[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regeneration of mineralized tissues affected by chronic diseases comprises a major scientific and clinical challenge. Periodontitis, one such prevalent disease, involves destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, alveolar bone, periodontal-ligament and cementum, often leading to tooth loss. In 1997, it became clear that, in addition to their function in enamel formation, the hydrophobic ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) play a role in the regeneration of these periodontal tissues. The epithelial EMPs are a heterogeneous mixture of polypeptides encoded by several genes. It was not clear, however, which of these many EMPs induces the regeneration and what mechanisms are involved. Here we show that a single recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+)), induced in vivo regeneration of all tooth-supporting tissues after creation of experimental periodontitis in a dog model. To further understand the regeneration process, amelogenin expression was detected in normal and regenerating cells of the alveolar bone (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts), periodontal ligament, cementum and in bone marrow stromal cells. Amelogenin expression was highest in areas of high bone turnover and activity. Further studies showed that during the first 2 weeks after application, rHAM(+) induced, directly or indirectly, significant recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, which later differentiated to form the regenerated periodontal tissues. The ability of a single protein to bring about regeneration of all periodontal tissues, in the correct spatio-temporal order, through recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, could pave the way for development of new therapeutic devices for treatment of periodontal, bone and ligament diseases based on rHAM(+).
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 03/2009; 13(6):1110-24. · 4.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuftelin has been suggested to play an important role during the development and mineralization of enamel. We isolated the full-length human tuftelin cDNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′ RACE and 3′ RACE) methods. Sequence analysis of the tuftelin cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 1170 bp encoding a 390 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 44.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.7. The human tuftelin protein shares 89 and 88% amino acid sequence identity with the bovine and mouse tuftelin, respectively. It contains a coiled-coil region, recently reported to be involved with tuftelin self-assembly and with the interaction of tuftelin with TIP39 (a novel tuftelin interacting protein). Detailed DNA analysis of the cloned genomic DNA revealed that the human tuftelin gene contains 13 exons and is larger than 26 kb. Two alternatively spliced tuftelin mRNA transcripts have now been identified in the human tooth bud, one lacking exon 2, and the other lacking exon 2 and exon 3. Primer extension analysis, corroborated by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, revealed multiple transcription initiation sites. The cloned 1.6 kb promoter region contained several GC boxes and several transcription factor binding sites such as those for activator protein 1 and stimulatory protein 1. Our blast search of the human and mouse expressed sequence tag data bases, as well as our RT-PCR and DNA sequencing results, and a previous study using Northern blot analysis revealed that tuftelin cDNA sequences are also expressed in normal and cancerous non-mineralizing soft tissues, suggesting that tuftelin has a universal function. We have now identified and characterized different alternatively spliced mouse tuftelin mRNAs in several non-mineralizing tissues. These results provide an important baseline for future understanding of the biological role of tuftelin.