[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the leading causes for cardiac transplantations and accounts for up to one-third of all heart failure cases. Since extrinsic and monogenic causes explain only a fraction of all cases, common genetic variants are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of DCM, its age of onset, and clinical progression. By a large-scale case-control genome-wide association study we aimed here to identify novel genetic risk loci for DCM.
Applying a three-staged study design, we analysed more than 4100 DCM cases and 7600 controls. We identified and successfully replicated multiple single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 6p21. In the combined analysis, the most significant association signal was obtained for rs9262636 (P = 4.90 × 10(-9)) located in HCG22, which could again be replicated in an independent cohort. Taking advantage of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) as molecular phenotypes, we identified rs9262636 as an eQTL for several closely located genes encoding class I and class II major histocompatibility complex heavy chain receptors.
The present study reveals a novel genetic susceptibility locus that clearly underlines the role of genetically driven, inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of idiopathic DCM.
European Heart Journal 07/2013; · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection is associated with increasing mortality rate that may occur as part of a syndrome or as an isolated familial condition. Several genes have been implicated in causing TAAD, though an appropriate genetic test for their parallel testing is not yet available. Herein, we describe the novel 117-kb "MFSTAAD chip" that may help to understand the genetic basis of TAAD. A custom duplicate resequencing assay was developed to cover eight genes previously described in TAAD; FBN1, TGFBR1&2, COL3A1, MYH11, ACTA2, SLC2A10 and NOTCH1. GSEQ and SeqC software were used for data analysis. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was validated by the recognition of 182 known mutations (153 point mutations, 21 deletions, 7 insertions and 1 duplication) and a cohort of 28 patients were selected to determine the mutation yield, whereby 18 of them were previously negative for mutations in the genes FBN1 and TGFBR2. The assay had significantly higher sensitivity for point mutations (100%) and the largest deletion of 16 bp was detectable through a decline in the hybridization strength. The overall analytical sensitivity was 85%. Mutation testing of 28 unrelated TAAD patients revealed 4 known and 6 possibly pathogenic mutations with a mutation yield of 32%. The MFSTAAD chip is an alternative tool to next generation sequencing that allows parallel analysis of several genes on a single platform. Refinements in the probe design and data analysis software will increase the analytical sensitivity of insertions and deletions making this assay even more applicable for clinical testing.
Molecular and Cellular Probes 11/2012; · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDII) account for approximately 10% of all congenital heart defects (CHD) and are associated with a familial risk. Mutations in transcription factors represent a genetic source for ASDII. Yet, little is known about the role of mutations in sarcomeric genes in ASDII etiology. To assess the role of sarcomeric genes in patients with inherited ASDII, we analyzed 13 sarcomeric genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TCAP, TNNI3, MYH6, TPM1, MYL2, CSRP3, ACTC1, MYL3, TNNC1, and TTN kinase region) in 31 patients with familial ASDII using array-based resequencing. Genotyping of family relatives and control subjects as well as structural and homology analyses were used to evaluate the pathogenic impact of novel non-synonymous gene variants. Three novel missense mutations were found in the MYH6 gene encoding alpha-myosin heavy chain (R17H, C539R, and K543R). These mutations co-segregated with CHD in the families and were absent in 370 control alleles. Interestingly, all three MYH6 mutations are located in a highly conserved region of the alpha-myosin motor domain, which is involved in myosin-actin interaction. In addition, the cardiomyopathy related MYH6-A1004S and the MYBPC3-A833T mutations were also found in one and two unrelated subjects with ASDII, respectively. No mutations were found in the 11 other sarcomeric genes analyzed. The study indicates that sarcomeric gene mutations may represent a so far underestimated genetic source for familial recurrence of ASDII. In particular, perturbations in the MYH6 head domain seem to play a major role in the genetic origin of familial ASDII.
PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28872. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the implementation of current pharmacotherapy guidelines of heart failure and to identify factors associated with high pharmacotherapy guideline adherence in heart failure patients.
We pooled data from seven studies performed in the context of the German Competence Network Heart Failure selecting patients with chronic systolic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45% (n = 2,682). The quality of pharmacotherapy was evaluated by calculating the guideline adherence indicator (GAI), which considers three (GAI-3) or five (GAI-5) of the recommended heart failure substance classes and accounts for respective contraindications. GAI-3 was categorized as perfect (GAI = 100%: 71% of the cohort), medium (GAI = 50-99%: 22%), and poor adherence (GAI <50%: 7%). In ordinal regression, the following factors were positively associated with perfect adherence: history of revascularization (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.98), prior ICD implantation (2.29, 1.76-2.98), and LV ejection fraction <30% (1.45, 1.19-1.76), whereas age (per 10 years; 0.82, 0.77-0.89), NYHA III/IV (0.15, 0.12-0.18), unknown duration of heart failure (0.69, 0.53-0.89), and antidepressant medication (0.61, 0.42-0.88) were negatively associated with perfect adherence. Better GAI-3 at baseline predicted favorable changes of LV ejection fraction and end-diastolic diameter after 1 year. One-year mortality risk was closely related to GAI-3 in both groups of NYHA functional class I/II (excellent vs. poor GAI-3: 7.2 vs. 14.5%, log rank = 0.004) and class III/IV (13.5 vs. 21.5%, log rank = 0.005).
This large pooled analysis showed that a high level of guideline adherence is achievable in the context of clinical studies. Those receiving and tolerating optimal pharmacotherapy experience a better prognosis. Nevertheless, the implementation of heart failure medication needs further improvement in female and elderly patients, especially those in NYHA functional class >II and patients with LVEF ≥30%.
Clinical Research in Cardiology 12/2011; 101(4):263-72. · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines recommend screening all patients with cardiovascular disease by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Due to its time-consuming protocol, costs and overall inconvenience performance of OGTT is limited in cardiological routine. Thus, we aimed to identify easily available parameters that could help to reduce the numbers of OGTT needed.
OGTTs (n=1215) were performed in all patients without known type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that were submitted to the heart center Wuppertal with known or suspected coronary artery disease for an elective coronary angiography from January to October 2007.
31.4% had normal glucose tolerance; prediabetes was present in 50.7%, whereas 17.9% were newly diagnosed with T2DM. Thus, 998 OGTTs did not result in the new diagnosis of so far undiagnosed T2DM. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operated characteristic analyses demonstrated that fasting blood glucose (FBG)≥ 90 mg/dl and age ≥ 55 years were predictive for so far undiagnosed T2DM. Considering these two parameters 81.1% (=sensitivity) of so far undiagnosed T2DM patients would have been identified (specificity=63.4%) and the number of OGTTs could have been reduced from 1215 to 541.
About 70% of patients were newly diagnosed with impaired glucose metabolism. FBG ≥ 90 mg/dl and age ≥ 55 years were predictive for so far undiagnosed T2DM and OGTTs could be reduced by 55.5%. This should alleviate the implementation of the current guidelines in daily cardiological practice.
International journal of cardiology 07/2011; 150(2):201-5. · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can both be due to mutations in the genes encoding β-myosin heavy chain (MYH7) or cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and spectrum of mutations in both genes in German HCM and DCM patients and to establish novel genotype-to-phenotype correlations.
Coding exons and intron flanks of the two genes MYH7 and MYBPC3 of 236 patients with HCM and 652 patients with DCM were sequenced by conventional and array-based means. Clinical records were established following standard protocols. Mutations were detected in 41 and 11% of the patients with HCM and DCM, respectively. Differences were observed in the frequency of splice site and frame-shift mutations in the gene MYBPC3, which occurred more frequently (P< 0.02, P< 0.001, respectively) in HCM than in DCM, suggesting that cardiac myosin-binding protein C haploinsufficiency predisposes to hypertrophy rather than to dilation. Additional novel genotype-to-phenotype correlations were found in HCM, among these a link between MYBPC3 mutations and a particularly large thickness of the interventricular septum (P= 0.04 vs. carriers of a mutation in MYH7). Interestingly, this correlation and a link between MYH7 mutations and a higher degree of mitral valve regurgitation held true for both HCM and DCM, indicating that the gene affected by a mutation may determine the magnitude of structural and functional alterations in both HCM and DCM.
A large clinical-genetic study has unravelled novel genotype-to-phenotype correlations in HCM and DCM which warrant future investigation of both the underlying mechanisms and the prognostic use.
European Journal of Heart Failure 07/2011; 13(11):1185-92. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), a stress-responsive transforming growth factor-ß-related cytokine, is elevated and independently related to an adverse prognosis in systolic heart failure.
This study aimed to investigate plasma levels of GDF-15 in patients with preclinical diastolic dysfunction or heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF).
We evaluated 119 patients with normal ejection fraction referred for an elective coronary angiography, 75 (63%) of whom had coronary artery disease. Subjects were classified as having either mild left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD grade I, n = 61), HFnEF (LVDD grade II or III, n = 38) or normal diastolic function (controls, n = 20). In a subgroup of 20 subjects, changes in cardiac output (CO) were measured by inert gas rebreathing (InnocorTM) in response to an orthostatic hemodynamic test.
Growth differentiation factor-15 levels in HFnEF [median 1.08, interquartile range (0.88-1.30) ng/ml] were significantly higher than in controls [0.60 (0.50-0.71) ng/ml, p = 0.003] and in patients with LVDD grade I [0.78 (0.62-1.04) ng/ml, p < 0.001]. In addition, GDF-15 was significantly elevated in patients with LVDD grade I compared to controls (p = 0.003). Furthermore, GDF-15 was correlated with echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction and was correlated with the magnitude of CO response to the change in body position from standing to supine (r = -0.67, p = 0.005).
Growth differentiation factor-15 levels are elevated in subjects with HFnEF and can differentiate normal diastolic function from asymptomatic LVDD. In addition, GDF-15 is associated with a reduced cardiac output response in the orthostatic hemodynamic test.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 05/2011; 97(1):65-75. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association between LVDD, MetS and glucose metabolism disturbances classified by oral glucose tolerance testing (oGTT).
The presence of LVDD was evaluated in 166 subjects with normal ejection fraction, 43 (26%) of whom had type 2 diabetes at inclusion. In subjects without diabetes, an oGTT was performed. The MetS was diagnosed as indentified by the NCEPIII-criteria, while LVDD was verified and graded according to the current guidelines. MetS was diagnosed in 97 (59%) patients, 44% of whom had known diabetes. The prevalence of LVDD was 68% in subjects with MetS vs. 19% in patients without MetS, respectively (P < 0.001). A severe form of LVDD was observed in 34% and 15% of patients with and without MetS, respectively (P = 0.001), whereupon the prevalence of mild and severe diastolic dysfunction increased with the number of MetS criteria (P= 0.001). In the MetS group, early diastolic tissue relaxation velocity (E') was significantly reduced (6.9 +/- 1.8 cm/s vs. 7.7 +/- 2.1 cm/s; P= 0.009) and the E/E' ratio was significantly higher (10.5 +/- 3.9 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.0 cm/s, P = 0.015) as compared to the group without MetS (n = 69).
MetS was associated with a higher prevalence and severity of LVDD, whereupon coexisting diabetes aggravates these inding.Patients displaying MetS with concomitant LVDD might represent a target population in which appropriate medical care for early heart failure prevention should be initiated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, both diagnosed according to the current guidelines.
We evaluated 145 patients referred for an elective coronary angiography, 52 of whom had Type 2 diabetes and 48 had impaired glucose tolerance, while 45 subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed using autonomic function tests, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was verified by tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 (28.8%) patients with Type 2 diabetes and in six (12.5%) individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The rates of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were 81 and 33% in patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P < 0.001). In the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy group (n = 21), early diastolic relaxation velocity (Em) was significantly reduced (5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 7.3 ± 2.1 cm/s; P < 0.001) and the E/Em ratio was significantly higher (13.6 ± 4.6 vs. 10.3 ± 3.4 cm/s, P < 0.001) as compared with the group without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (n = 79). These findings remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, hypertension and HbA(1c) . A severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was observed in 33 and 15% of patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P = 0.001).
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with a higher prevalence and a more severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography. Because both cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, screening for patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance may identify those at high risk.
Diabetic Medicine 03/2011; 28(3):311-8. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-year-old boy, who underwent clinical evaluation due to the presence of a developmental disorder, revealed upon physical examination a loud systolic murmur, electrocardiography (ECG) signs of hypertrophy and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) massive hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Thus, the diagnosis of a severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was obvious. In the family history, a preexisting symptomatic HCM of the mother was known. The clinical examination of the complete family (father and two other brothers) was performed thereafter. The father did not show any signs of a cardiac disease, the 13-year-old asymptomatic brother showed signs of discrete hypertrophy of the left ventricle, whereas the 10-year-old brother was clinically and morphologically unaffected. The pedigree of the investigated family is depicted in Fig. 1. Because of the severe disease of unknown origin, the 2-year-old boy underwent genetic testing by conventional sequencing of the most frequently affected disease gene of HCM, MYBPC3 (encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C). Two mutations were found in the boy (II/3 in Fig. 1)
Clinical Research in Cardiology 03/2011; 100(7):627-8. · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). The 9p21.3 locus was verified by numerous replication studies to be the first common locus for CAD and MI. In the present study, we investigated whether six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs1333049, rs1333040, rs10757274, rs2383206, rs10757278, and rs2383207 representing the 9p21.3 locus were associated with the incidence of an acute MI in patients with the main focus on the familial aggregation of the disease.
The overall cohort consisted of 976 unrelated male patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with ST-elevated (STEMI) as well as non-ST-elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Genotyping data of the investigated SNPs were generated and statistically analyzed in comparison to previously published findings of matchable control cohorts.
Statistical evaluation confirmed a highly significant association of all analyzed SNP's with the occurrence of MI (p<0.0001; OR: 1.621-2.039). When only MI patients with a positive family disposition were comprised in the analysis a much stronger association of the accordant risk alleles with incident disease was found with odds ratios up to 2.769.
The findings in the present study confirmed a strong association of the 9p21.3 locus with MI particularly in patients with a positive family history thereby, emphasizing the pathogenic relevance of this locus as a common genetic cardiovascular risk factor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comorbidities negatively affect prognosis more strongly in heart failure with preserved (HFpEF) than with reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction. Their comparative impact on physical impairment in HFpEF and HFrEF has not been evaluated so far.
The frequency of 12 comorbidities and their impact on NYHA class and SF-36 physical functioning score (SF-36 PF) were evaluated in 1,294 patients with HFpEF and 2,785 with HFrEF. HFpEF patients had lower NYHA class (2.0 ± 0.6 vs. 2.4 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) and higher SF-36 PF score (54.4 ± 28.3 vs. 54.4 ± 27.7, p < 0.001). All comorbidities were significantly (p < 0.05) more frequent in HFrEF, except hypertension and obesity, which were more frequent in HFpEF (p < 0.001). Adjusting for age and gender, COPD, anemia, hyperuricemia, atrial fibrillation, renal dysfunction, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes had a similar (p for interaction > 0.05) negative effect in both groups. Obesity, coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial occlusive disease exerted a significantly (p < 0.05) more adverse effect in HFpEF, while hypertension and hyperlipidemia were associated with fewer (p < 0.05) symptoms in HFrEF only. The total impact of comorbidities on NYHA (AUC for prediction of NYHA III/IV vs. I/II) and SF-36 PF (r(2)) in multivariate analyses was approximately 1.5-fold higher in HFpEF, and also much stronger than the impact of a 10% decrease in ejection fraction in HFrEF or a 5 mm decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter in HFpEF.
The impact of comorbidities on physical impairment is higher in HFpEF than in HFrEF. This should be considered in the differential diagnosis and in the treatment of patients with HFpEF.
Clinical Research in Cardiology 03/2011; 100(9):755-64. · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim
Systolic chronic heart failure (CHF) is currently one of the most prevalent cardiac diseases. The present analysis sought to estimate the 1-year disease-related resource use and associated management costs of patients with CHF.
Subject and methods
A total of 2,710 individuals with systolic CHF [mean age 62.9 years ± 13.6, 25.2% female, New York Heart Association (NYHA) I–IV] were included from the German Competence Network Heart Failure. Disease-related resource use was assessed with regard to outpatient contacts with physicians, hospitalizations including rehabilitation stays and drug utilization.
During 1 year, patients had on average 6.1 contacts with their general practitioner, 1.7 contacts with cardiologists and 0.8 hospital stays per year. Overall disease-related health care costs per patient were calculated at 3,150 € per year. The largest component related to hospitalizations (2,328 €, 74%), while costs of rehabilitation (294 €, 9%), medication (290 €, 9%) and outpatient contacts (238 €, 8%) were considerably lower. Compared with 2,474 € in NYHA class I, there was a cost increase in NYHA II, III and IV of 14, 48 and 71%, respectively. About 76% of this cost increase resulted from augmented hospital (inpatient) resource use.
The present analysis demonstrates a high disease-related resource consumption of heart failure care. In particular, patients in higher NYHA classes require increased inpatient resources. Hence, improved treatment strategies need to be developed to optimize care thus reducing hospitalization rates.
Journal of Public Health 02/2011; 20(1). · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding smooth muscle cell alpha actin (ACTA2) have recently been shown to cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to type A dissections (TAAD) and predispose to premature stroke and coronary artery disease. In order to further explore the role of ACTA2 variations in the pathogenesis of TAAD, we sequenced the coding regions of this gene in 40 unrelated German patients with TAAD (with (n=21) or without (n=19) clinical features suggestive of Marfan syndrome). All patients had previously tested negative for mutations in the FBN1 and TGFBR2 genes. We identified three novel ACTA2 mutations and mapped them on a three-dimensional model of actin. Two mutations affect residues within (M49V) or adjacent to (R39C), the DNAse-I-binding loop within subdomain 2 of alpha actin. They were observed in families with recurrent aortic aneurysm (R39C) or aortic dissection (M49V). The third mutation causes an exchange in the vicinity of the ATP-binding site (G304R) in a patient thought to have isolated TAAD. None of the affected individuals had clinical features typical for Marfan syndrome, and no case of premature stroke or coronary artery disease was reported from the affected families. In conclusion, we underscore the role of ACTA2 mutations in nonsyndromic TAAD and suggest that ACTA2 should be included in the genes routinely investigated for syndromic and nonsyndromic TAAD. Detailed clinical investigations of additional families are warranted to further explore the full range of phenotypic signs associated with the three novel mutations described here.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2011; 19(5):520-4. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) and heart fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) are both markers of myocardial injury and predict adverse outcome in patients with systolic heart failure (SHF). We tested whether hsTnT and hFABP plasma levels are elevated in patients with heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF).
We analyzed hsTnT, hFABP and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide in 130 patients comprising 49 HFnEF patients, 51 patients with asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), and 30 controls with normal diastolic function. Patients were classified to have HFnEF when the diagnostic criteria as recommended by the European Society of Cardiology were met.
Levels of hs TnT and hFABP were significantly higher in patients with asymptomatic LVDD and HFnEF (both p < 0.001) compared to controls. The hsTnT levels were 5.6 [0.0-9.8] pg/ml in LVDD vs. 8.5 [3.9-17.5] pg/ml in HFnEF vs. <0.03 [< 0.03-6.4] pg/ml in controls; hFABP levels were 3029 [2533-3761] pg/ml in LVDD vs. 3669 [2918-4839] pg/ml in HFnEF vs. 2361 [1860-3081] pg/ml in controls. Furthermore, hsTnT and hFABP levels were higher in subjects with HFnEF compared to LVDD (p = 0.015 and p = 0.022).
In HFnEF patients, hsTnT and hFABP are elevated independent of coronary artery disease, suggesting that ongoing myocardial damage plays a critical role in the pathophysiology. A combination of biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might improve diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification of patients with HFnEF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with aortic stenosis (AS), increased afterload induces changes in left ventricular (LV) geometry to preserve a normal ejection fraction (EF). Nevertheless, myocardial dysfunction may occur in spite of a normal EF. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) analysis can detect subtle contractile dysfunction at a pre-clinical stage. The aim of our study was to assess LV function deteriorations with GLS analysis and the association with geometric changes in patients with AS and normal EF.
Forty four patients with moderate to severe AS and 40 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent echocardiography, including two-dimensional strain imaging. The relative wall thickness and LV muscle mass measurements were performed with magnetic resonance imaging and patients were subdivided into four groups: Group 1 with normal LV, Group 2 with concentric remodeling, Group 3 with eccentric hypertrophy, and Group 4 with concentric hypertrophy.
The total group of patients with AS showed a GLS of -15.3 ± 3.6% while the control group reached -18.9 ± 3.2% (p 〈 0.001). GLS was lower in the hypertrophy Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2 (12.9 ± 3.4% vs 17.2 ± 2.5%, p 〈 0.05, respectively). Splitting the patients into Groups 1 to 4, the GLS was -17.2 ± 2.4%, -17.2 ± 2.7%, -12.4 ± 3.8% and -13.1 ± 3.3, respectively (p = 0.002).
In subjects with AS, lower GLS is related to LV hypertrophy, but not to the presence of concentric remodeling. Assessment of GLS can identify subtle contractile dysfunction independent of a preserved EF, and might be useful in identifying patients at high risk for the transition from compensatory to pathological remodeling. (Cardiol J 2011; 18, 2: 151-156).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to replicate the association between the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6) Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455), and clinical coronary artery disease (CAD).
Recent prospective studies suggest that carriers of the 719Arg allele in KIF6 are at increased risk of clinical CAD compared with noncarriers.
The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) was genotyped in 19 case-control studies of nonfatal CAD either as part of a genome-wide association study or in a formal attempt to replicate the initial positive reports.
A total of 17,000 cases and 39,369 controls of European descent as well as a modest number of South Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, East Asians, and admixed cases and controls were successfully genotyped. None of the 19 studies demonstrated an increased risk of CAD in carriers of the 719Arg allele compared with noncarriers. Regression analyses and fixed-effects meta-analyses ruled out with high degree of confidence an increase of ≥2% in the risk of CAD among European 719Arg carriers. We also observed no increase in the risk of CAD among 719Arg carriers in the subset of Europeans with early-onset disease (younger than 50 years of age for men and younger than 60 years of age for women) compared with similarly aged controls as well as all non-European subgroups.
The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism was not associated with the risk of clinical CAD in this large replication study.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2010; 56(19):1552-63. · 15.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while insulin resistance (IR) is a precursor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and independently predicts heart failure (HF). We assessed whether IR and abnormalities of the glucose metabolism are related to LVDD.
We included 208 patients with normal ejection fraction, 57 (27%) of whom had T2DM before inclusion. In subjects without T2DM, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed. IR was assessed using the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). The lower limit of the top quartile of the HOMA-IR distribution (3.217) was chosen as threshold for IR. LVDD was verified according to current guidelines.
IR was diagnosed in 38 (18%) patients without a history of diabetes. The prevalence of LVDD was 92% in subjects with IR vs. 72% in patients without IR (n = 113), respectively (p = 0.013). In the IR group, the early diastolic mitral inflow velocity (E) in relation to the early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity (averaged from the septal and lateral mitral annulus, E'av) ratio (E/E'av) was significantly higher compared to those without IR (9.8 [8.3-11.5] vs. 8.1 [6.6-11.0], p = 0.011). This finding remains significant when patients with IR and concomitant T2DM based on oGTT results were excluded (E/E'av ratio 9.8 [8.2-11.1)] in IR vs. 7.9 [6.5-10.5] in those without both IR and T2DM, p = 0.014). There were significant differences among patients with and without LVDD regarding the HOMA-IR (1.71 [1.04-3.88] vs. 1.09 [0.43-2.2], p = 0.003). The HOMA-IR was independently associated with LVDD on multivariate logistic regression analysis, a 1-unit increase in HOMA-IR value was associated with an odds ratio for prevalent LVDD of 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.1, p = 0.001). Furthermore, the E/E'av ratio increases along the glucose metabolism status from normal glucose metabolism (7.6 [6.2-10.1]) to impaired glucose tolerance (8.8 [7.4-11.0]) and T2DM (10.5 [8.1-13.2]), respectively (p < 0.001).
Insulin resistance is independently associated with LVDD in subjects without overt T2DM. Patients with IR and glucose metabolism disorders might represent a target population to prevent the development of HF. Screening programs for glucose metabolism disturbances should address the assessment of diastolic function and probably IR.