[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study compared invasive (arterial blood gas analysis) and non-invasive (capnography and pulse oximetry) methods of monitoring respiratory function in conscious rabbits. Arterial samples from 50 healthy dwarf lop rabbits, presenting for routine surgical neutering, were analysed on a point-of-care blood gas analysis machine. Reference intervals were obtained for pH (7.35-7.54), PaCO2 (mm Hg) (25.29-40.37), PaO2 (mm Hg) (50.3-98.2), base excess (mmol/l) (6.7-6.5), HCO3 (mmol/l) (17.96-29.41), TCO2 (mmol/l) (18.9-30.5). SaO2 (per cent) (88.8-98.0), Na (mmol/l) (137.6-145.2), K (mmol/l) (3.28-4.87), iCal (mmol/l) (1.64-1.94), glucose (mmol/l) (6.23-10.53), haematocrit (per cent) (23.3-40.2) and haemoglobin (mg/dl) (7.91-13.63). Pulse oximetry (SPO2) and capnography (ETCO2) readings were taken concurrently. There was no statistically significant relationship between SPO2 and SaO2 with a mean difference between SPO2 and SaO2 of 8.22 per cent. There was a statistically significant relationship between ETCO2 vs PaCO2, but a wide range of ETCO2 values were observed for a given PaCO2. The mean difference between these was 16.16 mm Hg. The study has provided reference intervals for arterial blood gas analysis in rabbits and demonstrated that capnography and pulse oximetry readings should not be relied upon in conscious rabbits as a guide to ventilation and oxygenation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 12-week old, entire female Border terrier weighing 3·5 kg was presented for investigation of a continuous left heart base murmur. The clinical presentation and preoperative echocardiogram were consistent with a standard morphology of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but a discrete ductal vessel was not identified during surgical dissection. Surgery had to be abandoned due to deterioration of the patient's condition under general anaesthesia which led to cardiorespiratory arrest and death despite attempts at resuscitation. Necropsy identified a recess within the wall of the aorta communicating with the pulmonary artery via an ostium at the heart base which determined this structure as an intramural PDA. This morphology of PDA is previously unreported. This report demonstrates that an intramural PDA is not readily identifiable surgically because of the absence of a discrete ductal vessel and it is important to appreciate that unusual morphologies of PDA may occur.
Journal of Small Animal Practice 04/2012; 53(6):353-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.01197.x · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The demeanour of 122 dogs was assessed, and a mixture of 0.025 mg/kg acepromazine and 0.3 mg/kg morphine was injected intramuscularly into one of four randomly assigned muscle sites (cervical epaxial, triceps brachii, middle gluteal and quadriceps femoris) and the dogs' reactions to the injections were assessed. The development of sedation and the occurrence of side effects were assessed after 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and each dog's reaction to venous catheterisation was scored. All the dogs became similarly sedated after 30 minutes. The degree of sedation and the incidence of side effects were independent of the injection site, but the dogs receiving intragluteal injections had lower sedation scores after 10 minutes. The dogs' demeanour had no effect on their response to venous catheterisation. The dogs receiving an injection into the postural quadriceps and triceps muscles showed more marked reactions than those injected into the non-postural cervical epaxial and gluteal muscles.
The Veterinary record 04/2009; 164(11):323-6. DOI:10.1136/vr.164.11.323 · 1.49 Impact Factor