[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods is facilitated by encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), since natural n-3 food sources cannot withstand high temperature and prolonged shelf life. Organoleptic stability of n-3 fortified, shelf-stable foods has been demonstrated, but chemical changes in the food matrix throughout storage could conceivably impact digestibility of the protein-based encapsulant thereby compromising n-3 bioavailability. We assessed the effect of prolonged high-temperature storage and variations in food matrix (proteinaceous or carbohydrate) on the time course and magnitude of blood fatty acids changes associated with ingestion of n-3 fortified foods. Low-protein (i.e., cake) and high-protein (i.e., meat sticks) items were supplemented with 600 mg encapsulated DHA+EPA, and frozen either immediately after production (FRESH) or after 6 months storage at 100°F (STORED). Fourteen volunteers consumed one item per week (randomized) for 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 h post-consumption were analyzed for circulating long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LCn3). There was no difference in LCn3 area under the curve between items. LCn3 in response to cakes peaked at 2-h (FRESH: 54.0 ± 16.8 μg/mL, +18%; STORED: 53.0 ± 13.2 μg/mL, +20%), while meats peaked at 4-h (FRESH: 51.9 ± 12.5 μg/mL, +22%; STORED: 53.2 ± 16.9 μg/mL, +18%). There were no appreciable differences in time course or magnitude of n-3 appearance in response to storage conditions for either food types. Thus, bioavailability of encapsulated DHA/EPA, within low- and high-protein food items, was not affected by high-temperature shelf-storage. A shelf-stable, low- or high-protein food item with encapsulated DHA/EPA is suitable for use in shelf-stable foods.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotics may enhance gastrointestinal health and immune function. The efficacy of different probiotic dosing strategies on colonization and persistence of probiotics is undefined.
The authors assessed colonization and persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSM17938 (BioGaia AB, Stockholm, Sweden) after daily or alternate-day dosing.
Volunteers ate pudding with L. reuteri (10(9) CFU) daily (n = 9) or on alternate days (n = 9) over 7 days. Fecal samples were collected on dosing days (D1-7) and after dosing ended (D13-15 and D20-22) and were analyzed for the presence of L. reuteri. Results are reported in 3-day increments (D2-4, D5-7, D13-15, and D20-22).
L. reuteri count rose in response to daily supplementation ([mean ± SD] D2-4: 4 × 10⁴ ± 2 × 10⁴ CFU, p < 0.01; D5-7: 10 × 10⁴ ± 9 × 10⁴ CFU, p < 0.01) and alternate-day supplementation (D2-4: 21 × 10⁴ ± 20 × 10⁴ CFU, p < 0.01; D5-7: 11 × 10⁴ ± 15 × 10⁴ CFU, p = 0.06) and fell in both groups 1 week after dosing ended (p < 0.01). Total volunteers with detectable L. reuteri 1 and 2 weeks after dosing ended was similar in response to daily feeding (4/9 and 2/9, respectively) and alternate-day feeding (3/9 and 2/9, respectively). L. reuteri count was higher D2-4 in response to alternate-day vs daily feeding (p < 0.05) but similar thereafter.
Alternate-day probiotic intake achieves equivalent colonization to daily intake, but colonization declines rapidly once dosing stops. It is possible that, initially, responsiveness to probiotics may differ between individuals, but those differences do not persist with longer consumption.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 08/2011; 30(4):259-64. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2011.10719968 · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine how different proteins in a carbohydrate-protein beverage affect postprandial amino acid (AA), glucose, and insulin responses.
Two randomized, repeated-measures experiments were performed. In one, 10 volunteers drank 3 carbohydrate-protein beverages (380 kcal, 76 g carbohydrate, 19 g protein, 2 g fat) in separate (>7 days) trials, each differing in protein type. All drinks consisted of cocoa (4 g) and nonfat dry milk (1 g) supplemented with casein (CAS), whey (WP), or a casein and whey blend (CAS-WP). Ten additional volunteers consumed the same drinks after 60 min of varying-intensity exercise (60% and 85% VO2peak). Blood glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP), and AAs were measured every 15-30 min for 4 hr after beverage consumption.
Branched-chain AA concentrations peaked at 30 min and did not differ between beverages at rest (0.69 +/- 0.12 mmol/L) or postexercise (0.70 +/- 0.07 mmol/L). There were no significant differences between beverages with respect to initial (time 0-60) or total area under the curve (time 0-240) for any outcome measures at rest or postexercise.
High-carbohydrate beverages containing various proportions of milk proteins procured from a supplier to the commercial industry had no impact on AA concentration. Retrospective chemical analysis of commercial proteins showed that casein was partially hydrolyzed; therefore, consumers should carefully consider the manufacturer (to ensure that the product contains intact protein) or other factors (i.e., cost or taste) when procuring these beverages for their purported physiological effects.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 02/2009; 19(1):1-17. · 2.44 Impact Factor