Harshpal Singh Sachdev

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

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Publications (28)398.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y.OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood.DESIGN: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa.RESULTS: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from -0.6 (Brazil) to -2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3-0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: -0.3 (Brazil) to -1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater.CONCLUSIONS: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2014; 100(3). · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fast weight gain and linear growth in children in low-income and middle-income countries are associated with enhanced survival and improved cognitive development, but might increase risk of obesity and related adult cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated how linear growth and relative weight gain during infancy and childhood are related to health and human capital outcomes in young adults. METHODS: We used data from five prospective birth cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We investigated body-mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose concentration, height, years of attained schooling, and related categorical indicators of adverse outcomes in young adults. With linear and logistic regression models, we assessed how these outcomes relate to birthweight and to statistically independent measures representing linear growth and weight gain independent of linear growth (relative weight gain) in three age periods: 0-2 years, 2 years to mid-childhood, and mid-childhood to adulthood. FINDINGS: We obtained data for 8362 participants who had at least one adult outcome of interest. A higher birthweight was consistently associated with an adult body-mass index of greater than 25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio 1·28, 95% CI 1·21-1·35) and a reduced likelihood of short adult stature (0·49, 0·44-0·54) and of not completing secondary school (0·82, 0·78-0·87). Faster linear growth was strongly associated with a reduced risk of short adult stature (age 2 years: 0·23, 0·20-0·52; mid-childhood: 0·39, 0·36-0·43) and of not completing secondary school (age 2 years: 0·74, 0·67-0·78; mid-childhood: 0·87, 0·83-0·92), but did raise the likelihood of overweight (age 2 years: 1·24, 1·17-1·31; mid-childhood: 1·12, 1·06-1·18) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·12, 1·06-1·19; mid-childhood: 1·07, 1·01-1·13). Faster relative weight gain was associated with an increased risk of adult overweight (age 2 years: 1·51, 1·43-1·60; mid-childhood: 1·76, 1·69-1·91) and elevated blood pressure (age 2 years: 1·07, 1·01-1·13; mid-childhood: 1·22, 1·15-1·30). Linear growth and relative weight gain were not associated with dysglycaemia, but a higher birthweight was associated with decreased risk of the disorder (0·89, 0·81-0·98). INTERPRETATION: Interventions in countries of low and middle income to increase birthweight and linear growth during the first 2 years of life are likely to result in substantial gains in height and schooling and give some protection from adult chronic disease risk factors, with few adverse trade-offs. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    The Lancet 03/2013; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    Paul Garner, David Taylor-Robinson, Harshpal Singh Sachdev
    The Lancet 03/2013; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estimated associations between maternal height and offspring growth using multivariate regression models adjusted for household income, child sex, birth order, and study site. RESULTS: Maternal height was associated with birth weight and with both height and conditional height at each age examined. The strongest associations with conditional heights were for adulthood and 2 years of age. A 1-cm increase in maternal height predicted a 0.024 (95% CI: 0.021-0.028) SD increase in offspring birth weight, a 0.037 (95% CI: 0.033-0.040) SD increase in conditional height at 2 years, a 0.025 (95% CI: 0.021-0.029 SD increase in conditional height in MC, and a 0.044 (95% CI: 0.040-0.048) SD increase in conditional height in adulthood. Short mothers (<150.1 cm) were more likely to have a child who was stunted at 2 years (prevalence ratio = 3.20 (95% CI: 2.80-3.60) and as an adult (prevalence ratio = 4.74, (95% CI: 4.13-5.44). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by site or sex. CONCLUSION: Maternal height influences offspring linear growth over the growing period. These influences likely include genetic and non-genetic factors, including nutrition-related intergenerational influences on growth that prevent the attainment of genetic height potential in low- and middle-income countries.
    The Journal of pediatrics 03/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid plaques represent preclinical markers of atherosclerosis. We sought to describe predictors of CIMT and carotid plaques, including early life growth, in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In 2006-2009, we performed B-mode carotid ultrasound on 600 participants (mean [SD] age 36 [1.1] years; 45% women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort to evaluate CIMT and carotid plaques (>1mm). Height and weight were recorded at birth, 2 and 11years of age. Data on CVD risk factors, anthropometry, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected in 1998-2002. RESULTS: Mean (SD) CIMT for men and women was 0.91 (0.12) and 0.86 (0.13) mm, respectively. Carotid plaque was present in 33% of men and 26% of women. Waist circumference in 1998-2002 was positively associated with CIMT (β coefficient 0.26mm [0.17, 0.36] per SD) and carotid plaque (OR 1.27 [1.06,1.52] per SD) in 2006-2009. Higher triglycerides, PAI-1, insulin resistance, and diastolic blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, and lower HDL-cholesterol and physical activity predicted higher CIMT and/or plaque (p<0.05). Longer length at 2years was associated with higher CIMT (p<0.05). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for adult waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first prospective data from India showing that early life growth, adult socio-demographics, and CVD risk factors predict future CIMT and/or carotid plaque. These relationships appear primarily mediated through central adiposity, highlighting the importance of maintaining a healthy weight in early adulthood to prevent CVD.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2012; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Siddhartha Gogia, Harshpal S Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc deficiency is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Zinc is essential for the formation and migration of neurons along with the formation of neuronal synapses. Its deficiency could interfere with the formation of neural pathways and with neurotransmission, thus affecting behavior (for example, attention, activity, engagement, temperament) and development (for example, gross and fine motor skills, social skills). Zinc supplementation provided to infants and children is a possible strategy to improve the mental and motor development of infants and children at high risk of zinc deficiency. To assess the effects of zinc supplementation compared to placebo on measures of psychomotor development or cognitive function in children. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Latin American Database (LILACS) on 1 December 2011. We searched EMBASE and CENTRAL 2011 Issue 12 on 19 January 2012. We searched Dissertation Abstracts International and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials on 30 November 2011. Randomized or quasi-randomized placebo-controlled trials involving synthetic zinc supplementation provided to infants or children (less than five years of age) were eligible. Two review authors screened search results, selected studies, assessed the studies for their risk of bias and extracted data. We included 13 trials in this review.Eight studies reported data on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) in 2134 participants. We combined the data in a meta-analysis to assess the effect on development as measured by the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). There was no significant effect of zinc supplementation: the mean difference between the zinc supplementation and placebo groups on the MDI was -0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.06 to 1.06; P = 0.53; I(2) = 70%) and the mean difference between the groups for the PDI was 1.54 (95% CI -2.26 to 5.34; P = 0.43; I(2) = 93%). Most studies had low or unclear risk of bias but there was significant heterogeneity, which was not adequately explained by our subgroup analyses. The overall quality of evidence was considered 'moderate'.Two trials provided data on motor milestone attainment. There was no significant difference in the time to attainment of milestones between the placebo group and the zinc supplementation group in either of the studies.No study provided data on cognition score or intelligence quotient (IQ) or on adverse effects of zinc supplementation. There is no convincing evidence that zinc supplementation to infants or children results in improved motor or mental development.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 12:CD007991. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations between birth weight (BW), infancy, and childhood weight gain and adult body composition. Subjects included participants of five birth cohort studies from low and middle income nations (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, and South Africa; n = 3432). We modeled adult body composition as a function of BW and conditional weight gain (CW), representing changes in weight trajectory relative to peers, in three age intervals (0-12 months, 12-24 months, 24 months-mid childhood). In 34 of 36 site- and sex-specific models, regression coefficients associated with BW and CWs were higher for adult fat-free than for fat mass. The strength of coefficients predicting fat-free mass relative to those predicting fat mass was greatest for BW, intermediate for CWs through 24 months, and weaker thereafter. However, because fat masses were smaller and showed larger variances than fat-free masses, weaker relationships with fat mass still yielded modest but significant increases in adult % body fat (PBF). CW at 12 months and mid-childhood tended to be the strongest predictors of PBF, whereas BW was generally the weakest predictor of PBF. For most early growth measures, a 1 SD change predicted less than a 1% change in adult body fat, suggesting that any health impacts of early growth on changes in adult body composition are likely to be small in these cohorts. BW and weight trajectories up to 24 months tend to be more strongly associated with adult fat-free mass than with fat mass, while weight trajectories in mid-childhood predict both fat mass and fat-free mass.
    American Journal of Human Biology 11/2011; 24(1):5-13. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2011; 41(3):621-6. · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation can decrease the mortality and morbidity of low birthweight infants in low income countries. Randomised controlled trial. Large government hospital in New Delhi, India. 2079 low birthweight infants born at term (>37 weeks' gestation). Primary outcome was admission to hospital or death during the first six months of life. Main secondary outcome was growth. Weekly vitamin D supplements for six months at a dose of one recommended nutrient intake per day (35 µg/week). Infants were visited weekly at home for observed supplementation and were brought to the clinic monthly for clinical examination and anthropometric measurements. Between group differences were not significant for death or hospital admissions (92 among 1039 infants in the vitamin D group v 99 among 1040 infants in the placebo group; adjusted rate ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.29; P = 0.68), or referral to the outpatient clinic for moderate morbidity. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in better vitamin D status as assessed by plasma calcidiol levels at six months. In adjusted analyses, vitamin D treatment significantly increased standard deviation (z) scores at six months for weight, length, and arm circumference and decreased the proportion of children with stunted growth (length for age z score ≤ 2) or with arm circumference z scores of 2 or less. A weekly dose of vitamin D resulted in better vitamin D status and benefited the classic vitamin D function of bone growth but did not decrease the incidence of severe morbidity or death among young low birthweight infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415402.
    BMJ (online) 05/2011; 342:d2975. · 16.38 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2011; 57(17):1765-74. · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weight gain and growth in early life may influence adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic cardiovascular risk factors. Follow-up of a birth cohort in New Delhi, India, whose weight and height were measured every 6 months until age 21 years. Body mass index (BMI) at birth, during infancy (2 years), childhood (11 years) and adulthood (26-32 years) and BMI gain between these ages were analysed in 886 men and 640 women with respect to adult fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations. All the pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic risk factors were higher in participants with higher adiposity. In women, BMI at birth and age 2 years was inversely related to fibrinogen (P = 0.002 and 0.05) and, after adjusting for adult adiposity, to hsCRP (P = 0.02 and 0.009). After adjusting for adult adiposity, BMI at 2 years was inversely related to hsCRP and PAI-1 concentrations (P < 0.001 and 0.02) in men. BMI gain between 2 and 11 years and/or 11 years to adulthood was positively associated with fibrinogen and hsCRP in women and with hsCRP and PAI-1 in men. Thinness at birth or during infancy, and accelerated BMI gain during childhood/adolescence are associated with a pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic state in adult life. An altered inflammatory state could be one link between small newborn/infant size and adult cardiovascular disease. Associations between pro-inflammatory markers and childhood/adolescent BMI gain are probably mediated through adult adiposity.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 02/2011; 40(1):102-11. · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    Siddhartha Gogia, Harshpal S Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin A deficiency is a significant public health problem in low and middle income countries. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provided to lactating postpartum mothers or to infants less than six months of age are two possible strategies to improve the nutrition of infants at high risk of vitamin A deficiency and thus potentially reduce their mortality and morbidity. To evaluate the effect of:1. VAS in postpartum breast feeding mothers in low and middle income countries, irrespective of antenatal VAS status, on mortality, morbidity and adverse effects in their infants up until the age of one year.2. VAS initiated in the first half of infancy (< 6 months of age) in low and middle income countries, irrespective of maternal antenatal or postnatal VAS status, on mortality, morbidity and adverse effects up until the age of one year. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), EMBASE, MEDLINE, clinical trials websites, conference proceedings, donor agencies, 'experts' and researchers (up to October 15, 2010). Randomized or quasi-randomised, individually or cluster randomised, placebo controlled trials involving synthetic VAS provided to the postpartum mothers or their infants up to the age of six months were eligible. Two review authors assessed the studies for their risk of bias and collected data on outcomes. Of the 18 included studies, eight provided information on maternal VAS and 15 on infant VAS.For maternal VAS, there was no evidence of a reduced risk of mortality of their babies during infancy (96,203 participants, seven studies, high quality evidence; random-effects model RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.06, P = 0.9; test of heterogeneity I(2) = 0%, P = 0.9) or in the neonatal period (moderate quality evidence); nor of morbidities (very low quality evidence). For infant VAS, there was no evidence of a reduced risk of mortality during infancy (59,402 participants, nine studies, moderate quality evidence; random-effects model RR 0.97, 0.83 to 1.12, P = 0.65; test of heterogeneity I(2) = 49%, P = 0.05) or in the neonatal period, nor morbidities (low quality evidence), but an increased risk of bulging fontanelle (32,978 participants, 10 studies, low quality evidence; random-effects model RR 1.55, 1.05 to 2.28, P = 0.03; test of heterogeneity I(2) = 68%, P = 0.0009). There is no convincing evidence that either maternal postpartum or infant vitamin A supplementation results in a reduction in infant mortality or morbidity in low and middle income countries.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2011; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triglycerides is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is especially important in Indians because of high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors determine triglyceride levels. In a birth cohort from India, hypertriglyceridemia was found in 41% of men and 11% of women. Subjects who had high triglycerides had more rapid body mass index (BMI) or weight gain than rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence. We analysed polymorphisms in APOA5, hepatic lipase and PPARγ genes and investigated their association with birth weight and serial changes in BMI. Polymorphisms in APOA5 (-1131T > C, S19W), PPARγ (Pro12Ala) and hepatic lipase (-514C > T) were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction digestion in 1492 subjects from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC). We assessed whether these polymorphisms influence lipid and other variables and serial changes in BMI, both individually and together.The risk allele of APOA5 (-1131C) resulted in 23.6 mg/dl higher triglycerides as compared to normal allele (P < 0.001). Risk allele of HL (-514T) was associated with significantly higher HDL2 levels (P = 0.002). Except for the marginal association of PPARγ Pro12Ala variation with a lower conditional weight at 6 months, (P = 0.020) and APOA5 S19W with a higher conditional BMI at 11 yrs of age (P = 0.030), none of the other associations between the gene polymorphisms and serial changes in body mass index from birth to young adulthood were significant. The promoter polymorphism in APOA5 was associated with raised serum triglycerides and that of HL with raised HDL2 levels. None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2011; 10:68. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: India, with a population of more than 1 billion people, has many challenges in improving the health and nutrition of its citizens. Steady declines have been noted in fertility, maternal, infant and child mortalities, and the prevalence of severe manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, but the pace has been slow and falls short of national and Millennium Development Goal targets. The likely explanations include social inequities, disparities in health systems between and within states, and consequences of urbanisation and demographic transition. In 2005, India embarked on the National Rural Health Mission, an extraordinary effort to strengthen the health systems. However, coverage of priority interventions remains insufficient, and the content and quality of existing interventions are suboptimum. Substantial unmet need for contraception remains, adolescent pregnancies are common, and access to safe abortion is inadequate. Increases in the numbers of deliveries in institutions have not been matched by improvements in the quality of intrapartum and neonatal care. Infants and young children do not get the health care they need; access to effective treatment for neonatal illness, diarrhoea, and pneumonia shows little improvement; and the coverage of nutrition programmes is inadequate. Absence of well functioning health systems is indicated by the inadequacies related to planning, financing, human resources, infrastructure, supply systems, governance, information, and monitoring. We provide a case for transformation of health systems through effective stewardship, decentralised planning in districts, a reasoned approach to financing that affects demand for health care, a campaign to create awareness and change health and nutrition behaviour, and revision of programmes for child nutrition on the basis of evidence. This agenda needs political commitment of the highest order and the development of a people's movement.
    The Lancet 01/2011; 377(9762):332-49. · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Harshpal Singh Sachdev, Betty R Kirkwood, Christine Stabell Benn
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 11/2010; 88(11):875A-875B. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    Siddhartha Gogia, Harshpal S Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal postpartum vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides an opportunity to improve vitamin A nutriture of breast fed infants in developing countries and can possibly prevent infant mortality and morbidity attributable to vitamin A deficiency. To evaluate the effect of maternal postpartum VAS on infant mortality, morbidity and adverse effects. Systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. Electronic databases and abstracts and proceedings of micronutrient conferences. Randomized or quasi-randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the effect of postpartum, maternal synthetic VAS on mortality or morbidity within infancy (<1 year), or adverse effects. The seven included trials were from developing countries. There was no evidence of a reduced risk of mortality during infancy [relative risk (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.20, P = 0.438; I² = 0%, P = 0.940]. No variable emerged as a significant predictor of mortality but data for high-risk groups (high maternal night blindness prevalence and low birth weights) was restricted. Neonatal mortality data was available from a single study, (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.88-1.35; P = 0.422). In two trials, there was no evidence of a reduced risk of cause-specific mortality. In one trial, there was no evidence of a decrease in either diarrhoea or acute respiratory infection. No adverse effects were reported in the single relevant trial. There is no evidence of a mortality or morbidity benefit to the infant following postpartum maternal VAS. Only prevention of infant morbidity or mortality would be sufficient justification for initiating this intervention in public health programmes.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 10/2010; 39(5):1217-26. · 9.20 Impact Factor
  • Harshpal Singh Sachdev, Siddhartha Gogia
    International Journal of Epidemiology 10/2010; 39(5):1394-5. · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    Siddhartha Gogia, Harshpal Singh Sachdev
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether home visits for neonatal care by community health workers can reduce infant and neonatal deaths and stillbirths in resource-limited settings. We conducted a systematic review up to 2008 of controlled trials comparing various intervention packages, one of them being home visits for neonatal care by community health workers. We performed meta-analysis to calculate the pooled risk of outcomes. Five trials, all from south Asia, satisfied the inclusion criteria. The intervention packages included in them comprised antenatal home visits (all trials), home visits during the neonatal period (all trials), home-based treatment for illness (3 trials) and community mobilization efforts (4 trials). Meta-analysis showed a reduced risk of neonatal death (relative risk, RR: 0.62; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.44-0.87) and stillbirth (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65-0.89), and a significant improvement in antenatal and neonatal practice indicators (> 1 antenatal check-up, 2 doses of maternal tetanus toxoid, clean umbilical cord care, early breastfeeding and delayed bathing). Only one trial recorded infant deaths (RR: 0.41; 0.30-0.57). Subgroup analyses suggested a greater survival benefit when home visit coverage was ≥ 50% (P < 0.001) and when both preventive and curative interventions (injectable antibiotics) were conducted (P = 0.088). Home visits for antenatal and neonatal care, together with community mobilization activities, are associated with reduced neonatal mortality and stillbirths in southern Asian settings with high neonatal mortality and poor access to facility-based health care.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 09/2010; 88(9):658-666B. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although multiple micronutrient interventions have been shown to benefit children's intellectual development, a thorough evaluation of the totality of evidence is currently lacking to direct public health policy. This study aimed to systematically review the present literature and to quantify the effect of multiple micronutrients on cognitive performance in schoolchildren. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and local medical databases were searched for trials published from 1970 to 2008. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the effect of > or =3 micronutrients compared with placebo on cognition in healthy children aged 0-18 y were included following protocol. Data were extracted by 2 independent researchers. The cognitive tests used in the trials were grouped into several cognitive domains (eg, fluid and crystallized intelligence), and pooled effect size estimates were calculated per domain. Heterogeneity was explored through sensitivity and meta-regression techniques. Three trials were retrieved in children aged <5 y, and 17 trials were retrieved in children aged 5-16 y. For the older children, pooled random-effect estimates for intervention were 0.14 SD (95% CI: -0.02, 0.29; P = 0.083) for fluid intelligence and -0.03 SD (95% CI: -0.21, 0.15; P = 0.74) for crystallized intelligence, both of which were based on 12 trials. Four trials yielded an overall effect of 0.30 SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.58; P = 0.044) for academic performance. For other cognitive domains, no significant effects were found. Multiple micronutrient supplementation may be associated with a marginal increase in fluid intelligence and academic performance in healthy schoolchildren but not with crystallized intelligence. More research is required, however, before public health recommendations can be given.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2009; 91(1):115-30. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth failure is cumulative, and short stature is associated with multiple indices of reduced human capital. Few studies have been able to address in a single analysis both consideration of the timing of growth failure and comparison across populations. We analyzed data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa (n = 4,659). We used data on length at birth (available for three of the five cohorts), 12 mo, 24 mo, and mid-childhood to construct cohort- and sex- specific conditional length measures. We modeled adult height as a function of conditional length in childhood. The five cohorts experienced varying degrees of growth failure. As adults, the Brazil sample was 0.35 +/- 0.89 standard deviations (SD) below the World Health Organization reference, while adult Guatemalans were 1.91 +/- 0.87 SD below the reference. All five cohorts experienced a nadir in height for age Z-score at 24 mo. Birth length (in the three cohorts with this variable), and conditional length at 12 mo (in all five cohorts) were the most strongly associated with adult height. Growth in the periods 12-24 mo and 24 mo to mid-childhood showed inconsistent patterns across tertiles of adult height. Despite variation in the magnitude of cumulative growth failure across cohorts, the five cohorts show highly consistent age-specific associations with adult stature. Growth failure prior to age 12 mo was most strongly associated with adult stature. These consistencies speak to the importance of interventions to address intrauterine growth failure and growth failure in the first 12 mo of life.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2009; 22(3):353-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
398.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Nutrition
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Emory University
      • Department of Global Health
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research
      New Dilli, NCT, India
    • University of Southampton
      • MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Anthropology
      Evanston, IL, United States
    • Centre for Chronic Disease Control
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2005
    • Sunder Lal Jain Hospital
      Old Delhi, NCT, India