[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia stimulates synovial hypoperfusion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TXNDC5 stimulates cellular proliferation in hypoxic conditions. We previously detected increased TXNDC5 expression in synovial tissues and blood from RA patients and demonstrated that the gene encoding TXNDC5 increased RA risk. The present study investigated the pathogenic roles of TXNDC5 in RA. Transgenic mice that over-expressed TXNDC5 (TXNDC5-Tg) were generated using C57BL/6J mice and treated with bovine collagen II to induce arthritis (CIA). Synovial fibroblasts from RA patients (RASFs) were cultured and incubated with TXNDC5-siRNA or CoCl(2), a chemical that induces hypoxia. CIA was observed in 80% of the TXNDC5-Tg, but only 20% of the wild-type mice (WT) developed CIA. The clinical arthritis scores reached 5 in the TXNDC5-Tg, but this index only reached 2 in the control mice. CIA TXNDC5-Tg exhibited clear pannus proliferation and bone erosion in joint tissues. A significant increase in CD4 T cells was observed in the thymus and spleen of TXNDC5-Tg during CIA. Serum levels of anti-collagen II IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were significantly elevated in the mice. Increased cell proliferation, cell migration and TXNDC5 expression were observed in RASFs following incubation with 1 µM CoCl(2). However, this effect was diminished when TXNDC5 expression was inhibited with 100 nM siRNA. TNF-alpha, IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-17 levels were significantly increased in the blood of TXNDC5-Tg mice, but the levels of these cytokines declined in the supernatant of RASFs that were treated with TXNDC5 siRNA. The expression of adiponectin, a cytokine-like mediator, decreased significantly in RASFs following TXNDC5 siRNA treatment. These results suggest that TXNDC5-over-expressing mice were susceptible to CIA. This study also suggests that hypoxia induced TXCNDC5 expression, which contributed to adiponectin expression, cytokine production and the cellular proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in RA.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53301. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Citrullination, a reaction converting arginine residue into citrulline residue, is essential for autoimmunity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted 2-dimensional Western blot analyses (2-D WB) to screen for novel citrullinated proteins in synovial tissues from patients with RA. METHODS: Total proteins were extracted from the synovial membranes of patients with RA (n = 10) and pooled. Four identical 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were prepared, and 2 gels were transblotted to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes that were separately probed with sera from patients with RA (n = 10) or an anticitrulline antibody. The protein profiles of the 2-DE gels were compared with the hybridization results on a global level. The immunoreactive protein spots were collected from the 2-DE gels and identified using mass spectrometry. Proteins that were detected by both RA sera and anticitrulline antibody were considered citrullinated proteins. The result was confirmed through routine WB, immunoprecipitation, and ELISA. Autoantibodies against these potential antigens were also examined in the blood of patients with RA by ELISA. RESULTS: RA sera and the anticitrulline antibody on 2-D WB detected α-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), dynein heavy-chain 3, fibrinogen β chain, keratin type II cuticular Hb4 (KRT84), lumican, tubulin β-chain (TUBB), and vimentin. A1AT, KRT84, and TUBB had high expression in the synovial membranes (n = 5) of patients with RA and A1AT and KRT84 had high expression in RA synovial fluids (n = 40). A1AT, KRT84, and TUBB immunoprecipitated from synovial tissues showed citrullination. A high level of autoantibodies against KRT84 was detected in the blood of patients with RA (n = 92) compared to that of healthy controls (n = 92). CONCLUSION: Our study identified some new citrullinated proteins in RA synovial tissues using 2-D WB.
The Journal of Rheumatology 12/2012; · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Rapid cartilage degradation in the joints is observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ADAMTS4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4) degrades aggrecan, the primary component of cartilage, therefore contributing to joint erosion in RA. The proteolytic activity of ADAMTS4 is inhibited by fibronectin (FN). FN is abundantly expressed in the synovia in RA and is modified by citrullination, the conversion of peptidylarginine to citrulline. This study aims to investigate the binding ability of citrullinated FN (cFN) to ADAMTS4 and the effect of cFN on aggrecanase activity. METHODS: The full-length recombinant ADAMTS4 was purified from HEK293 cells that were transiently transfected with a full-length cDNA coding for human ADAMTS4. A 40-kDa FN fragment exhibiting heparin binding was citrullinised with rabbit peptidylarginine deaminase. The binding activity of the full-length recombinant ADAMTS4 to cFN was investigated in an in vitro binding assay. The proteolytic activity of ADAMTS4 after incubation with cFN was determined using an aggrecanase activity kit, in which the ARGSVIL peptide is produced by digestion with aggrecanase. RESULTS: cFN displayed significantly decreased binding activity with ADAMTS4 compared with FN. The full-length ADAMTS4 produced large amounts of the ARGSVIL peptide, but the amount was markedly decreased in the presence of FN. The production of this peptide approached the normal level when the full-length ADAMTS4 was incubated with cFN. CONCLUSIONS: FN following citrullination is less effective in inhibiting the proteolytic activity of ADAMTS4. It is known that PADI4, an enzyme active in citrullination, is highly expressed in the synovial tissue in RA. Our results suggest that PADI4 in the RA synovium may contribute to cartilage destruction via the citrullination of FN.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 11/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is characterized with abnormal bone formation in the spine and the sacroiliac joints. In vitro assays demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) promotes calcium precipitation. This study investigated the function of CA1 for bio-mineralization and determined if common polymorphisms in the CA1 gene might contribute to AS risk. METHODS: Calcification was induced in Saos-2 cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, with ascorbic acid and beta-glycerophosphate. Calcification was determined by Alizarin Red-S staining. Expressions of CA1, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), osterix (OSX) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) were determined by real-time PCR and western blotting. The cells were also treated with acetazolamide, an anti-carbonic anhydrase drug. Genotyping was performed using Illumina VeraCode microarray in a case-control study including 51 AS patients, 267 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 160 health controls. The result was confirmed by Taqman assay, including 258 AS patients, 288 RA patients and 288 health controls. RESULTS: Following the induction, Saos-2 cells produced a great amount of calcium-rich deposits. Increased transcriptions of CA1, ALP, BSP, OCN, OSX and Runx2, essential genes for ossification, were detected in the cultured cells. Following the treatment of acetazolamide, the expression of CA1 was obviously declined, and the mineralized nodule formation was also decreased. Illumina microarray indicates that SNP at rs7841425 also showed significant differences in allelic frequency (P = 0.01396) and genotypic frequency (P = 0.005902) between AS cases and controls. In addition, SNP at rs7827474 showed significant difference in allelic frequency (P = 5.83E-04) and genotypic frequency (P = 0.000186) between RA cases and controls (P values were adjusted to multiple comparisons). The Taqman assay revealed that rs725605 demonstrated statistically significant evidence in allele frequency (P = 0.022307) and gene frequency (P = 0.007731) for association with AS. This SNP did not show significant difference in allelic frequencies and gene frequencies between RA patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: CA1 may play an essential role in bio-mineralization and new bone formation. The gene encoding CA1 is susceptible to AS.
Arthritis research & therapy 07/2012; 14(4):R176. · 4.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used a proteomic approach to screen the proteins with decreased expression in the synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by comparing their expression profiles to that of osteoarthritis (OA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. The result was complemented by a SNP analysis.
Proteins extracted from the synovial membranes (n=10 for each disease) were separated by 2-D electrophoresis. The proteins with significantly decreased expression in the RA samples were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The result was verified using western blotting. Tag SNPs located in the targeted gene were assessed using the Taqman assay in a cohort of 267 Chinese patients with RA, 51 patients with AS and 160 healthy controls. The genotyping result was confirmed in a large cohort of 389 patients with RA, 200 patients with AS and 371 healthy controls.
The proteomic approach detected significantly decreased expression of vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) in the synovial membranes from patients with RA, which was confirmed with western blot analysis. rs2282679 was significantly associated with RA and AS (p=0.026794 and 0.007566, respectively). The result was confirmed in a large cohort of RA (OR=0.678639, 95%CI=[0.541113~0.851118], p=0.000776) and AS (OR=0.564053, 95%CI=[0.433716~0.733558], p=1.79e-005).
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cell proliferation, immunoglobulin production and the release of cytokines through binding to VDBP. VDBP also mediates bone resorption by activating osteoclasts. The decreased expression and the genetic effect of VDBP in RA suggest a novel pathogenic pathway that vitamin D contributes to the arthritic process of the disease.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology 05/2012; 30(4):525-33. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of TXNDC5, which is induced by hypoxia, stimulates cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Our previous study detected increased TXNDC5 expression in the synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using proteomic methods. The current study investigated a pathogenic role for TXNDC5 in RA.
Expression of TXNDC5 in synovial membranes was quantitatively analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum TXNDC5 levels and serum anti-TXNDC5 antibody levels were determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near the TXNDC5 gene were genotyped using custom-designed Illumina 96-SNP VeraCode microassay. Allele frequencies and genotype frequencies of SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a cohort of 267 Chinese patients with RA, 51 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 160 healthy controls. Additional genotyping of 951 patients with RA and 898 healthy controls was performed for four SNPs (rs2277105, rs369086, rs443861 and rs11962800) using the TaqMan method.
Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry detected significantly higher TXNDC5 expression in the synovial tissues of RA patients compared to samples from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or AS. ELISA detected significantly higher levels of TXNDC5 in the blood of RA patients compared to OA, AS and systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and healthy controls. ELISA did not detect significantly different levels of anti-TXNDC5 antibody in the blood of RA, OA and AS patients and healthy controls. A total of 9 SNPs (rs9505298, rs41302895, rs1225936, rs1225938, rs372578, rs443861, rs408014, rs9392189 and rs2743992) showed significant association with RA, while 16 SNPs (rs1044104, rs1225937, rs1225938, rs372578, rs89715, rs378963, rs1225944, rs1225947, rs1238994, rs369086, rs408014, rs368074, rs1225954, rs1225955, rs13209404 and rs3812162) showed significant association with AS. Taqman SNP assay demonstrated that rs443861 has an association with RA, which correlates with the microassay results.
TXNDC5 is up-regulated in synovial tissues of RA patients. TXNDC5 has a genetic effect on the risk of RA and AS.
Arthritis research & therapy 07/2011; 13(4):R124. · 4.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased bone resorption and new bone information are two characteristics of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Much evidence has shown that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can restrain bone resorption. We had detected increased expression of carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) in synovium of patients with AS. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of methazolamide, an anti-carbonic anhydrase drug, for treating patients with AS.
Two patients, called as S and L, were diagnosed with active AS based on BASDAI and BASFI assessments, radiographic data and other clinical indices. They took methazolamide tablets at a dose of 25 mg twice every day.
Patient S's BASDAI score fell from 5.4 to 4.4, while patient L's BASDAI fell from 2.4 to 2. Patient S's BASFI score change from 2.7 to 2.9, while patient L's BASFI score fell from 1.2 to 0.2. The ESR values of patient S were considerably reduced, while the ESR value of patient L remained unchanged and in the normal range. The calcium concentration of patient S decreased from 3.05 mmol/L to 2.39 mmol/L. The CT evidence indicates that the articular surfaces of the erosive sacroiliac joints became clearer and the area of the calcium deposits began decreased. No significant systemic side effects were observed in either patient.
The above results indicate that methazolamide was effective for active AS. Methazolamide may improve AS symptoms by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase activity during the processes of bone reporption and new bone formation.
International journal of medical sciences 01/2011; 8(5):413-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most distinctive features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is new bone formation and bone resorption at sites of chronic inflammation. Previous studies have indicated that the hyperplasia and inflammation of synovial tissues are significantly related to the pathogenic process of AS. The present study used a proteomic approach to identify novel AS-specific proteins by simultaneously comparing the expression profiles of synovial membranes from patients with AS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).
Synovial tissues were collected from the hip joints of patients with AS and knee joints of patients with RA or OA (n = 10 for each disease) during joint replacement surgery. Proteins extracted from the synovial tissues were separated by 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE), and the proteins with significantly increased expression in the AS samples were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. The results were verified using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Levels of the candidate proteins in synovial fluids from knee joints (n = 40 for each disease) were measured using ELISA.
The proteomic approach revealed significantly increased expression of carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) in the synovial membrane of patients with AS as compared with the RA and OA tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis confirmed the findings described above. The ELISA detected a higher level of CA1 in synovial fluids from patients with AS than those with OA. The mean value of the CA1 level was also higher in AS patients as compared with RA patients. This study also detected increased expression of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the synovial tissues from AS patients, which is in agreement with other reports.
In vitro experiments by other groups indicated that CA1 catalyzes the generation of HCO3- through the hydration of CO2, which then combines with Ca2+ to form a CaCO3 precipitate. Calcification is an essential step of bone formation. Substantial evidence indicates that carbonic anhydrase also stimulates bone resorption. Hence, overexpression of CA1 in the synovial tissues of AS patients may promote improper calcification and bone resorption in AS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A proteomic approach was applied to discover novel rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific proteins by comparing the expression profiles of synovial membranes from patients with RA, osteoarthritis (OA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
Synovial tissues were collected from patients with RA (n = 10), OA (n = 10), or AS (n = 6), and healthy controls matched for age and sex. Proteins were separated by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the proteins with significantly increased expression in the RA samples were subject to matrix-assisted laser adsorption-ionization time-of-flight spectrometry. Results were verified using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Levels of the candidate proteins were measured within plasma and synovial fluids from the RA patients (n = 30), who had disease duration of 3-7 years, using ELISA. Levels were also measured within plasma from unmedicated RA patients (n = 41), who had disease duration of 1-6 months.
Compared with the OA and AS tissue samples, the proteins Ig-kappa light-chain C region, PRDX4, SOD2, TPI, and TXNDC5 were found with increased expression in synovial tissues of RA patients. PRDX4, SOD2, TPI, and TXNDC5 had 2-fold or more increase in expression in some of the early RA plasma samples (58.55%, 31.7%, 26.8%, and 36.6%, respectively) as compared with the early OA samples and control samples. TXNDC5 had 2-fold or more increase in expression in 53.3% of blood samples and 73.3% of synovial fluid samples from patients with long disease duration of RA as compared with samples from OA and AS patients.
Functional classification indicated that these identified proteins were related with cell differentiation, glycol metabolism, immunoactivation, and endogenous antioxidant reaction.
The Journal of Rheumatology 05/2009; 36(5):872-80. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratin is the main component of cellular intermediate filaments, and its post-translational modification plays an important role in cell differentiation and apoptosis, as well as disease states. The conversion of peptidylarginine to citrulline, termed citrullination, is particularly involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Immunohistochemistry using an antibody mixture that broadly recognized various keratin forms detected cytokeratin in many cells in the area lining the synovial membrane of RA. Furthermore, double immuno-florescent labeling showed that the cells expressing cytokeratin were also positive for citrulline when they were in the vicinity of extracellular deposits or approached the exterior of the synovial membrane. Western blot analysis demonstrated citrullination of keratin purified from RA synovial tissue by immuno-precipitation. The above results indicate the presence of citrullinated cytokeratin in synovial membranes in RA.
Rheumatology International 03/2009; 29(11):1337-42. · 2.21 Impact Factor