[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plasma concentration of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) is a st-rong prognostic indicator for patients with heart failure (HF) across all stages of the condition. Several clinical trials have de-monstrated convincingly that neurohormonal modulation on the renin angiotensin system (RAS) decreases plasma NT-pro-BNP level and results in favorable outcomes. But there are still limited comparative data on the neuro-hormonal modulatory effects of two RAS inhibitors: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker.
This study was a prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label, controlled, and non-inferiority study involving 445 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 45%. Patients were assigned to receive either valsartan (target dose of 160 mg bid) or enalapril (target dose of 10 mg bid) for 12 months. We compared plasma NT-pro-BNP, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level and echocardiographic parameters before and after treatment with valsartan or enalapril.
The NT-pro-BNP and hs-CRP levels were significantly decreased after 12 months of treatment with valsartan and enalapril. The percentage change was similar between both groups. LVEF improved and left ventricular internal dimensions were decreased in both groups, and there were no significant differences between two groups.
Valsartan is as effective on improving plasma NT-pro-BNP level as enalapril in patients with stable chronic HF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony has been commonly detected among hypertensive patients with normal LV systolic function and no evidence of congestive heart failure. The purpose of our study was to assess the changes in LV systolic dyssynchrony (SDS(LV)) among hypertensive patients after antihypertensive treatment, and to determine the relationship between SDS(LV) and other conventional echocardiographic parameters.
Forty one hypertensive patients with normal LV ejection fraction were enrolled. By performing a conventional echocardiographic study, the SDS(LV) was measured as the time difference between the shortest and longest time of the peak myocardial systolic velocities among 12 segments of the basal and mid-levels of the 3 apical views, and radial dyssynchrony of the basal (RDS(base)) and mid-levels (RDS(mid)) measured as the time difference between the earliest and latest peak values on the radial strain curves of each level of the parasternal short-axis views.
Compared to baseline after six months of antihypertensive treatment, the SDS(LV) improved significantly (48.7±37.9 ms vs. 29.5±34.1 ms, p=0.020). Also the RDS(base) and RDS(mid) improved significantly in respect to the baseline values (129.9±136.3 ms vs. 38.8±45.4 ms, p=0.002 and 75.2±63.8 ms vs. 28.2±37.7 ms, respectively, p<0.001).
The severity of SDS(LV) improved with antihypertensive treatment, and was associated with the regression of LV mass. Furthermore, it might precede improvement in the mitral inflow pattern, as assessed by conventional echocardiography, so that early detection of the benefit of antihypertensive treatment may be possible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in cases of diastolic dysfunction that do not include overt symptoms of heart failure. We hypothesized that systolic or diastolic dyssynchrony involves unique features with respect to the degree of diastolic impairment in isolated diastolic dysfunction.
We examined 105 subjects with no history of overt symptoms of heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction > 50% for mechanical dyssynchrony using tissue Doppler imaging.
In terms of longitudinal dyssynchrony, four cases showed (6.3%) LV intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony (SDS(LV)), whereas none had LV intraventricular diastolic dyssynchrony (DDS(LV)) or co-existing systolic dyssynchrony. Radial dyssynchrony (RD) was found in six cases (9.4%). After adjusting for age, SDS(LV) and DDS(LV) were found to be significantly related to increases in the E/E' ratio (r = 0.405 and p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.216 and p = 0.045, respectively). RD at the base and apex was also significantly related to increases in E/E' (r = 0.298 and p = 0.002 vs. r = 0.196 and p = 0.045, respectively).
Systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony in subjects with isolated diastolic dysfunction but without overt symptoms of heart failure was not as common as in patients with diastolic heart failure; however, the systolic and diastolic intraventricular time delay increased with increases in the E/E' ratio, an indicator of diastolic dysfunction.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 09/2010; 25(3):246-52.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been very few pathophysiologic studies on isolated diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that the characteristics of isolated diastolic dysfunction would be located, on the clinical continuum, between those of a normal heart and diastolic heart failure.
We enrolled 102 subjects who had no history of overt symptoms of heart failure and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 50%. They were examined for myocardial deformation and rotation using the two-dimensional speckle tracking image (2D-STI) technique.
The circumferential strains and radial strain at the apical level (RS(apex)) were related to the ratio of the transmitral early peak velocity over the early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/E'). After adjustment for age, the RS(apex) showed a positive relationship with the E/E' ratio; whereas, the circumferential strains did not. Instead, the circumferential strains demonstrated a significant correlation with age. Basal rotation and left ventricular (LV) torsion were also related to age, but had no relationship with the E/E' ratio. However, as the E/E' ratio value increased, systolic mitral annular velocity decreased.
Except for the RS(apex), LV myocardial deformation and rotation did not vary with the degree of E/E' ratio elevation when there was no associated diastolic heart failure. Additionally, in clinical situations such as isolated diastolic dysfunction, the advancement of age has a relatively greater influence on characteristics of LV myocardial deformation and rotation rather than on the E/E' ratio.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased left atrial (LA) size has been proposed as a predictor of poor cardiovascular outcome in the elderly. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between LA size and stroke in subjects of all ages who presented with preserved left ventricular systolic function (LVSF) and sinus rhythm (SR), and investigated the relationships between LA size and other echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function.
A total of 472 subjects were enrolled in the study (161 men, 311 women) and divided into the stroke group (n=75) and control group (n=397). A conventional echocardiographic study was then performed. Subjects with valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation, or coronary heart disease were excluded.
The mean subject age was 65.2+/-5.1 years in the stroke group and 65.6+/-5.9 years in the control group. Mitral inflow pattern and E & A velocity showed no significant relationship with stroke (p=NS, p=NS, respectively). Left ventricular mass index and LA dimension were significantly related to stroke (p=0.003, p=0.023, respectively), and hypertension showed a marginal relationship with stroke (p=0.050). Age was not related to stroke in the present study (p=NS).
The LA dimension is significantly related to the incidence of stroke. Therefore, strategies for prevention of stroke in patients with preserved LVSF and SR should be considered in cases of LA enlargement.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2009; 24(1):24-32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: The newly developed 2-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) has enabled researchers to assess the changes of left ventricular (LV) rotation and torsion. The aims of the pre- sent study are to establish normal values and to examine the effect of advancing age on left ventricular torsion. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 182 healthy persons in this study. After examined the standard clinical echo- cardiographic parameters, we obtained the degree of the LV rotation at the basal and apical levels of the short axis view with using a customized software program EchoPAC, GE. Results: Among the 182 healthy subjects, 109 healthy subjects were finally included (49 males and 60 females) due to the failure of obtaining reliable rotational patterns (feasibility: 59.8%). The basal and apical peak LV rotations during systole were 8.14±3.55 degrees and 8.48±3.70 degrees, respectively. The basal peak LV rotation and peak LV torsion had a tendency to increase with aging (r=0.277, p=0.004 and r=0.253, p=0.008, respectively). All the values of the basal LV rotation during sys- tole tended to increase with aging. The apical LV rotation had no relationship with aging throughout the entire cardiac cycle. Conclusion: 2D-STI was a feasible methodology to measure the LV rotation. The peak LV torsion during systole shows statistically significant augmentation with advancing age, and this is mainly due to the in- creased basal LV rotation. (Korean Circ J 2008;38:529-535)