Guorui Liu

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (43)132.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19pgWHO-TEQNm(-3), 0.01-0.69pgWHO-TEQNm(-3), 0.001-0.089pgWHO-TEQNm(-3), 0.002-0.011pgTEQNm(-3), 0.004-0.02pgTEQNm(-3), and 0.02-0.12pgTEQNm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 02/2015; 126C:73-77. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.02.014 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. PCNs are structurally and toxicologically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and its analogues. Intake in food is considered to be an important human exposure pathway for PCNs. In this preliminary study, cheese and butter samples were analysed for PCNs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using an isotope dilution gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PCN concentrations in the cheese and butter samples and to compare them with the PCDD, PCDF and PCB concentrations. The PCN concentrations were 5.6-103 pg g−1 of wet weight in the seven cheese samples tested and 5.0-199 pg g−1 of wet weight in the seven butter samples tested. The mass concentrations of lower chlorinated congeners were greater than those of the higher chlorinated congeners. Congeners of CN45/36, CN27/30 and CN33/34/37 were much more abundant than other congeners found in tetrachlorinated PCNs. Congeners of CN51, CN66/67 and CN73 were determined to be the predominant congeners in penta-, hexa- and heptachlorinated homologs, respectively. The PCNs contributed around 5% of the total PCN, PCDD, PCDF and PCB toxic equivalence (TEQ) values. CN73 was found to be the dominant PCN congener and contributed more than 40% to the PCN TEQ value. Congeners CN66/67, CN69 and CN63 were also found at relatively high levels. The PCB congener CB118 was the predominant congener (by mass-based concentration) of the 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). The PCBs contributed 53.8% of the total TEQ, and congener CB126 contributed more than any other compound that was analysed to the total TEQ. The PCDDs and PCDFs contributed 11.6% and 29.7% of the total TEQ values, respectively.
    International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 02/2015; 95(3):1-14. DOI:10.1080/03067319.2014.1002491 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary copper smelting (SeCu) is widely considered to be an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs; PCDD/Fs). Laboratory experiments were performed using SeCu fly ash as a matrix for thermochemical reactions to investigate the effects of fly ash on the formation of PCDD/Fs and the potential mechanisms. Thermochemical reactions on SeCu fly ash over a temperature range of 250-450 °C and reaction times of 10-120 min caused the PCDD/F concentrations in the fly ash to increase significantly. The PCDD/F concentrations formed in the thermal reactions were about 99-139 times higher than the PCDD/F concentrations in the original fly ash, clearly indicating that fly ash promoted the formation of PCDD/Fs. The PCDFs dominated the PCDDs, and the PCDF/PCDD concentration ratio was about 30-40. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the heptachlorodibenzofurans were the most dominant homologs that were formed. A comparison of the PCDD/F patterns produced in the thermochemical reactions and the patterns in the original fly ash suggested that the chlorination of less chlorinated PCDFs might be an important pathway in the formation of higher chlorinated furans. The results of this study indicated that SeCu fly ash has a high PCDD/F formation potential. It is crucial to have the fly ash filter at low temperature and that fly ash in the cooling system should be minimized.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-4046-6 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary aluminum production has been recognized as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Large variations in PCN emissions as the smelting process proceeds have not been determined. In this study, solid and gaseous discharges, including fly ash, slag, and stack gas samples collected from four secondary smelting plants during different smelting stages were analyzed for PCNs. The average emission factor of ∑1-8PCNs to air was calculated to be 17.4mgt(-1), with a range of 4.3-29.5mgt(-1). The average emission factors of ∑1-8PCNs from fly ash and slag were 55.5ngt(-1) and 0.13ngt(-1), respectively. The derived emission factors may enable a more accurate estimation of annual emissions and a more comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of PCNs emitted from secondary aluminum production. The emission levels and characteristics of PCNs during different smelting stages were compared. Possible factors, including the organic impurities from aluminum scrap, fuel, and chloride additives, which could contribute to variations in PCN emissions and characteristics were discussed. These results may provide useful information for developing better control strategies for reducing PCN emissions in secondary aluminum production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 01/2015; 286C:545-552. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.01.009 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thermal experiments (at 250-450°C for 10-240min) on fly ash from secondary copper smelting process (SeCu) were performed to study the polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) formation in the post-zone of a secondary copper smelter. Unexpectedly high concentrations of PCNs were formed. Total PCN concentrations and toxic equivalents were 47-104 and 44-80 times higher than the initial concentration and toxic equivalent, respectively. The thermal disposal of SeCu fly ash should therefore be reconsidered. The kinetic of each homolog was determined under different thermal conditions. Less chlorinated homologs favored 350°C and more chlorinated homologs favored higher temperature. Most of the homologs reached an equilibrium of formation and degradation within 30min, except octachloronaphthalene which did not appear to reach such an equilibrium even after 240min. Chlorine substitution of the formed PCNs was identified and a similar pattern was found in chlorination products starting with naphthalene and chlorine. Furthermore, inorganic chlorine and unsubstituted naphthalene were found in the reaction products, confirming that the formation of naphthalene and the chlorination of that naphthalene could occur and could be suggested to be an important PCN formation route. A detailed formation pathway from naphthalene through octachloronaphthalene is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 10/2014; 119C:1091-1098. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.052 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron foundries have been identified as dioxin sources in previous field investigations. Similar formation mechanisms between dioxins and unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have led us to speculate that iron foundries are also potential PCN sources. In this study, PCNs in stack gas and fly ash samples representing atmospheric and residue emissions from 13 typical iron foundry plants were analyzed. The average emission factor of ∑2-8PCNs to residue was calculated to be 61 µg t-1, with a range of 10-107 µg t-1. The emission factors of ∑2-8PCNs to air in two case plants were 267 and 1472 µg t-1. The derived emission factors might be useful for estimating annual emissions and understanding the contribution of PCNs from iron foundries. The possible formation mechanisms of PCNs, based on the PCN profiles, are discussed. Successive reductions in the abundance of homologs were observed to occur with the increase in chlorine substituted numbers. Abundances of congeners containing more β-position chlorines in the naphthalene skeleton were much higher than those of congeners containing more α-position chlorines for penta-, hexa- and hepta- homologs, which suggests that the β-positions are favored for chlorination. Potential chlorination pathways from tetra- to octa- homologs are proposed.
    Environmental Science and Technology 10/2014; DOI:10.1021/es503161v · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying marker congeners of unintentionally produced polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from industrial thermal sources might be useful for predicting total PCN (∑2-8PCN) emissions by the determination of only indicator congeners. In this study, potential indicator congeners were identified based on the PCN data in 122 stack gas samples from over 60 plants involved in more than ten industrial thermal sources reported in our previous case studies. Linear regression analyses identified that the concentrations of CN27/30, CN52/60, and CN66/67 correlated significantly with ∑2-8PCN (R(2)=0.77, 0.80, and 0.58, respectively; n=122, p<0.05), which might be good candidates for indicator congeners. Equations describing relationships between indicators and ∑2-8PCN were established. The linear regression analyses involving 122 samples showed that the relationships between the indicator congeners and ∑2-8PCN were not significantly affected by factors such as industry types, raw materials used, or operating conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis and similarity calculations for the 122 stack gas samples were adopted to group those samples and evaluating their similarity and difference based on the PCN homolog distributions from different industrial thermal sources. Generally, the fractions of less chlorinated homologs comprised of di-, tri-, and tetra-homologs were much higher than that of more chlorinated homologs for up to 111 stack gas samples contained in group 1 and 2, which indicating the dominance of lower chlorinated homologs in stack gas from industrial thermal sources.
    Chemosphere 09/2014; 118C:194-200. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.08.041 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.
    Chemosphere 07/2014; 118C:112-116. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.06.079 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have been proposed for inclusion in the annexes of the Stockholm Convention by the European Union, signifying a probable increase in monitoring PCN levels at a global level. Investigations on PCN levels in the environment of Hong Kong have not been reported. In this preliminary investigation, PCN levels in surface soils samples were determined by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS techniques, and compared with those of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentrations of PCNs in the soil samples were 35-883 pg g(-1) (average, 201; and median, 94 pg g(-1)), which were lower than those of PCBs PCDDs and PCDFs. This comparison suggested that PCNs are currently not priority POPs compared with dioxins and PCBs in Hong Kong soils. PCDDs were the most important contributor to the sum of toxic equivalents of PCNs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. OCDD was the most dominant dioxin congener in Hong Kong surface soils. PCB-118 was the most abundant in 12 dl-PCB congeners. PCN congeners indicating thermal related sources (CN52/60, CN66/67 and CN73) were relatively abundant in their respective homologs, which suggested PCN contamination from thermal sources. The ratio of CN73 to CN74 in soil samples suggested the contribution of PCN contaminations in soils from both thermal-related sources and evaporative emissions of technical PCN mixtures.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; 21(23). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3258-0 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants.
    Environmental Pollution 06/2014; 193C:6-12. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.007 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were nominated as persistent organic pollutants candidate in the Stockholm Convention in 2011. In this study, the profiles, concentrations and spatial distributions of PCNs were analyzed in 30 sewage sludge samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Concentrations of Σ75PCNs in sludge samples were in the range of 1.05-10.9ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 3.98ng/gdw. The predominant homologues in the sludge were mono- to tetra-CNs, accounting for approximately 85% of total PCNs. The total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of dioxin-like PCN congeners ranged from 0.04 to 2.28pg/gdw with a mean value of 0.36pg/gdw, which were lower than the maximum permissible TEQ concentrations in sludge for land application in China. Levels of PCNs and TEQs in sludge were relatively higher in samples from highly industrialized and developed cities in eastern China, implying a possible link between PCN contamination and the local economic development, but more studies are warranted to corroborate this. Industrial sources might be important contributors of PCNs to sewage sludge in China.
    Science of The Total Environment 05/2014; 490C:555-560. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.052 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas and fly ash from the second ventilation systems in five typical converters in five different steelmaking plants. The 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs (2378-PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCBs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 1.84-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 5.59-87.6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash, and the PCN TEQs were 0.06-0.56 pg TEQ Nm(-3) in the stack gas and 0.03-0.08 pg TEQ g(-1) in the fly ash. The concentrations of UP-POPs in the present study were generally lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces, iron ore sintering, and secondary metallurgical processes. Adding scrap metal might increase UP-POP emissions, indicating that raw material composition was a key influence on emissions. HxCDF, HpCDF, OCDF, HpCDD, and OCDD were the dominant PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and fly ash. TeCB and PeCB were dominant in the stack gas, but HxCB provided more to the total PCB concentrations in the fly ash. The lower chlorinated PCNs were dominant in all of the samples. The 2378-PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN emission factors in stack gases from the steelmaking converter processes (per ton of steel produced) were 1.88-2.89, 0.14-0.76, and 229-759 μg t(-1), respectively.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 03/2014; 21(12). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-2652-y · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70–178, 8.23–7520 and 152–4190 pg/m3, respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants.
  • Chinese Journal 01/2014; 59(16):1479. DOI:10.1360/972013-1269
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    ABSTRACT: Sucralose is a widely-used artificial high-intensity sweetener. Although doubts have been raised about the safety of sucralose by several researchers, it can still be found in a broad range of foods and beverages worldwide, including in baked goods. Sucralose may decompose at high temperatures, and participate in chlorination reactions, generating highly toxic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that heating sucralose at high temperatures in stainless steel or other metal utensils in the presence of rust (Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CuO) produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs were found in smoke generated during the heating of sucralose and in the residues after heating. CuO enhanced the PCDD/F yield in comparison with Al2O3 and Fe2O3.
    Scientific Reports 10/2013; 3:2946. DOI:10.1038/srep02946 · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Guorui Liu, Zongwei Cai, Minghui Zheng
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    ABSTRACT: The European Union has proposed that polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) should be included in the annexes of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, signifying that there will be an increase in activities aimed at reducing PCN emissions. It has been speculated that the unintentional formation and emission of PCNs from industrial activities are the main current sources, because they have ceased to be manufactured as industrial chemicals in many countries. In this review, we provide a brief overview of recent progress in research into the unintentional formation and emission of PCNs from various industries that use thermal processes. The sampling and analysis of PCNs, and their formation mechanisms during thermal processes, are reviewed and discussed. The emission levels, emission profiles, and emission factors of PCNs from a number of industries that use thermal processes are summarized and compared, and this will provide helpful information for planning PCN source control measures and studying the source-receptor relationships of PCNs.
    Chemosphere 10/2013; 94. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.021 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An isotope dilution gas chromatography combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was established for the analysis of twenty polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) congeners in environmental samples. The linear correlation coefficients (R2) of calibration curves were greater than 0.99 in the concentration range of 0.5 - 200 microg/L for all the twenty PCN congeners. The average relative response factors (RRF) were calculated based on a seven-point calibration for the twenty PCN congeners. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of all the congeners were below 15% (n = 7). The limits of detection (LOD) of the established method ranged from 0.04 to 0.48 microg/L for the twenty PCN congeners. The recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 45.2% to 87.9%, and the RSDs ranged from 0.4% to 21.2%. The sediment samples and stack gas samples collected from secondary aluminum smelting were analyzed by the established method. The obtained results were also compared with the data analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. The comparison indicated that the data of the established method was in good agreement with those of HRGC/HRMS method with the RSDs of 0.5% - 41.4%. Consequently, the established GC-MS/MS method can be applied to the determination of PCNs in environmental samples.
    Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 09/2013; 31(9):878-84.
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    ABSTRACT: The coking process has been found to be an important source of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs). However, the concentrations, profiles, and emission factors of UP-POPs in fly ash from coke plants have not been studied. In this study, six UP-POPs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz)) were identified and quantified in fly ash from eight coke plants. The average concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and "dioxin-like" PCBs were 1.5, 2.26, and 0.26pgTEQg(-1), respectively, and the average concentrations of the PCNs, HxCBz, and PeCBz were 256, 290, and 146pgg(-1), respectively. The proportion each homolog contributed to the total concentration of the PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs decreased with increasing chlorination level. The PCDFs contributed the biggest proportion of the total UP-POPs toxic equivalents (TEQs), and the average emission factors in fly ash were 10.5, 17.3, and 1.82ngTEQt(-1) for the PCDDs, PCDFs, and "dioxin-like" PCBs, respectively, and 1792, 2028, and 1025ngt(-1) for the PCNs, HxCBz, and PeCBz, respectively. These data are essential for establishing an integrated UP-POP release inventory.
    Journal of hazardous materials 08/2013; 261C:421-426. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.063 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng
    Environmental Science & Technology 07/2013; 47(15). DOI:10.1021/es402602k · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sucralose, an artificial sweetener, is being used in increasingly large amounts in foodstuffs and beverages worldwide. Information pertaining to its ability to participate in chlorination reactions during cooking and generate toxic compounds, however, is scarce. In this study, the formation and distribution of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), which are a group of highly toxic polychlorinated aromatic compounds, in oil heated in the presence of sucralose was investigated. The concentrations of the PCNs present in the cooking oils and oil fumes generated during the heating process were determined by isotope dilution according to a HRGC/HRMS method. The results suggested that the heating of cooking oil in the presence of sucralose promoted the formation of toxic PCNs. Although PCNs were detected in the oil fumes, no PCNs were found in the heated oils. The total concentrations of the PCNs found in peanut and olive oil fumes were 490 and 240 pg g−1, respectively. The degree of chlorination for the PCNs was calculated to be 5.3 for both the peanut and olive oil fumes. To quantify the newly produced PCNs, sucralose used in the experiments were about 2 or 3 orders of magnitude higher than in reality. PCNs were not detected with real proportions under the current experimental conditions.
    Food Control 07/2013; 32(1):1–5. DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.11.001 · 2.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

223 Citations
132.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2013–2014
    • Hong Kong Baptist University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong