Panayiotis D Mitsias

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, United States

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Publications (59)189.18 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with symptoms that impersonate a stroke but are later found to have an alternate diagnosis are termed stroke mimics. Stroke mimics treated with intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) are exposed to hemorrhagic complications without benefit. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics, safety, and outcomes of stroke mimic patients treated with t-PA within 4.5 hours. All patients hospitalized after IV t-PA treatment at a tertiary care hospital and primary stroke center from January 2008 through December 2011 were reviewed. Stroke mimics were determined by review of clinical and imaging findings. Stroke mimics are described and compared with acute ischemic stroke patients for demographics, clinical characteristics, and bleeding complications. We identified 38 stroke mimic (12%) and 285 ischemic stroke (88%) t-PA-treated patients. Compared with ischemic stroke patients, mimic patients were younger, more often female, and reported a history of stroke more often. There were no differences in race, baseline stroke scale, or onset to treatment time. There were no intracerebral hemorrhages or deaths in the mimic patients but there were 2 systemic hemorrhages (5.2%). Treatment of mimic patients with IV t-PA appears to be safe in this cohort. Concern for intracerebral hemorrhage in mimic patients need not dissuade clinicians from administering t-PA when significant concern for ischemic etiology exists. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Direct injury to the corticospinal tract (CST) is a major factor defining motor impairment after stroke. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography allows definition of the CST. We sought to determine whether DTI-based assessment of the degree of CST damage correlates with motor impairment at each phase of ischemic stroke.Methods We evaluated patients at the acute (3–7 days), subacute (30 days), and chronic (90 days) phases of ischemic stroke with DTI and clinical motor scores (upper extremity Fugl-Myer test [UE-FM], motor items of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [mNIHSS]). The CST was identified and virtual fiber numbers (FN) were calculated for the affected and contralateral CST. We used Spearman correlation to study the relationship of FN ratio (FNr) (affected/unaffected CST) with motor scores at each time point, and the regression model to study the association of the acute parameters with chronic motor scores.ResultsWe studied 23 patients. Mean age was 66.7 (±12) years. FNr correlated with UE-FM score in the acute (r = 0.50, P = 0.032), subacute (r = 0.57, P = 0.007), and chronic (r = 0.67, P = 0.0008) phase, and with mNIHSS in the acute (r = −0.48, P = 0.043), subacute (r = −0.58, P = 0.006), and chronic (r = −0.75, P = 0.0001) phase. The combination of acute NIHSS and FNr significantly predicted chronic UE-FM score (r = 0.74, P = 0.0001).InterpretationDTI-defined degree of CST injury correlates with motor impairment at each phase of ischemic stroke. The combination of baseline FNr and NIHSS predicts motor outcome. DTI-derived CST assessment could become a surrogate marker of motor impairment in the design of neurorestorative clinical trials.
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a relatively uncommon, non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic vascular condition of unknown etiology. There have been no major advancements in understanding FMD in the past 30-40yrs. We hypothesize that the vascular changes seen in FMD are a direct result of recurrent mechanical trauma in susceptible vessels and reflect a compensatory response to recurrent pulsation-induced mechanical trauma. Radiology records at a large tertiary care medical center were queried for cases of cervical carotid FMD. Cases with viewable sequential angiographic evidence of FMD were selected and analyzed for degree of vessel tortuosity, FMD type, degree of vessel movement, and association with the FMD lesion. Images were independently analyzed by 1 neurologist and 2 neuroradiologists. Twenty-four carotid vessels in fourteen patients were identified to have FMD, 100% of patients were female, average age was 58.43±8.72yrs (range 45-73), 35.7% were black, 35.7% had HTN, 7.14% had CKD and 7.14% used tobacco in the past year. Associated findings included aneurysms and dissections. All but 1 patient had at least mild vessel tortuosity, and 28.6% were moderate or severe. All but 1 patient had at least "some" pulsation-like vessel movement, 16.7% had "significant" movement, and all movement was focally associated with the FMD abnormality. Pulsatile vascular movements were observed in high frequency and in high association with FMD. We propose a theoretical connection between the pulsation-induced movement and a process of reactive vascular hyperplasia and fibrosis responsible for the FMD phenotype and is consistent with previous findings.
    Medical Hypotheses 04/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT) is the result of a structural lesion, in the form of stroke, trauma or demyelinating disease. SPT is due to contractions of the levator veli palatini and can be accompanied by simultaneous movements of the facial and ocular muscles. Facial myokymia (FM) is a persistent quivering of the facial muscles. FM is usually encountered with conditions involving the pontine tegmentum. We report, to our knowledge, the first patient with neurosarcoidosis with simultaneous SPT and FM. A 49-year-old African American woman, with non-caseating granulomas in a paratracheal lymph node biopsy, presented with progressive gait disturbances for the last 3 years. Neurological examination revealed ataxic speech, bilateral rotatory nystagmus, myokymia of the chin and perioral muscles, palatal tremor without ear click and marked truncal ataxia. MRI demonstrated a lesion involving the facial nucleus and the right middle cerebellar peduncle. Based on exclusion of alternative etiologies, a diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis was made and the patient was started on methotrexate for 9 months, with minimal improvement. She was then switched to intravenous infliximab without major adverse events. The patient’s speech and gait ataxia improved and follow up MRI demonstrated resolution of the enhancing lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the combination of palatal tremor and FM due to neurosarcoidosis. Methotrexate may fail to produce clinical or radiographic response in up to 39% of patients. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, such as infliximab, should be considered in refractory cases.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Clevidipine is a novel, ultra-short acting dihydropyridine. We hypothesized that clevidipine would rapidly control elevated blood pressure (BP) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Materials and Methods: This prospective open-label pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of clevidipine in reducing blood pressure (BP) to a pre-specified range and within 30 minutes before or after clipping or coiling of the aneurysm. Results: We enrolled 5 patients who received 8 clevidipine infusions, including1587 systolic or diastolic BP data points. The mean SBP upper and lower goals were set at 154 and 122 mm Hg. The primary end-point of achieving SBP control within < 30 min was reached in all patients within 14.2 ± 6.4 min at an infusion rate of 10.8 ± 9.1 mg/hr. The mean pre-infusion, during infusion and post-infusion SBP measurements were 165.5 ± 2.55, 146.4 ± 2.48 and 159.3 ± 11.5 mm Hg (p < 0.05 for pre- vs infusion comparison), respectively. After reaching the primary end-point and during the clevidipine infusion, 17.5% and 11.8% of SBP readings were above the upper and below the lower goals, respectively. No patients rebled. In one patient the infusion had to be stopped temporarily 3 times due to SBP decrease below the lower goal. Conclusion: Clevidipine controlled SBP in all patients with aneurysmal SAH in < 22 min and kept it within the elective range 70% of the time without major complications.
    The International journal of neuroscience 09/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the rate of urine toxicology screening, differences in testing, and outcomes among patients with stroke and TIA presenting to a tertiary care emergency department. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients admitted with stroke or TIA to a single tertiary care stroke center between June 2005 and January 2007 were identified through a stroke database. Factors that predicted urine toxicology screening of patients and a positive test, and discharge outcomes of patients based on toxicology result were analyzed. Stroke severity, treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, discharge status, and stroke etiology were compared between toxicology positive and negative patients. RESULTS: A total of 1,024 patients were identified: 704 with ischemic stroke, 133 with intracerebral hemorrhage, and 205 with TIA. Urine toxicology screening was performed in 420 patients (40%); 11% of these studies were positive for cocaine (19% younger than 50 years and 9% 50 years or older). Factors that significantly predicted the performance of a urine toxicology screen were younger age (<50 years) and black race (<0.001). Positive toxicology screens occurred in a broad range of patients. There were no significant differences in admission NIH Stroke Scale score, stroke etiology, and discharge status between toxicology-positive and -negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with stroke and TIA who were young and black were more likely to have urine toxicology screening. Eleven percent of all tested patients (and 9% of patients 50 years or older) were positive for cocaine. To avoid disparities, we suggest that all stroke and TIA patients be tested.
    Neurology 04/2013; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2010 American Academy of Neurology guideline for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke recommends MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) over noncontrast head CT. No studies have evaluated the influence of imaging choice on patient outcome. We sought to evaluate the variables that influenced one-year outcomes of stroke and TIA patients, including the type of imaging utilized. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected stroke and TIA database at a single primary stroke center during a one-year period. Data were abstracted from patient electronic medical records. The primary outcome measure was death, myocardial infarction, or recurrent stroke within the following year. Secondary outcome measures included predictors of getting an MRI study. 727 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of stroke or TIA were identified (616 and 111 respectively); 536 had CT and MRI, 161 had CT alone, 29 had MRI alone, and one had no neuroimaging. On multiple logistic regression analysis, there were no differences in primary or secondary outcome measures among different imaging strategies. Predictors of the primary outcome measure included age and NIHSS, while performance of a CT angiogram (CTA) predicted a decreased odds of death, stroke, or MI. The strongest predictor of having an MRI was admission to a stroke unit. These results suggest that long-term (one-year) patient outcomes may not be influenced by imaging strategy. Performance of a CTA was protective in this cohort. A randomized trial of different imaging modalities should be considered.
    The Open Neurology Journal 01/2013; 7:17-22.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The etiology of cerebral ischemia is undetermined in one-third of patients upon discharge. Occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is considered a potential etiology. A high rate of PAF detection with 21-day mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry (MCOT) has been reported in two small studies. Optimal monitoring duration and factors predicting PAF have not been adequately defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on patients evaluated by MCOT monitoring within 6months of a cryptogenic stroke or TIA. Multivariate analysis with survival regression methods was performed using baseline characteristics to determine predictive risk factors for detection of PAF. Kaplan-Meier estimates were computed for 21-day PAF rates. RESULTS: We analyzed 156 records; PAF occurred in 27 of 156 (17.3%) patients during MCOT monitoring of up to 30days. The rate of PAF detection significantly increased from 3.9% in the initial 48h, to 9.2% at 7days, 15.1% at 14days, and 19.5% by 21days (p<0.05). Female gender, premature atrial complex on ECG, increased left atrial diameter, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and greater stroke severity were independent predictors of PAF detection on multivariate analysis with strongest correlation seen for premature atrial complex on ECG (HR 13.7, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: MCOT frequently detects PAF in patients with cryptogenic stroke and TIA. Length of monitoring is strongly associated with detection of PAF, with an optimal monitoring period of at least 21days. Of the predictors of PAF detection, the presence of premature atrial complexes on ECG held the strongest correlation with PAF.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 10/2012; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-cardiac thrombus (ICT) and spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) are considered hypercoagulable and inflammatory conditions. We aimed to determine if high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer (DD), in combination with variables of lower thrombotic risk (normal ejection fraction [NEF], sinus rhythm [NSR]), may predict the absence of ICT/SEC. Consecutive patients referred for transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) for evaluation of cardioembolic source were prospectively enrolled. CRP and DD levels were determined at the time of TEE. 124 patients were enrolled, of whom 21 had ICT/SEC. The combination of NSR/NEF had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 98.6% for absence of ICT/SEC. The NPVs of CRP and DD were 93.6% and 85%, respectively. Adding either CRP or DD to NSR/NEF combination increased the NPV to 100%. Log CRP was significantly associated with ICT/SEC. The presence of NSR and NEF may defer the need for TEE for ICT/SEC evaluation. CRP association with ICT/SEC suggests that inflammation plays a role in ICT/SEC formation. Whether CRP and DD should become routine in the triage process of TEE for ICT/SEC evaluation requires further large scale prospective studies.
    Cardiology journal 05/2012; 19(3):267-73. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the feasibility of a mandated multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board (MDCB) to review, approve and monitor all carotid artery and stenting (CAS) procedures and outcomes at our institution. The board was composed of vascular surgeons, cardiologists, interventional neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and neurologists, who met weekly to facilitate an evidence-based, consensus recommendation to ensure appropriate CAS referral. The board successfully reviewed and continues to review and approve all CAS procedures at our center. Of the 69 patients considered high risk for standard surgical treatment, 42 patients were symptomatic and 27 patients were asymptomatic. Their mean age was 70.5-year-old and the median degree of stenosis was 79%. In the 74 procedures, periprocedural complications occurred at the following rates: 2.7% death, 2.7% major stroke, 2.7% minor stroke, and 2.7% myocardial infarction (MI) within 30 days of the procedure. At 1 year the primary endpoints of ipsilateral stroke and neurovascular-related death were observed in 8.1% and 2.7% of the patients, respectively. At mean follow-up of 21 months, 18.8% of the patients (13/69) had died (including all causes), and 14.5% (10/69) experienced stroke (including nontarget strokes). Target vessel revascularization was needed in 2.9% patients. A mandated multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board MDCB is feasible and potentially advantageous in real clinical practice. It establishes a model for accountable care by providing a mechanism for institutional oversight, credentialing operators, quality review, standardizing care, cost containment and eliminating the "subspecialty silo mentality."
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2012; 3:117. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sidiropoulos C, Jafari-Khouzani K, Soltanian-Zadeh H, Mitsias P, Alexopoulos P, Richter-Schmidinger T, Reichel M, Lewczuk P, Doerfler A, Kornhuber J. Influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and apolipoprotein E genetic variants on hemispheric and lateral ventricular volume of young healthy adults.Objective: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) are thought to be implicated in a variety of neuronal processes, including cell growth, resilience to noxious stimuli and synaptic plasticity. A Val to Met substitution at codon 66 in the BDNF protein has been associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. The ApoE4 allele is considered a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, but its effects on young adults are less clear. We sought to investigate the effects of those two polymorphisms on hemispheric and lateral ventricular volumes of young healthy adults.Methods: Hemispheric and lateral ventricular volumes of 144 healthy individuals, aged 19–35 years, were measured using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and data were correlated with BDNF and ApoE genotypes.Results: There were no correlations between BDNF or ApoE genotype and hemispheric or lateral ventricular volumes.Conclusion: These findings indicate that it is unlikely that either the BDNF Val66Met or ApoE polymorphisms exert any significant effect on hemispheric or lateral ventricular volume. However, confounding epistatic genetic effects as well as relative insensitivity of the volumetric methods used cannot be ruled out. Further imaging analyses are warranted to better define any genetic influence of the BDNF Val6Met and ApoE polymorphism on brain structure of young healthy adults.
    Acta Neuropsychiatrica 03/2011; 23(3):132 - 138. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of atrial fibrillation in patients presenting with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is important for the prevention of future events. We sought to develop a scoring system that would identify those patients most likely to have atrial fibrillation. Records from an inpatient stroke and TIA database and echocardiographic data were reviewed. Consecutive acute stroke and TIA patients over the age of 18 who were admitted during a two-year period were studied. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify variables associated with atrial fibrillation. Logistic regression analyses were used to develop a scoring system for atrial fibrillation. 953 patient charts were reviewed; 145 patients (15%) had atrial fibrillation. In univariate and multivariate analyses, variables that were significantly associated with atrial fibrillation included left atrial diameter, age, and diagnosis of stroke. A history of smoking showed an inverse association. A 6-point scoring system based on these variables (with the acronym of LADS) was developed. A score of 4 or greater was associated with a sensitivity of 85.5% and a specificity of 53.1%. Approximately 47% of stroke and TIA patients would be excluded from further investigation using this score. We describe a system of scoring that identifies acute stroke and TIA patients with a greater chance of having atrial fibrillation. An inverse relationship with smoking was found. Further prospective studies are required to determine the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of this scoring system in clinical practice and to investigate the inverse relationship between smoking and atrial fibrillation in this population.
    Journal of the neurological sciences 02/2011; 301(1-2):27-30. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Muhib Khan, Christos Sidiropoulos, Panayiotis Mitsias
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    ABSTRACT: Vertical gaze palsy is a recognized manifestation of midbrain lesions. It rarely is a consequence of unilateral thalamic infarction. We report the case of a 48-year-old African-American woman who presented to our facility with vertical gaze palsy and evidence of left medial thalamic infarct on diffusion-weighted imaging without coexisting midbrain ischemia. The etiology of infarct was determined to be small vessel disease after extensive investigation. This report suggests a possible role of the thalamus as a vertical gaze control center. Clinicoradiological studies are needed to further define the role of the thalamus in vertical gaze control.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 01/2011; 5:535.
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    ABSTRACT: In hemispheric ischemic stroke, the final size of the ischemic lesion is the most important correlate of clinical functional outcome. Using a set of acute-phase MR images (Diffusion-weighted--DWI, T(1)-weighted--T1WI, T(2)-weighted--T2WI, and proton density weighted--PDWI) for inputs, and the chronic T2WI at 3 months as an outcome measure, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was trained to predict the 3-month outcome in the form of a voxel-by-voxel forecast of the chronic T2WI. The ANN was trained and tested using 12 subjects (with 83 slices and 140218 voxels) using a leave-one-out cross-validation method with calculation of the Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (AUROC) for training, testing and optimization of the ANN. After training and optimization, the ANN produced maps of predicted outcome that were well correlated (r = 0.80, p<0.0001) with the T2WI at 3 months for all 12 patients. This result implies that the trained ANN can provide an estimate of 3-month ischemic lesion on T2WI in a stable and accurate manner (AUROC = 0.89).
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22626. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a patient and critically review the literature in order to define the demographic, clinical, neuroradiologic, and treatment features of moyamoya syndrome (MMS) in the setting of Graves' disease (GD). We performed a comprehensive English language Medline search using the keywords "moyamoya," "Graves' disease," and "thyrotoxicosis." We included all patients with angiographic findings consistent with MMS. A 23-year-old woman with active GD presented with intermittent confusion and right arm paresis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute left and chronic bilateral hemispheric infarcts. Cerebral angiography revealed multivessel intracranial occlusive disease. Initial treatment with plasmapheresis plus aspirin stabilized the patient's neurologic deficits. Antithyroid treatment plus subsequent surgical encephalomyosynangiosis resulted in prolonged neurologic stability. We studied 30 patients (27 women [90%], 23 of Asian descent [77%]), with a mean age of 29 ± 11.6 years. Hemiparesis (n = 12; 40%) was the leading clinical sign, and ischemic infarction was the most frequent neuroimaging finding (n = 26; 87%). Treatment regimens included antithyroid medications alone (n = 5; 17%), antithyroid plus antiplatelet agents (n = 9; 30%), neurosurgical revascularization after antithyroid medication (n = 11; 37%), and plasmapheresis in the acute thyrotoxic state (n = 2; 7%). Most patients had good short-to-medium term outcome (n = 14; 78% of reported outcome). Plasmapheresis-treated patients achieved neurologic stabilization and had good outcomes. MMS, an infrequent complication of GD, typically affects young women. Our findings indicate that plasmapheresis can stabilize the neurologic picture in the acute phase, and that antithyroid and antiplatelet therapy, combined with revascularization surgery, may improve long-term outcomes. Further work is needed to establish an optimal treatment strategy.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 12/2010; 20(6):528-36.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of nicardipine infusion in controlling the elevated blood pressure after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Nicardipine infusion was initiated if the individual pre-specified systolic blood pressure (SBP) level goal, mandated by the admitting neurosurgeon, was not met. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured on admission, hourly during the infusion and 12 h before and after the infusion. Twenty-eight patients with SAH required 50 nicardipine infusions in order to achieve a mean SBP goal of 152 mmHg. The 3,112 extracted BP measurements showed that mean infusion SBP was significantly lower than admission and pre-infusion SBP (mean 146.5 vs. 177.1 and 155.6 mmHg, P < 0.001, respectively) and significantly higher than post-infusion SBP (146.5 vs. 142.6 mmHg, P = 0.002). Five infusions were stopped prematurely, because of hypotension (n = 3), emergent surgery (n = 1), and failure to reach the SBP goal (n = 1). Rebleeding was not observed in any patient. Nicardipine achieved SBP control in 59.9% of hourly infusion measurements, with a trend for higher proportion of success with higher SBP goals. In this study, nicardipine infusion was a safe and moderately effective treatment for BP control in patients with SAH. Although SBP during nicardipine infusion was higher than the pre-specified goal in a significant percentage of hourly observations, this may be due to the drug administration protocol and other factors such as analgesia and sedation.
    Neurocritical Care 10/2010; 13(2):190-8. · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Hebah Hefzy, Panayiotis Mitsias
    Stroke 09/2010; 41(11):e593; author reply e594. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging is a new technique that maximizes the information and image quality of traditional 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode scanning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the 3D ultrasound technique to characterize ulcerated atherosclerotic carotid plaque. Using conventional 2D ultrasound, we examined 284 carotid arteries from 142 consecutive patients (101 men and 41 women; average age, 64 years). Eighty-two carotid arteries were symptomatic with atherosclerotic plaque causing 50-99% stenosis. In 62 arteries, the atherosclerotic plaques were visualized completely and were further processed to construct 3D images. Two independent observers rated plaque morphology according to a standardized protocol. The 3D ultrasound showed carotid plaque ulceration more frequently than the 2D method (16.1% and 14.5% of plaques, for observers 1 and 2, respectively, versus 6.5% and 9.7% of plaques, for observers 1 and 2, respectively, P=.125 and P=.063, for observers 1 and 2, respectively). The interobserver reproducibility was very good for both methods (κ=.973, SE=.027, P<.001 for 3D, and κ=.885, SE=.055, P<.001 for 2D), although the 3D method was slightly superior to 2D. 3D ultrasound reliably characterized the surface morphology of atherosclerotic carotid plaques. A trend of superiority of 3D ultrasound over 2D was found in detecting ulcers of carotid artery plaque.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 11/2009; 21(2):126-31. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In several animal studies of young and aged rats with ischemic stroke, treatment with sildenafil improved functional outcomes compared with placebo. We conducted a safety study of sildenafil (25 mg daily for 2 weeks) shortly after ischemic stroke onset. We recruited patients aged 18 to 80 years with ischemic stroke, National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score 2 to 21, between days 2 and 9 after symptom onset. Patients were treated with sildenafil for 2 weeks (25 mg daily). The primary outcome measure was the adverse occurrence of any of the following during the treatment period: stroke worsening, new stroke, myocardial infarction, vision loss, hearing loss, or death from any cause. Secondary outcome measures were NIHSS score, Barthel indices, and modified Rankin score at 90 days. Twelve patients were recruited. Mean age was 57 years, 5 were female, and median NIHSS score at entry was 9.5 (range 2-20). The primary outcome measure occurred in one patient (sudden death). Another patient committed suicide 2 months after study entry (and 6 weeks after treatment with sildenafil had been completed). Among the 10 survivors, at 90 days, median NIHSS score was 2 (range 0-12), median Barthel index was 95 (range 15-100), and median modified Rankin score was 1.5 (range 0-5). Sildenafil (25 mg daily for 2 weeks) appeared to be safe in this group of patients with mild to moderately severe stroke. Further studies of higher doses will be tested.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 09/2009; 18(5):381-3.
  • Randolph W Evans, Panayiotis D Mitsias
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    ABSTRACT: (Headache 2009;49:902-908)
    Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain 07/2009; 49(6):902-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

587 Citations
189.18 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Neurology
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • Henry Ford Health System
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Neurology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2009
    • Democritus University of Thrace
      • Department of Internal Medicine I
      Komotiní, Anatoliki Makedonia kai Thraki, Greece