Carmen van der Pol

Reinier de Graaf Groep, Delft, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (7)18.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic meaning of lymph node micrometastases in breast cancer patients. Between January 2000 and January 2003, 1411 patients with a cT(1-2)N(0) invasive breast carcinoma underwent surgery in 7 hospitals in the Netherlands. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was done in all patients. Based on lymph node status, patients were divided into 4 groups: (p)N(0) (n = 922), (p)N(1micro) (n = 103), (p)N(1a) (n = 285), and (p)N(≥1b) (n = 101). Median follow-up was 6.4 years. At the end of follow-up, 1121 women were still alive (79.4%), 184 had died (13.0%), and 106 were lost to follow-up (7.5%). Breast cancer recurred in 244 patients: distant metastasis (n = 165), locoregional relapse (n = 83), and contralateral breast cancer (n = 44). Following adjustment for possible confounding characteristics and for adjuvant systemic treatment, overall survival (OS) remained comparable for (p)N(0) and (p)N(1micro) and was significantly worse for (p)N(1a) and (p)N(≥1b) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.58-2.39, HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.69-3.63, HR 4.36; 95% CI 2.70-7.04, respectively). Disease-free survival (DFS) was similar too in the (p)N(0) and (p)N(1micro) group, and worse for (p)N(1a) and (p)N(≥1b) (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.56-1.67 vs HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.19-2.27, HR 2.95; CI 1.98-4.42). The distant metastases rate also did not differ significantly between the (p)N(0) and (p)N(1micro) group and was worse for (p)N(1a) and (p)N(≥1b) (HR 1.22; 95% CI 0.60-2.49, HR 2.26; 95% CI 1.49-3.40, HR 3.49; CI 2.12-5.77). In breast cancer patients survival is not affected by the presence of micrometastatic lymph node involvement.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2010; 18(6):1657-64. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome and technical feasibility of sternal resection. We performed a 25-year retrospective study of 68 patients who underwent a sternectomy for sarcoma, recurrent breast cancer (BC) or radiation-induced necrosis between 1981 and 2006 in two tertiary referral centres (Erasmus Medical Center/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center and Netherlands Cancer Center/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Netherlands). Patients were treated with curative intent and followed until May 2009. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics, indications for surgery, surgical technique, postoperative complications, and survival. Sternal resection was performed in 43 sarcoma patients, 17 recurrent BC and 8 patients with radiation-induced necrosis with additional rib resection in the majority of patients and with clavicle resection in 13% of patients. Additional scapula, lung, breast or axilla resection, or both, was performed in 10%. Two patients died postoperatively (3%). Mild complications occurred in 24%, and severe complications (namely, pulmonary complications and reinterventions) in 16% of patients. Radical resection was achieved in 80% and 53% of sarcoma and recurrent BC patients, respectively. Five-year overall survival was 64% and 40% in sarcoma and recurrent BC patients, respectively, with 5-year disease-free survivals of 52% and 15%, respectively. Sarcomas, recurrent BC, and radiation-induced necrosis can be successfully managed by sternal resection and reconstruction with curative intent. Low mortality and acceptable morbidity rates justify this operation in a palliative setting as well. Disease-free survival is poor among recurrent BC patients.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2010; 90(4):1102-1108.e2. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Full-thickness chest wall resection (CWR) is the preferred treatment for breast cancer (BC) patients with extensive isolated locoregional recurrence. It remains a challenge to select patients that will benefit most from this treatment. The aim of this study was to define prognostic factors in patients who undergo CWR with curative intent. BC patients who underwent a CWR with curative intent for recurrence of disease between 1986 and 2006 were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-two factors were studied in a univariate analyses, and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses was performed. Seventy-seven patients were included in this study. The 5-year overall survival was 25%. There was one postoperative death. Univariate analyses showed that three prognostic factors were significantly correlated with OS and disease-free survival: (1) interval between primary treatment and CWR (P = .02 and .004, respectively), (2) chemotherapy for recurrence (P = .05 and .05, respectively), and (3) resection specimen smaller than 150 cm2 (P = .03 and .009, respectively). An interval lasting >10 years between primary treatment and CWR remained statistically significantly correlated with better overall survival and disease-free survival after multivariate analyses. CWR is a safe treatment in patients who have isolated extensive BC recurrence. The best survival outcome was seen in patients after a disease-free interval of >or= 10 years. Existing data show that adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant hormone therapy for estrogen-positive tumors improves overall survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be considered in individual patients.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 09/2009; 16(12):3414-21. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive chest wall resections can provoke a wide variety of complications, in particular, complicated wound healing. A lower complication rate will be achieved when local factors contributing to wound healing can be identified and improved. The aim of this study is to describe these factors, irrespective of prognosis, survival, or systemic complications. Retrospectively, the files of all patients undergoing an extended chest wall resection in a single institute during a 20-year period were retrieved. Patient demographics, use of preoperative therapy, tumor histology, the type of prosthesis (if any), and postoperative wound complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify factors contributing significantly to wound healing problems. From January 1987 to December 2006, 220 patients underwent a chest wall resection, defined as resection of at least one rib, and/or part of the sternum. In 145 patients (66%) this procedure was uneventful. Multivariate analysis showed that ulceration of tumor and the use of omentum for soft tissue reconstruction comprised independent factors contributing to impaired wound healing. Several factors leading to wound healing problems exist preoperatively. In a multidisciplinary setting, these factors should be weighed carefully against the possible benefits of an extended chest wall resection. Especially when ulceration of a tumor exists, or when omentum is considered for soft tissue reconstruction, increased risk on wound healing problems occurs. For the majority of patients chest wall resection will remain a safe and suitable procedure.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2009; 4(5):639-43. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of morbidity, mortality and oncologic outcome of patients treated with a chest wall resection for isolated breast cancer recurrences in the Internal Mammary Chain. Retrospectively we retrieved data from 29 patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for (disease-free) survival. There were no postoperative deaths. Complications occurred in 11 patients. The median follow-up after CWR for all 16 patients still alive at the end of this study is 18.4 months. Nine patients were free of cancer. The 3-year overall and disease-free survival is 59.2% and 8.6%. The median survival is 40.7 months. After multivariate analysis for each of the four endpoints studied, only one prognostic factor remains significant for survival: systemic therapy before CRW (p=0.004). For local recurrence-free survival a first CRW recurrence (p<0.00001) and for disease-free survival radicality of the resection (p=0.008) are independent prognostic factors. Chest wall resection is a safe and effective treatment for isolated breast cancer recurrences in the IMC. Surgically treated patients have a fair survival and some of them are even cured.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 02/2009; 18(2):94-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 02/2008; 152(1):59.
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the long-term results of a combination of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and surgery for the treatment of patients with a Pancoast tumour in the Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with special attention for the prognostic factors. Retrospective. During the period from 1 January 1991 to 31 December 2004, 36 patients underwent surgical treatment combined with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for a non-small-cell bronchial carcinoma with invasion of the superior sulcus. The study was terminated on 31 January 2006. The data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with overall survival and disease-free survival as the outcome variables. Cox regression analysis revealed differences between the subgroups on the basis of which prognostic factors could be studied. 36 patients with a non-small-cell bronchial carcinoma invading the superior sulcus (Pancoast tumour) underwent multidisciplinary treatment consisting of pre-operative radiotherapy (since 2002 concomitant chemoradiotherapy), superior-sulcus resection and (partial) lung resection with intra-operative brachytherapy. 2 patients died postoperatively. In 80% of the patients there was a positive histological effect of the preoperative treatment. The median follow-up was 26 months. The 2-year overall and disease-free survival was 45 and 31%, respectively, and at 5 years this was 28 and 19%. These results were comparable with those for stage IIB lung cancer without invasion. Favourable prognostic factors were: at least 75% necrosis of the tumour after pre-treatment, lack of positive mediastinal lymph nodes, and younger age.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 07/2007; 151(25):1406-11.