[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease in adolescents and young adults. A recombinant factor H binding protein (fHBP) vaccine (Trumenba(®); bivalent rLP2086) was recently approved in the United States in individuals aged 10-25 years. Immunogenicity and safety of 2- or 3-dose schedules of bivalent rLP2086 were assessed in adolescents.
Healthy adolescents (11 to <19 years) were randomized to 1 of 5 bivalent rLP2086 dosing regimens (0,1,6-month; 0,2,6-month; 0,2-month; 0,4-month; 0,6-month). Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Safety assessments included local and systemic reactions and adverse events.
Bivalent rLP2086 was immunogenic when administered as 2 or 3 doses; the most robust hSBA responses occurred with 3 doses. The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers ≥1:8 after 3 doses ranged from 91.7% to 95.0%, 98.9% to 99.4%, 88.4% to 89.0%, and 86.1% to 88.5% for MnB test strains expressing vaccine--heterologous fHBP variants A22, A56, B24, and B44, respectively. After 2 doses, responses ranged from 90.8% to 93.5%, 98.4% to 100%, 69.1% to 81.1%, and 70.1% to 77.5%. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were highest among subjects receiving 3 doses and similar between the 2- and 3-dose regimens. After 2 doses, GMTs trended numerically higher among subjects with longer intervals between the first and second dose (6 months vs 2 and 4 months). Bivalent rLP2086 was well tolerated.
Bivalent rLP2086 was immunogenic and well tolerated when administered in 2 or 3 doses. Three doses yielded the most robust hSBA response rates against MnB strains expressing vaccine-heterologous subfamily B fHBPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This Phase 2, randomized study evaluated coadministration of a licensed quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV4) with bivalent rLP2086, an investigational vaccine against invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB), in healthy adolescents ≥11 to <18 years of age.
Methods: Subjects received HPV4 + bivalent rLP2086 (Group 1), bivalent rLP2086 + saline (Group 2), or saline + HPV4 (Group 3) at months 0, 2, and 6. Sera were collected at baseline and after doses 2 and 3. Immune responses to HPV4 antigens (HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18) were determined by competitive Luminex immunoassays. Bivalent rLP2086 immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA) to 4 MnB test strains expressing vaccine-heterologous fHBP variants (A22, A56, B24, B44). Primary immunogenicity endpoints, all after dose 3, included geometric mean titers (GMTs) against HPV antigens in Groups 1 and 3 and hSBA GMTs for strains expressing variants A22 and B24 in Groups 1 and 2. Secondary endpoints included seroconversion rates for HPV antigens in baseline seronegative subjects in Groups 1 and 3. Safety of bivalent rLP2086 was assessed after concomitant administration with HPV4 or saline.
Results: The prespecified noninferiority criteria set at 1.5-fold (0.67 lower limit of 95% CI for GMRs) were met for 3 of 4 HPV antigens (not HPV-18) and both MnB test strains (Table 1). Seroconversion rates in Groups 1 and 3 were ≥99% for all HPV antigens (Table 2). Greater local reactogenicity occurred after rLP2086 compared with saline but did not increase with later doses; injection site pain was the most common local reaction. Systemic events in all 3 groups were generally mild and moderate in severity.
Conclusion: Robust immune responses to both vaccines were generated after concomitant administration of rLP2086 + HPV4. Prespecified noninferiority criteria were met for 5 of 6 antigens. Although GMRs to HPV-18 narrowly missed noninferiority criteria, the high proportion of responders (≥99%) indicates clinical effectiveness is expected to be maintained after concomitant administration. Bivalent rLP2086 was well tolerated and elicited a robust immune response to test strains expressing fHPBs heterologous to those in the vaccine.
IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccines have had a major impact on the reduction of many diseases globally. Vaccines targeted against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to serogroups A, C, W, and Y are used to prevent these diseases. Until recently no vaccine had been identified that could confer broad protection against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB). MnB causes IMD in the very young, adolescents and young adults and thus represents a significant unmet medical need. In this brief review, we describe the discovery and development of a vaccine that has the potential for broad protection against this devastating disease.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics 08/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.4161/hv.34293 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The currently recommended single dose of the 23-valent pneumococcal free polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for adults 65 years of age and older does not provide extended protection into older age. This reflects a significant unmet medical need for alternative strategies to protect older adults against pneumococcal infection, which may be met by the 13-valent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PCV13).
We performed a randomized, modified double-blind trial in 936 adults aged 70 years and older who had previously received PPSV23 at least 5 years before study entry and were now vaccinated with PCV13 or PPSV23. At 1 year after enrollment, all subjects received a follow-on dose of PCV13. Anti-pneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers were measured before and at 1 month after each vaccination.
Following the enrollment vaccination, OPA titers were significantly greater in the PCV13 group compared to the PPSV23 group for 10 of the 12 serotypes common to both vaccines and to serotype 6A which is unique to PCV13. Responses were noninferior for the other 2 common serotypes. Responses to PCV13 given at 1 year were generally lower in the group that received PPSV23 at enrollment.
In adults aged 70 years and older previously vaccinated with PPSV23, PCV13 was significantly more immunogenic than PPSV23 for most of the common serotypes and for serotype 6A. The OPA responses after a follow-on dose of PCV13 one year later indicate that a prior dose of PPSV23, but not PCV13, diminishes the response to the subsequent administration of PCV13.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia in adolescents and young adults. No currently licensed and available vaccine has been shown to provide broad protection against endemic MnB disease. A bivalent rLP2086 vaccine based on two factor H-binding proteins (fHBPs) has been developed to provide broad protection against MnB disease-causing strains.
This study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the final formulation of a bivalent rLP2086 vaccine in 60 healthy adults (18-40 years of age) receiving 120 μg doses at 0, 1, and 6 months. Safety was assessed by collecting solicited reactogenicity data and participant-reporting of adverse events. Immunogenicity was evaluated by human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA) against 5 MnB strains expressing distinct fHBP variants and fHBP-specific immunoglobulin G titre.
After each immunisation, local reactions such as pain at the injection site and erythema were generally mild or moderate. The most common vaccine-related adverse event was upper respiratory tract infection, which was reported by two participants. Seroprotection (hSBA titres ≥ 1:4) was achieved in 94.3% of participants against a MnB strain expressing the vaccine-homologous fHBP variant A05 and 70.0%-94.7% against MnB strains expressing the heterologous fHBP variants B02, A22, B44, and B24. Seroconversion rates (≥ 4-fold rise in hSBA titres) ranged from 70.0% to 94.7% across the five MnB test strains following the 3-dose vaccination regimen. Immunogenicity responses tended to increase upon subsequent vaccine doses.
Bivalent rLP2086 is a promising vaccine candidate for broad protection against MnB disease-causing strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asymptomatic throat carriage of Neisseria meningitidis is common in healthy individuals. In unusual cases, the bacteria become invasive, resulting in life-threatening disease. Effective meningococcal serogroup B (MnB) vaccines should provide broad protection against disease-causing strains and may confer indirect protection by impacting carriage and subsequent transmission. Factor H binding proteins (fHBPs), components of MnB vaccines in development, are classified into two immunologically distinct subfamilies (A and B). fHBP variants of MnB strains carried by adolescents are similar to those detected in infants with MnB disease. A vaccine containing subfamily A and B fHBP variants elicited bactericidal antibody responses (titers ≥ 1:4) against MnB strains expressing fHBP variants common to carriage strains and strains that cause disease in adolescents and infants in 75-100% of adolescent study subjects. This suggests that the bivalent fHBP vaccine has the potential to provide protection against invasive MnB strains and interrupt meningococcal carriage, which may also reduce infant MnB disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a significant cause of invasive meningococcal disease. Factor H binding protein (also known as LP2086) is a conserved outer membrane neisserial lipoprotein that has emerged as a strong candidate protein antigen for MnB vaccination. This study examined the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an initial formulation of a bivalent recombinant LP2086 (rLP2086) vaccine in healthy children and adolescents.
In this randomized, observer-blinded, parallel-group, multicenter trial conducted at 6 centers in Australia, 127 healthy participants aged 8-14 years were assigned to receive 20, 60 or 200 µg of the bivalent rLP2086 vaccine (n = 16, 45 and 45, respectively) or active control (Twinrix, n = 21) at 0, 1 and 6 months. Immunogenicity was assessed before the first dose and 1 month after doses 2 and 3. Local reactions, systemic events and other adverse events were recorded. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the rate of seroconversion (≥4-fold rise in human complement serum bactericidal assay titer) against MnB strains expressing the homologous A05 or heterologous B02 LP2086 variants.
The bivalent rLP2086 vaccine was generally well-tolerated, with mostly mild to moderate local reactions. The most common adverse events, headache and upper respiratory tract infection, occurred with similar frequency in each group. Post-dose 3 seroconversion rates against strains expressing B02 and A05 variants were 68.8-95.3% for rLP2086 recipients and 0% for Twinrix recipients.
The bivalent rLP2086 vaccine was well-tolerated and immunogenic in healthy children and adolescents, supporting further evaluation as a broadly protective MnB vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A bivalent, recombinant, factor H-binding protein (rLP2086) vaccine was developed to protect against invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) in children and adolescents.
Healthy toddlers (N = 99) were enrolled to 3 ascending dose-level cohorts (20, 60 or 200 μg). Within each cohort (n = 33), subjects were randomized to receive an initial formulation of the bivalent rLP2086 vaccine at 0, 1 and 6 months or hepatitis A vaccine/placebo control (2:1 ratio). Reactogenicity was assessed by parental reporting of local and systemic reactions using electronic diaries and reports of unsolicited adverse events. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal activity assay using human complement and rLP2086-specific IgG binding.
The vaccine was considered to be well tolerated. Tenderness was the most frequently reported local reaction. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most commonly reported adverse event and occurred more frequently in the control group. Three cases (200 μg dose) of severe erythema that did not interfere with limb movement were reported. Four toddlers developed fever >40.0°C, 3 in the 200 μg group and 1 in the 60 μg group. Postdose 3, seroconversion (serum bactericidal activity assay using human complement ≥4-fold rise from baseline) was observed in 61.1-88.9% of participants against MnB strains expressing LP2086 variants homologous or nearly homologous to vaccine antigens and 11.1-44.4% against MnB strains expressing heterologous LP2086 variants. Seroconversion was observed in 77.8-100% of participants against additional, exploratory MnB strains expressing vaccine-homologous or heterologous LP2086 variants.
This study shows that the bivalent rLP2086 vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic in toddlers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease, but a broadly protective vaccine is not currently licensed. A bivalent recombinant factor H-binding protein vaccine (recombinant lipoprotein 2086) has been developed to provide broad coverage against diverse invasive meningococcus serogroup B strains. Our aim was to test the immune response of this vaccine.
This randomised, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy adolescents from 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. Exclusion criteria were previous invasive meningococcal disease or serogroup B vaccination, previous adverse reaction or known hypersensitivity to the vaccine, any significant comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapy or receipt of blood products in the past 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned with a computerised block randomisation scheme to receive ascending doses of vaccine (60, 120, or 200 μg) or placebo at 0, 2, and 6 months. Principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel were masked to the allocation; dispensing staff were not. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assays using human complement (hSBA) against eight diverse meningococcus serogroup B strains. The co-primary endpoints were seroconversion for the two indicator strains (PMB1745 and PMB17) analysed by the Clopper-Pearson method. Local and systemic reactions and adverse events were recorded. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00808028.
539 participants were enrolled and 511 received all three study vaccinations--116 in the placebo group, 21 in the 60 μg group, 191 in the 120 μg group, and 183 in the 200 μg group. The proportion of participants responding with an hSBA titre equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantitation of the hSBA assays (reciprcocal titres of 7 to 18, depending on test strain) was similar for the two largest doses and ranged from 75·6 to 100·0% for the 120 μg dose and 67·9 to 99·0% for the 200 μg dose. Seroconversion for the PMB1745 reference strain was 17 of 19 (89·5%) participants for the 60 μg dose, 103 of 111 (92·8%) participants for the 120 μg dose, 94 of 100 (94·0%) participants for the 200 μg dose, and four of 73 (5·5%) participants for placebo. For the PMB17 reference strain seroconversion was 17 of 21 (81·0%) participants for the 60 μg dose, 97 of 112 (86·6%) participants for the 120 μg dose, 89 of 105 (84·8%) participants for the 200 μg dose, and one of 79 (1·3%) participants for placebo. The hSBA response was robust as shown by the high proportion of responders at hSBA titres up to 16. Mild-to-moderate injection site pain was the most common local reaction (50 occurrences with the 60 μg dose, 437 with the 120 μg dose, 464 with the 200 μg dose, and 54 with placebo). Systemic events, including fatigue and headache, were generally mild to moderate. Overall, adverse events were reported by 18 participants (81·8%) in the 60 μg group, 77 (38·9%) in the 120 μg group, 92 (47·2%) in the 200 μg group, and 54 (44·6%) in the placebo group. Fevers were rare and generally mild (one in the 60 μg group, 24 in the 120 μg group, 35 in the 200 μg group, and five in the placebo group; range, 0-6·3% after each dose). Incidence and severity of fever did not increase with subsequent vaccine dose within groups. One related serious adverse event that resolved without sequelae occurred after the third dose (200 μg).
The bivalent recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine is immunogenic and induces robust hSBA activity against diverse invasive meningococcus serogroup B disease strains and the vaccine is well tolerated. Recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine is a promising candidate for broad protection against invasive meningococcus serogroup B disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 2-, 4-, and 12-month schedule of a novel 13-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing serotype 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F polysaccharides individually conjugated to CRM197 was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, controlled infant study.
Two hundred eighty-six healthy infants received PCV13 or the 7-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) at 2, 4, and 12 months of age, alongside a serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) vaccine (2 and 4 months of age), DTaP-IPV-Hib (2, 3, and 4 months), and a Hib-MenC vaccine (12 months). Specific antibody responses were assessed at age 5, 12, and 13 months.
At 13 months of age, >97% of PCV13 recipients had pneumococcal serotype-specific serum IgG concentrations ≥0.35 µg/mL for each vaccine serotype except serotype 3 (88.2%), and at least 93% of PCV13 recipients had OPA titers ≥1:8 for each serotype. At 5 months, 110/114 (96.5%) of PCV13 recipients and 100/102 (98.0%) of PCV7 recipients had serum anti-PRP (Hib) IgG concentration ≥0.15 µg/mL (difference, 1.5%; CI, -7.1%–3.7%), while 119/120 (99.2%) and 117/118 (99.2%), respectively, had MenC serum bactericidal assay titers of ≥1:8. All PCV13 recipients and 110/113 (97.3%) of PCV7 recipients had IgG concentrations against fimbrial agglutinogens of ≥2.2 EU/mL; IgG concentrations for the remaining pertussis antigens were ≥5 EU/mL for all participants. Local reactions and systemic events were similar in the PCV13 and PCV7 groups.
A 2-, 4-, and 12-month course of PCV13 was immunogenic for all 13 vaccine serotypes and was well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: A 2-, 4-, and 12-month schedule of a novel 13-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing serotype 1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F polysaccharides individually conjugated to CRM197 was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, controlled infant study.
Methods: Two hundred eighty-six healthy infants received PCV13 or the 7-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) at 2, 4, and 12 months of age, alongside a serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) vaccine (2 and 4 months of age), DTaP-IPV-Hib (2, 3, and 4 months), and a Hib-MenC vaccine (12 months). Specific antibody responses were assessed at age 5, 12, and 13 months.
Results: At 13 months of age, >97% of PCV13 recipients had pneumococcal serotype-specific serum IgG concentrations ≥0.35 μg/mL for each vaccine serotype except serotype 3 (88.2%), and at least 93% of PCV13 recipients had OPA titers ≥1:8 for each serotype. At 5 months, 110/114 (96.5%) of PCV13 recipients and 100/102 (98.0%) of PCV7 recipients had serum anti-PRP (Hib) IgG concentration ≥0.15 μg/mL (difference, 1.5%; CI, −7.1%–3.7%), while 119/120 (99.2%) and 117/118 (99.2%), respectively, had MenC serum bactericidal assay titers of ≥1:8. All PCV13 recipients and 110/113 (97.3%) of PCV7 recipients had IgG concentrations against fimbrial agglutinogens of ≥2.2 EU/mL; IgG concentrations for the remaining pertussis antigens were ≥5 EU/mL for all participants. Local reactions and systemic events were similar in the PCV13 and PCV7 groups.
Conclusions: A 2-, 4-, and 12-month course of PCV13 was immunogenic for all 13 vaccine serotypes and was well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factor H binding proteins (fHBP), are bacterial surface proteins currently undergoing human clinical trials as candidate serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MnB) vaccines. fHBP protein sequences segregate into two distinct subfamilies, designated A and B. Here, we report the specificity and vaccine potential of mono- or bivalent fHBP-containing vaccines. A bivalent fHBP vaccine composed of a member of each subfamily elicited substantially broader bactericidal activity against MnB strains expressing heterologous fHBP than did either of the monovalent vaccines. Bivalent rabbit immune sera tested in serum bactericidal antibody assays (SBAs) against a diverse panel of MnB clinical isolates killed 87 of the 100 isolates. Bivalent human immune sera killed 36 of 45 MnB isolates tested in SBAs. Factors such as fHBP protein variant, PorA subtype, or MLST were not predictive of whether the MnB strain could be killed by rabbit or human immune sera. Instead, the best predictor for killing in the SBA was the level of in vitro surface expression of fHBP. The bivalent fHBP vaccine candidate induced immune sera that killed MnB isolates representing the major MLST complexes, prevalent PorA subtypes, and fHBP variants that span the breadth of the fHBP phylogenetic tree. Importantly, epidemiologically prevalent fHBP variants from both subfamilies were killed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been developed to improve protection against pneumococcal disease beyond that possible with the licensed 7-valent vaccine (PCV7). This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of PCV13 with those of PCV7 when given as part of the pediatric vaccination schedule recommended in Italy. A total of 606 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either PCV13 or PCV7 at 3, 5, and 11 months of age; all subjects concomitantly received diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine. Vaccine reactions were monitored. Antibody responses to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens, serotype-specific anticapsular polysaccharide IgG responses, and antipneumococcal opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) activity were measured 1 month after the two-dose primary series and 1 month after the toddler dose. Overall, the safety profile of PCV13 was similar to that of PCV7. The response to DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib antigens was substantially the same with both PCV13 and PCV7. PCV13 elicited antipneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies to all 13 vaccine serotypes, with notable increases in concentrations seen after the toddler dose. Despite a lower immunogenicity for serotypes 6B and 23F after the primary series of PCV13, responses to the seven common serotypes were comparable between the PCV13 and PCV7 groups when measured after the toddler dose. PCV13 also elicited substantial levels of OPA activity against all 13 serotypes following both the infant series and the toddler dose. In conclusion, PCV13 appeared comparable to PCV7 in safety profile and immunogenicity for common serotypes, demonstrated functional OPA responses for all 13 serotypes, and did not interfere with immune responses to concomitantly administered DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outer membrane protein LP2086, a human factor H binding protein, is undergoing clinical trials as a vaccine against invasive serogroup B meningococcal (MnB) disease. As LP2086 is a surface protein, expression of capsular polysaccharide could potentially limit accessibility of anti-LP2086 antibodies to LP2086 expressed on the surface of bacteria. To determine whether variability in expression levels of the serogroup B capsule (Cap B) might interfere with accessibility of anti-LP2086 antibody binding to LP2086, we evaluated the ability of anti-Cap B and anti-LP2086 antibodies to bind to the surface of 1263 invasive clinical MnB strains by flow cytometry. One of the anti-LP2086 monoclonal antibodies used recognizes virtually all LP2086 sequence variants. Our results show no correlation between the amount of Cap B expressed and the binding of anti-LP2086 antibodies. Furthermore, the susceptibility of MnB bacteria to lysis by anti-LP2086 immune sera was independent of the level of Cap B expressed. The data presented in this paper demonstrates that Cap B does not interfere with the binding of antibodies to LP2086 expressed on the outer membrane of MnB clinical isolates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • The bivalent rLP2086 vaccine contains both subfamily A and subfamily B fHBP variants. In clinical trials, this vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibody as measured in hSBA (the sole surrogate of protection against meningococcal disease) to a broad range of MnB isolates. These findings suggest that the bivalent rLP2086 vaccine has promise for the direct prevention of a broad range of IMBD strains bearing diverse fHBP variants in adolescents and young adults. Future assessment of the potential role of this vaccine to directly impact carriage among vaccinated individuals is of interest, as is the potential effect on meningococcal carriage in nonvaccinated individuals through herd immunity. • Most fHBP variants were common between IMBD and meningococcal carriage isolates. All fHBP variants studied here reside within the same phylogenetic space. • hSBA responder rates (titer ≥1:4) among subjects vaccinated with the bivalent rLP2086 vaccine ranged from 75% to 100% against MnB strains with fHBP variants common to IMBD and meningococcal carriage isolates. • This study highlights the importance of age-based analyses on an antigen-by-antigen basis for estimating direct and indirect vaccine coverage that may be provided by MnB vaccines that include fHBP as a primary antigen.