[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 30% of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma die from pulmonary metastases. The mechanisms that drive sarcoma metastasis are not well understood. Recently, we identified miR-182 as a driver of sarcoma metastasis in a primary mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. We also observed elevated miR-182 in a subset of primary human sarcomas that metastasized to the lungs. Here, we show that myogenic differentiation factors regulate miR-182 levels to contribute to metastasis in mouse models. We find that MyoD directly binds the miR-182 promoter to increase miR-182 expression. Furthermore, mechanistic studies revealed that Pax7 can promote sarcoma metastasis in vivo through MyoD-dependent regulation of pro-metastatic miR-182. Taken together, these results suggest that sarcoma metastasis can be partially controlled through Pax7/MyoD-dependent activation of miR-182 and provide insight into the role that myogenic transcription factors have in sarcoma progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 August 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.252.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. This study investigated patterns of utilization of radiation therapy (RT) and correlated this with overall survival by assessing patients with well-differentiated soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity (STS-E) in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Methods. All patients diagnosed with well-differentiated STS-E between 1998 and 2006 were identified in the NCDB. Patients were stratified by use of surgery alone versus use of adjuvant RT after surgery and analyzed using multivariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and propensity matching. Results. 2113 patients with well-differentiated STS-E were identified in the NCDB for inclusion with a mean follow-up time of 74 months. 69% of patients were treated with surgery alone, while 26% were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT. Patients undergoing amputation were less likely to receive adjuvant RT. There was no difference in overall survival between patients with well-differentiated STS treated with surgery alone and those patients who received adjuvant RT. Conclusions. In the United States, adjuvant RT is being utilized in a quarter of patients being treated for well-differentiated STS-E. While the use of adjuvant RT may be viewed as a means to facilitate limb salvage, this large national database review confirms no survival benefit, regardless of tumor size or margin status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
It is a consensus that radiation therapy (RT) should be applied for all large, deep, high-grade soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Therefore, we investigated the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to study how these guidelines are being followed, to determine what factors may be associated with the decision not to use RT, and to see whether there was an association of RT use and survival.
We retrospectively analyzed localized high-grade STS patients in the NCDB from 1998 through 2006. They were further stratified into two groups: no radiation (NRT) group and radiation (RT) group. Then, long-term survival between the two groups was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method with comparisons based on the log-rank test. Multiple variables were analyzed between the two groups. Propensity matching was performed secondarily to minimize the influence of confounding variables.
A total of 3982 of 10,290 patients (37.8 %) did not receive RT and 6,308 patients (62.2 %) did receive RT. Patients in the NRT group were more likely to have a below-median education level (median 58.2 % vs. 60.7 %; p = 0.015) and a below-median income level (65.1 % vs. 68.6 %; p < 0.001). In addition, these patients lived farther from their treatment centers (20.2 vs. 14.8 miles, p = 0.002) and were more likely to be uninsured (5.3 % vs. 3.5 %, p < 0.001). They were less likely to receive a radical excision (55.2 % vs. 70.1 %; p < 0.001) and more likely to receive amputation (20.9 % vs. 3.3 %; p < 0.001). The 30-day mortality (1.2 % vs. 0.2 %; p < 0.001) and readmission rate (3.8 % vs. 2.8 %; p = 0.031) were higher for the NRT group. KM analysis showed that long-term survival for patients who did not receive RT was significantly lower, even after propensity score matching (p < 0.001).
This large database review reveals a striking lack of utilization of RT to treat high-grade STS, which correlates with poorer survival even after propensity matching. Lower education and income levels and diminished access to medical care (insurance and distance to the facility) are associated with failing to receive RT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most common knee injuries, with over 100,000 ACL reconstructions performed in the United States every year. There are a number of graft options available for use in ACL repair. Hamstring tendon autografts are commonly used for ACL reconstruction. The advantages cited for autografts versus allografts are as follows: lower cost, no risk of immunological reactions, and better integration and remodeling. The healing response depends on the interplay between the bone and tendon in which collagen fiber continuity is re-established. This process is achieved by bony ingrowth of immature trabecular bone into immature, disorganized collagen fibers. Gradually, the collagen fibers reorganize into a parallel array until the tendo-osseous junction is re-established.
Studies of the healing response involved in ACL autograft reconstruction have been well documented in animal studies, but most studies of the graft healing response in human patients have been limited to biopsy specimens. To our knowledge, there are no examples in the literature of the ACL graft healing response in the tibial and femoral tunnels of human whole knee specimens. Beynnon et al, in a previous study, performed biomechanical testing on a recovered human ACL graft but did not specifically examine the healing response. We report the case of a young male patient who subsequently required resection of his knee for osteosarcoma of the tibia 4 months after ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft. The patient and his parents provided written informed consent for print and electronic publication of this case report.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2015; 43(8). DOI:10.1177/0363546515584040 · 4.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology that most commonly presents as a mediastinal nodal mass or, in the extranodal form of the disease, a mass located in the mediastinum or retroperitoneum. It is exceptionally uncommon for Castleman disease to present in the extremities. We report a rare case of extranodal Castleman disease presenting as a muscular forearm mass. We compare our case with the seven other reported cases in which Castleman disease presented as an isolated soft tissue mass in the extremities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal reconstruction after large tumor resection is challenging. The free vascularized fibular graft (FVFG) offers the potential for rapid autograft incorporation as well as growing physeal transfer in pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed eleven pediatric patients treated with FVFG reconstructions of the upper extremity after tumor resection. Eight male and three female patients were identified, including four who underwent epiphyseal transfer. All eleven patients retained a functional salvaged limb. Nonunion and graft fracture were the most common complications relating to graft site (27%). Peroneal nerve palsy occurred in 4/11 patients, all of whom received epiphyseal transfer. Patients receiving epiphyseal transplant had a mean annual growth of 1.7 cm/year. Mean graft hypertrophy index increased by more than 10% in all cases. Although a high complication rate may be anticipated, the free vascularized fibula may be used to reconstruct large skeletal defects in the pediatric upper extremity after oncologic resection. Transferring the vascularized physis is a viable option when longitudinal growth is desired.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free vascularized fibular transfer has become a standard procedure in upper extremity reconstruction after resection of osteogenic tumors. The authors present two rare pediatric cases of high-grade osteosarcoma resection of the proximal humerus. A free vascularized fibula autograft including the physis based on the anterior tibial artery and vein was used for reconstruction in a delayed (case 1) and immediate (case 2) approach. The main focus of the article is to describe the surgical technique, which is also presented in a series of intraoperative videos.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 08/2013; 132(2):281e-7e. DOI:10.1097/PRS.0b013e31829589fb · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, metaplastic condition in which synovial tissue becomes hyperplastic, and foci of cartilaginous metaplasia develop in the synovial membranes of joints, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Involvement is most commonly monoarticular. The large joints are most commonly affected, with the knee accounting for more than half of all cases. There are isolated reports of synovial chondromatosis occurring in the small joints of the wrist and hand. However, it is very uncommon for the disease to involve multiple different synovial structures. We report the case of a middle-aged man with pancarpal synovial chondromatosis with involvement of numerous bony, articular, and tenosynovial structures within the hand and wrist.
American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) 08/2013; 42(8):E60-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a paraneoplastic syndrome resulting in renal phosphate wasting and decreased bone mineralization. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors represent a rare etiology of tumor-induced osteomalacia. Nonspecific symptoms of fatigue, bone pain, and musculoskeletal weakness make the diagnosis elusive and lead to a delay in surgical treatment. In this case series, the following three questions were asked: (1) How do the clinical presentation and features of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors delay the diagnosis? (2) What is the clinical course after surgical treatment of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors? (3) How frequently do phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors recur and are there factors associated with recurrence? This study retrospectively reviewed the cases of five adults diagnosed and treated for phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. Patients were identified through an internal orthopaedic oncology database with clinical, surgical, and histologic data obtained through a systematic chart review. Five patients presented with a long-standing history of osteomalacia, generalized fatigue, pain, and weakness before the diagnosis was reached at an average of 7.2 years (range, 2-12 years) after initial symptom onset. The diagnosis appeared to be delayed owing to the cryptic medical presentation, difficulty in locating tumor by imaging, and confirming histologic appearance. Two patients treated with wide surgical resection did not experience recurrence compared with three patients who did show recurrent signs and symptoms after marginal excision. A postoperative increase in fibroblast-derived growth factor-23 was associated with recurrent disease. Although uncommon, the diagnosis of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor should be considered in any patient who presents with hypophosphaturic osteomalacia and no other physiologic cause. Definitive treatment is early, wide surgical resection.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 07/2013; 471(11). DOI:10.1007/s11999-013-3178-1 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soft tissue sarcomas are rare cancers. They should be managed by a multidisciplinary team with experience caring for these diverse malignancies. Local control is frequently achieved with a combination of radiation therapy and surgery. This article reviews the data supporting the role of adjuvant radiotherapy in the care of patients with soft tissue sarcoma and describes the side effects of surgery and radiation therapy. Preoperative radiation therapy increases the risk of wound complication from surgery, but has fewer long-term side effects than postoperative radiation therapy. The timing of radiation therapy can be tailored to each patient.
Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 07/2013; 22(3):433-43. DOI:10.1016/j.soc.2013.02.004 · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary bone cancers are extremely rare neoplasms, accounting for fewer than 0.2% of all cancers. The evaluation and treatment of patients with bone cancers requires a multidisciplinary team of physicians, including musculoskeletal, medical, and radiation oncologists, and surgeons and radiologists with demonstrated expertise in the management of these tumors. Long-term surveillance and follow-up are necessary for the management of treatment late effects related to surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. These guidelines discuss the management of chordoma, giant cell tumor of the bone, and osteosarcoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue.
Methods and Materials:
A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed.
RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells.
In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 02/2013; 86(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.12.007 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leiomyosarcomas of the somatic soft tissues are tumors of smooth muscle origin that occur in the extremities. These lesions are commonly high-grade tumors that carry a poor prognosis. Recommended treatment often includes wide excision and chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Sixty-five patients were followed for a mean of 4.1 years. The mean maximum tumor diameter was 7 cm, and approximately 70% of all patients had tumors deep to fascia. Including all stages of disease, the overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 91%, 87%, and 68%, respectively. Mitotic rate and tumor depth were significant predictors of development of recurrent disease and metastatic disease. Tumor size was another predictor of recurrent disease. The mitotic rate and AJCC stage were also important predictors of overall survival. Patients with deep lesions, histologic grade 3 disease/higher mitotic rates, and advanced stage of disease had a poorer prognosis and thus were more likely to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy. Future clinical studies may help determine if knowledge of these predictors can help guide treatment and improve clinical outcomes.
Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances 09/2012; 21(2):96-101.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) includes complete tumor excision. However, in some patients, residual sarcoma cells remain in the tumor bed. We previously described a novel hand-held imaging device prototype that uses molecular imaging to detect microscopic residual cancer in mice during surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To test this device in a clinical trial of dogs with naturally occurring sarcomas, we asked: (1) Are any adverse clinical or laboratory effects observed after intravenous administration of the fluorescent probes? (2) Do canine sarcomas exhibit fluorescence after administration of the cathepsin-activated probe? (3) Is the tumor-to-background ratio sufficient to distinguish tumor from tumor bed? And (4) can residual fluorescence be detected in the tumor bed during surgery and does this correlate with a positive margin? METHODS: We studied nine dogs undergoing treatment for 10 STS or mast cell tumors. Dogs received an intravenous injection of VM249, a fluorescent probe that becomes optically active in the presence of cathepsin proteases. After injection, tumors were removed by wide resection. The tumor bed was imaged using the novel imaging device to search for residual fluorescence. We determined correlations between tissue fluorescence and histopathology, cathepsin protease expression, and development of recurrent disease. Minimum followup was 9 months (mean, 12 months; range, 9-15 months). RESULTS: Fluorescence was apparent from all 10 tumors and ranged from 3 × 10(7) to 1 × 10(9) counts/millisecond/cm(2). During intraoperative imaging, normal skeletal muscle showed no residual fluorescence. Histopathologic assessment of surgical margins correlated with intraoperative imaging in nine of 10 cases; in the other case, there was no residual fluorescence, but tumor was found at the margin on histologic examination. No animals had recurrent disease at 9 to 15 months. CONCLUSIONS: These initial findings suggest this imaging system might be useful to intraoperatively detect residual tumor after wide resections. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The ability to assess the tumor bed intraoperatively for residual disease has the potential to improve local control.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2012; 471(3). DOI:10.1007/s11999-012-2560-8 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of soft tissue is one of the most common sarcoma in adulthood. However, only a few series have separately studied the clinical behavior and prognosis of this malignancy.
We retrospectively reviewed 61 patients treated for extremity soft tissue high-grade MFH. Four patients had a history of another malignancy and were excluded from analysis. In 12 referred patients with incomplete excision, re-excision of the tumor bed was offered. Clinical and treatment variables were analyzed for their impact on treatment complications, local recurrence (LR), metastatic disease (MD) and overall survival (OS).
Four patients underwent primary amputation. Twenty-three patients necessitated a primary reconstructive procedure for wound closure. Wound healing complication (WHC) developed in 28.3 % of the limb sparing group of patients. LR developed in 11 patients (19.3 %), while 6 of them had second LR. Eighteen patients (31.5 %) developed MD, involving lung at least. Patients who developed MD <12 vs >12 months, died within 19.3 vs 8 months mean time (p < 0.05). Overall survivorship was 66.7 % at 5 years. No statistically significant variables were identified for LR, while multivariate analysis for MD revealed tumor size >5 cm as the only statistically significant variable. For OS, development of MD and age >70 years emerged as independent prognostic factors.
The overall prognosis is poor. LR, although can be managed with tumor re-excision, has high second recurrence rate. Increased tumor size is associated with shorter metastasis-free interval which significantly decreases survival.
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 04/2012; 132(7):955-61. DOI:10.1007/s00402-012-1510-y · 1.60 Impact Factor