 in men. Thinness at birth or during infancy, and accelerated BMI gain during childhood/adolescence are associated with a pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic state in adult life. An altered inflammatory state could be one link between small newborn/infant size and adult cardiovascular disease. Associations between pro-inflammatory markers and childhood/adolescent BMI gain are probably mediated through adult adiposity.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 02/2011; 40(1):102-11. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyq121 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI. We estimated trends and their uncertainties of mean BMI for adults 20 years and older in 199 countries and territories. We obtained data from published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiological studies (960 country-years and 9·1 million participants). For each sex, we used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean BMI by age, country, and year, accounting for whether a study was nationally representative. Between 1980 and 2008, mean BMI worldwide increased by 0·4 kg/m(2) per decade (95% uncertainty interval 0·2-0·6, posterior probability of being a true increase >0·999) for men and 0·5 kg/m(2) per decade (0·3-0·7, posterior probability >0·999) for women. National BMI change for women ranged from non-significant decreases in 19 countries to increases of more than 2·0 kg/m(2) per decade (posterior probabilities >0·99) in nine countries in Oceania. Male BMI increased in all but eight countries, by more than 2 kg/m(2) per decade in Nauru and Cook Islands (posterior probabilities >0·999). Male and female BMIs in 2008 were highest in some Oceania countries, reaching 33·9 kg/m(2) (32·8-35·0) for men and 35·0 kg/m(2) (33·6-36·3) for women in Nauru. Female BMI was lowest in Bangladesh (20·5 kg/m(2), 19·8-21·3) and male BMI in Democratic Republic of the Congo 19·9 kg/m(2) (18·2-21·5), with BMI less than 21·5 kg/m(2) for both sexes in a few countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and east, south, and southeast Asia. The USA had the highest BMI of high-income countries. In 2008, an estimated 1·46 billion adults (1·41-1·51 billion) worldwide had BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or greater, of these 205 million men (193-217 million) and 297 million women (280-315 million) were obese. Globally, mean BMI has increased since 1980. The trends since 1980, and mean population BMI in 2008, varied substantially between nations. Interventions and policies that can curb or reverse the increase, and mitigate the health effects of high BMI by targeting its metabolic mediators, are needed in most countries. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and WHO.
    The Lancet 02/2011; 377(9765):557-67. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and consequences of urbanisation and demographic transition. In 2005, India embarked on the National Rural Health Mission, an extraordinary effort to strengthen the health systems. However, coverage of priority interventions remains insufficient, and the content and quality of existing interventions are suboptimum. Substantial unmet need for contraception remains, adolescent pregnancies are common, and access to safe abortion is inadequate. Increases in the numbers of deliveries in institutions have not been matched by improvements in the quality of intrapartum and neonatal care. Infants and young children do not get the health care they need; access to effective treatment for neonatal illness, diarrhoea, and pneumonia shows little improvement; and the coverage of nutrition programmes is inadequate. Absence of well functioning health systems is indicated by the inadequacies related to planning, financing, human resources, infrastructure, supply systems, governance, information, and monitoring. We provide a case for transformation of health systems through effective stewardship, decentralised planning in districts, a reasoned approach to financing that affects demand for health care, a campaign to create awareness and change health and nutrition behaviour, and revision of programmes for child nutrition on the basis of evidence. This agenda needs political commitment of the highest order and the development of a people's movement.
    The Lancet 01/2011; 377(9762):332-49. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61492-4 · 39.21 Impact Factor