[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking is an established risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). We sought to identify how often and in which CP patients physicians consider smoking to be a risk factor.
We analyzed data on CP patients and controls prospectively enrolled from 19 US centers in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2. We noted each subject's self-reported smoking status and quantified the amount and duration of smoking. We noted whether the enrolling physician (gastroenterologist with specific interest in pancreatology) classified alcohol as the etiology for CP and selected smoking as a risk factor.
Among 382/535 (71.4%) CP patients who were self-reported ever smokers, physicians cited smoking as a risk factor in only 173/382 (45.3%). Physicians cited smoking as a risk factor more often among current smokers, when classifying alcohol as CP etiology, and with higher amount and duration of smoking. We observed a wide variability in physician decision to cite smoking as a risk factor. Multivariable regression analysis however confirmed that the association of CP with smoking was independent of physician decision to cite smoking as a risk factor.
Physicians often underrecognize smoking as a CP risk factor. Efforts are needed to raise awareness of the association between smoking and CP. and IAP.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign biliary strictures are typically managed endoscopically whereby an increasing size or number of plastic stents is placed at ERCP. Stents are often changed every 3 to 4 months based on the known median patency of a single biliary stent, but patency data for multiple biliary stents are lacking.
To assess the incidence of occlusion-free survival of multiple plastic biliary stents and the rate of premature occlusion if left in longer than 6 months.
Tertiary-care medical center (Charleston, SC).
Consecutive patients who received multiple plastic stents for benign nonhilar biliary strictures from 1994 to 2008 were identified.
Exchange of multiple plastic biliary stents within 6 months (group 1) or 6 months or longer (group 2) after placement.
Symptomatic stent occlusion.
Seventy-nine patients with nonhilar extrahepatic benign biliary stricture underwent 125 ERCPs with multiple plastic biliary stents. Stents were scheduled for removal/exchange within 6 months in 52 patients (86 ERCPs) compared with after 6 months in 22 patients (26 ERCPs). The median interval between multiple stent placement and removal/exchange was 90 days for group 1 and 242 days for group 2. Premature stent occlusion occurred in 4 of 52 (7.7%) patients in group 1 versus 1 of 22 (4.5%) in group 2, with significantly longer occlusion-free survival in group 2 (log-rank P < .0001).
Retrospective study at a single tertiary referral center.
Multiple plastic biliary stents for benign nonhilar strictures were associated with a low rate of premature symptomatic stent occlusion at more than 6 months and a longer occlusion-free survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic pancreatitis is commonly associated with debilitating abdominal pain, in part due to pancreatic duct obstruction. Pancreatic stones are often impossible to extract from the duct with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography alone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is commonly used for fragmentation of obstructing nephrolithiasis and has demonstrated effectiveness in management of pancreatic stones. Our aim was to examine the outcomes of the first 30 patients with symptomatic pancreatic stones treated with a combination of ESWL and endoscopic therapies.
Patients with symptomatic chronic calcific pancreatitis referred for ESWL (2005-2009) were included. Technical success of ESWL was defined as a) stone fragmentation sufficient to allow extraction of main duct stones at ERCP or b) absence of the targeted main pancreatic duct stones on follow-up radiography. Clinical success of ESWL was defined by Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGII) score of at least slightly improved.
Thirty patients underwent ESWL. One patient was excluded due to adenocarcinoma. Technical success was achieved in 17/29 (58.6%) patients. 25 (86.2%) patients were available for follow-up (median 35 months, range 3-52 months). Fifteen of twenty-five (60%) patients experienced clinical improvement (10 patients very much improved), but there was no significant reduction in the proportion taking narcotics (50% before vs. 44.4% after ESWL). Pancreatic surgery has been avoided to date in 16 (64%) of the 25 patients.
A multidisciplinary approach, combining ERCP and ESWL, to painful obstructing pancreatic duct stones provided symptomatic improvement and allowed pancreatic surgery to be avoided in the majority of patients.
Southern medical journal 06/2010; 103(6):505-8. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The minor papilla serves as a site of alternative pancreatic duct drainage via the accessory pancreatic duct.
The objectives of this study were to assess the endoscopic appearance of the minor papilla for characteristics that might predict increased accessory pancreatic duct flow and hence suggest pathology of the downstream pancreatic ductal system.
This was a nonrandomized, prospective analysis of consecutively enrolled patients from a tertiary care medical center (Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine). The study cohort consisted of consecutive patients presenting for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without prior pancreaticobiliary endotherapy or ductography.
Sixty-four patients received a minor papilla score prior to ERCP. A normal pancreatogram was found in 37 of 64 (57.8%) patients; the remaining 27 (42.2%) patients had an abnormal pancreatogram. The median minor papilla bulge score was 0.49 (range 0-3) in the normal pancreatogram group and 2 (range 0-3) in the abnormal pancreatogram group (P < 0.0001). The median minor papilla orifice score of those with a normal pancreatogram was 0 (range 0-2) compared to 2 (range 0-3) in the abnormal pancreatogram group (P < 0.001). The median minor papilla cumulative score of 1 (range 0-5) for the normal pancreatogram group was significantly less than that for the abnormal pancreatogram group (3, range 0-6, P < 0.0001), resulting in a sensitivity of 96.3% for an abnormal pancreatogram. The minor papilla orifice was noted to be either gaping or actively dripping pancreatic juice in four out of five patients with pancreas divisum.
A minor papilla without bulging or a visible orifice would suggest a normal pancreatogram at ERP. Conversely, an abnormal minor papilla, particularly a patent minor papilla orifice, should raise suspicion of pancreatic ductal pathology and can help direct pancreatic endotherapy at the major or minor papillae.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2009; 55(8):2412-6. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are associated with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. The etiology of RAP and CP is complex, and effects of alcohol and smoking may be limited to specific patient subsets. We examined the current prevalence of alcohol use and smoking and their association with RAP and CP in patients evaluated at US referral centers.
The North American Pancreatitis Study 2, a multicenter consortium of 20 US centers, prospectively enrolled 540 patients with CP, 460 patients with RAP, and 695 controls from 2000 to 2006. Using self-reported monthly alcohol consumption during the maximum lifetime drinking period, we classified subjects by drinking status: abstainer, light drinker (< or =0.5 drink per day), moderate drinker (women, >0.5 to 1 drink per day; men, >0.5 to 2 drinks per day), heavy drinker (women, >1 to <5 drinks per day; men, >2 to <5 drinks per day), or very heavy drinker (> or =5 drinks per day for both sexes). Smoking was classified as never, past, or current and was quantified (packs per day and pack-years).
Overall, participants' mean (SD) age was 49.7 (15.4) years; 87.5% were white, and 56.5% were women. Approximately one-fourth of both controls and patients were lifetime abstainers. The prevalence of very heavy drinking among men and women was 38.4% and 11.0% for CP, 16.9% and 5.5% for RAP, and 10.0% and 3.6% for controls. Compared with abstaining and light drinking, very heavy drinking was significantly associated with CP (odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.87-5.14) after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index. Cigarette smoking was an independent, dose-dependent risk factor for CP and RAP.
Very heavy alcohol consumption and smoking are independent risks for CP. A minority of patients with pancreatitis currently seen at US referral centers report very heavy drinking.
Archives of internal medicine 06/2009; 169(11):1035-45. · 11.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic sphincterotomy is one of several factors associated with an increased risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). The needle-knife pancreatic sphincterotomy technique (NKS) is purported to result in less-frequent post-ERCP pancreatitis compared with a standard pull-type sphincterotomy (PTS).
Our purpose was to analyze the experience with both endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy (EPS) techniques with respect to post-ERCP pancreatitis at a single tertiary-level referral center.
Tertiary-care medical center (Charleston, South Carolina).
Patients without chronic pancreatitis and with normal retrograde pancreatogram who underwent EPS between 1994 and 2007 were identified. Patients were excluded for the following reasons: pancreatic stent not placed, both sphincterotomy techniques used, any balloon dilation of the ampullary orifice, precut or access papillotomy, pancreas divisum.
A total of 481 patients were identified and underwent 510 ERCPs. Indications for ERCP were recurrent pancreatic-type pain (n = 353) or pancreatitis (n = 157). NKS was used for 395 of 510 (77.5%) cases versus 115 of 510 (22.5%) in which PTS was used. The incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis was no different between NKS (25/395, 6.4%) and PTS (9/115, 7.8%). Most cases were mild pancreatitis; a single episode of severe PEP occurred in each group.
The risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis does not differ between EPS techniques when performed at a high-volume pancreaticobiliary referral center when using routine prophylactic pancreatic duct stent placement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited published data exist that address the incidence and outcomes of patients with complete pancreatic-duct disruption.
Report on a single-center experience with this entity that emphasizes the feasibility of endoscopic therapy and long-term outcomes.
Tertiary-care medical center (Portland, Maine).
A total of 189 patients with pancreatic-fluid collections and/or pancreatic fistulas were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of a disconnected pancreatic tail. Patients meeting the definition of disconnected pancreatic tail syndrome (DPTS) with a minimum of 6 months' follow-up were analyzed.
Thirty of 189 patients (16%) met criteria for DPTS. Thirty-six drainage procedures were performed on 29 patients (mean 1.2 procedures per patient). In 22 of 29 patients (76%), the initial drainage procedure was successful. However, recurrent fluid collection(s) developed in 11 of 22 patients (50%) and was seen in those treated surgically and endoscopically. Disruption in the tail (n = 3) was uncommon but invariably required no surgical intervention. The median follow-up was 38 months (range 3-94 months). Diabetes mellitus developed in 16 of 30 patients (53%); 15 of 30 patients (50%) had left-sided portal hypertension; 16 of 30 patients (53%) continue in active medical or surgical follow-up for recurrent symptoms attributable to the disconnected pancreatic tail.
Of patients with a pancreatic-fluid collection and/or fistula, 16% will also have a disconnected pancreatic tail. Endoscopic and surgical drainage techniques are typically initially successful, but both suffer from a high rate of recurrence in the setting of DPTS. The majority of patients will require long-term follow-up because of complications and/or ongoing symptoms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing reports suggest that endoscopic removal of benign ampullary and duodenal polyps is safe and frequently definitive; however, most reported polyps have been small in size (<3 cm). We have developed experience with endoscopic removal of increasingly large and complex polyps.
Fifty-one cases of endoscopic removal were attempted and grouped according to size: group A (n = 22) polyps 1 to 3 cm and group B (n = 29) polyps 3 cm or larger, including 7 cases larger than 5 cm. When the ampulla was involved, biductal sphincterotomy and prophylactic pancreatic duct stent placement was performed first, followed by saline solution-assisted piecemeal polypectomy, argon plasma coagulation, selective endoclip placement, and recovery of all polyp fragments.
Endoscopic removal of duodenal and ampullary adenomas.
The outcomes of small and large adenoma removal include mean number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies required for complete removal (2.09 vs 2.56, P = .392), number of complications (4.5% vs 13.9%, P = .375), discovery of unsuspected cancer (0% vs 10.3%, P = .242), and final definitive resolution (100% vs 86.2%, P = .124). Complete removal was achieved in 92.2% of all patients.
This was a single center retrospective study.
Large (>/=3 cm) ampullary and duodenal polyps comprised 56.9% of our endoscopically treated cases and present special challenges to definitive endoscopic removal. Successful removal of even very large sessile lesions is possible with minimal increase in risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) inserted for malignant biliary obstruction are felt to be contraindicated in patients with resectable disease. Anecdotally, we observed a number of "unresectable" patients eventually undergoing a "delayed" pancreaticoduodenectomy after additional surgical opinions. This has not been previously described in the literature.
To quantitate the frequency with which patients diagnosed with unresectable pancreaticobiliary malignancy (and hence undergoing SEMS placement) eventually undergo Whipple's resection, and to report on the outcomes in these patients.
This retrospective, observational study was conducted at a single tertiary care medical center.
One hundred consecutive patients who underwent non-foreshortening SEMS placement for presumed unresectable pancreaticobiliary malignancy were identified from our ERCP database. The clinical course and any subsequent operative interventions were reviewed.
Despite apparent unresectability, 13 of 100 patients underwent delayed surgical exploration for an attempt at resection. Whipple's resection was successfully performed in 5 patients. No interference with the biliary anastomosis was noted. No unresectable patient required surgical biliary bypass because of the presence of the stent. No pre- or postoperative infections occurred.
Non-foreshortening metal stents can be precisely positioned below the line of any potential surgical transection. The lower risk of preoperative metal stent occlusion, compared to plastic stents, minimizes the risk of postoperative infection. At surgery, unresectable patients do not require unnecessary biliary bypass if a properly positioned SEMS is in place. Properly placed non-foreshortening biliary metal stents are not a contraindication to delayed attempts at Whipple's resection and may be beneficial.