Brad Wilson

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (3)14.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Patients often report greater visual difficulties at home than expected from vision testing in the clinic. Such discordance may be owing to worse vision in the home than measured in clinic. OBJECTIVE To compare vision measured between the clinic and home and evaluate factors, including lighting, associated with these differences. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cross-sectional study conducted from 2005-2009 involved 126 patients with glaucoma and 49 without glaucoma recruited from the Glaucoma and Comprehensive Eye Clinics at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri. Patients underwent clinic and home visits, were aged 55 to 90 years, were consecutively recruited, and met inclusion criteria for this study. A total of 166 eligible patients refused participation. EXPOSURE Participants underwent clinic and home visits randomized to order of completion. At each visit, masked and certified examiners measured binocular distance visual acuity (DVA) with a nonbacklit chart, near visual acuity (NVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), CS with glare, and lighting. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Differences in vision between the clinic and home. RESULTS The mean scores for all vision tests were significantly better in the clinic than home for participants with and without glaucoma (P < .05, matched-pair t tests). For DVA, 29% of participants with glaucoma read 2 or more lines better in the clinic than home and 39% with advanced glaucoma read 3 or more lines better. For the entire sample, 21% of participants read 2 or more lines better in the clinic than home for NVA and 49% read 2 or more triplets better in the clinic for CS with glare. Lighting was the most significant factor associated with differences in vision between the clinic and home for DVA, NVA, and CS with glare testing (P < .05, multiple regression model). Median home lighting was 4.3 times and 2.8 times lower than clinic lighting in areas tested for DVA and NVA, respectively. Home lighting was below that recommended in 85% or greater of participants. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Vision measured in the clinic is generally better than vision measured at home, with differences mainly owing to poor home lighting. Knowledge that vision discrepancies between patient report and clinical testing may be owing to home lighting may initiate clinician-patient discussions to optimize home lighting and improve the vision of older adults in their homes.
    Jama Ophthalmology 11/2013; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) after cataract extraction in the observation group of the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Comparative case series. Forty-two participants (63 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery in at least 1 eye during the study and a control group of 743 participants (743 eyes) who did not undergo cataract surgery. We defined the "split date" as the study visit date at which cataract surgery was reported in the cataract surgery group and a corresponding date in the control group. Preoperative IOP was defined as the mean IOP of up to 3 visits before the split date. Postoperative IOP was the mean IOP of up to 3 visits including the split date (0, 6, and 12 months' with "0 months" equaling the split date). In both groups, we censored data after initiation of ocular hypotensive medication or glaucoma surgery of any kind. Difference in preoperative and postoperative IOP. In the cataract group, postoperative IOP was significantly lower than the preoperative IOP (19.8 ± 3.2 mmHg vs. 23.9 ± 3.2 mmHg; P<0.001). The postoperative IOP remained lower than the preoperative IOP for at least 36 months. The average decrease in postoperative IOP from preoperative IOP was 16.5%, and 39.7% of eyes had postoperative IOP ≥ 20% below preoperative IOP. A greater reduction in postoperative IOP occurred in the eyes with the highest preoperative IOP. In the control group, the corresponding mean IOPs were 23.8 ± 3.6 before the split date and 23.4 ± 3.9 after the split date. Cataract surgery decreases IOP in patients with ocular hypertension over a long period of time.
    Ophthalmology 05/2012; 119(9):1826-31. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe variability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements within the same eye and between right and left eyes over a 60-month period in participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Analysis of data from a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Eight hundred ten participants randomized to the observation group. Intraocular pressure measurements were obtained at the baseline visit and every 6 months thereafter. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for IOP measurements in the same eye between visits and for IOP measurements between right and left eyes of participants at each visit. Differences in IOP measurements between visits are reported in percent change (>15%, >20%, and >30%) and in millimeters of mercury (<3 mmHg, 3-5 mmHg, and >5 mmHg). The effects of regression to the mean, consistency in time of day, and sequence of IOP measurement of right and left eyes were examined. Correlation of IOP measurements between consecutive 6-month visits. The correlation of IOP measurements within the same eye between consecutive visits was r = 0.62, whereas the correlation of IOP measurements between right and left eyes at the same visit was r = 0.72. Thirteen percent of eyes had >20% change in IOP between consecutive visits. Sixty-six percent of eyes had a change in IOP within 3 mmHg, and 10% of eyes had a change in IOP >5 mmHg between visits. Eyes with a higher baseline IOP had a lower IOP at 6 months. There was a stronger correlation of IOP measured within 2 hours of the time of day between visits (r = 0.56) than >2 hours apart (r = 0.39). IOP of the right eye, which was measured first, was 0.3+/-2.8 mmHg higher than the left eye. The variability of IOP measurements in the same eye between consecutive visits is moderate and is greater than the variability of IOP measurements between right and left eyes at the same visit. Factors affecting the variability of IOP measurement include regression to the mean, time of day, and measurement order. Knowledge of variability in IOP and its measurements may help clinicians establish a more accurate baseline IOP, target IOP, and assessment of medication effect.
    Ophthalmology 02/2009; 116(4):717-24. · 5.56 Impact Factor