[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P < 0.05) total protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine levels occurred in WPS group compared with C and WP, no significant change was observed in plasma Hcy concentration between groups. Furthermore, the levels of lipid hydroperoxides and advanced oxidation protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplant recipients are at an increased oxidative stress risk due to pre-existing hepatic impairment, ischemia-reperfusion injury, immunosuppression, and functional graft rejection. This study compared the oxidative status of healthy control subjects, patients with liver cirrhosis on the list for transplantation, and subjects already transplanted for at least 12 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of taurine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver injury in rats fed a choline-deficient diet.
Thirty rats were divided into three groups (n=10), to receive one of the following diets for 4weeks: control diet (C), choline-deficient diet (CDD), or choline-deficient diet supplemented with taurine (CDDT). The CDD and the CDDT consisted of AIN-93 without the recommended choline content of 2.5%, and the CDDT was supplemented by the addition of 2.5% taurine.
Four weeks of ingesting a CDD resulted in a significant increase in plasma Hcy (50%) as well as a decrease in liver S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentration and S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio. No changes were found in plasma methionine and cysteine plasma levels compared to control group. Four weeks of ingesting a CDD also caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in hepatic total fat, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. In addition, reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) were found in rats fed a CDD compared to controls. Taurine supplementation of the CDD normalized genes involved in the remethylation pathway, BHMT and CHDH, which were impaired by CDD alone. However, taurine supplementation failed to prevent CDD-induced Hcy metabolism disturbances and hepatic injury. Also, taurine added to CDD caused decreased expression of PEMT, CHKa, and CHKb, key genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis and liver fat accumulation.
Taurine supplementation failed to ameliorate impaired Hcy metabolism and liver injury caused by CDD intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess oxidative stress and the profile of fatty acids incorporated into the hepatic tissue of animals refed with high-fat (HF) diets after acute food restriction.
Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups and fasting for 48 hours. One group was sacrificed without refeeding (NR), a control group (C) was refed with the standard AIN-93 diet and the remaining groups with HF diets respectively consisting of hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), trans-free (TF) margarine and trans-free margarine enriched with ω-3 and ω-6 (O). After this period the animals were sacrificed for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase and hepatic fatty acid determination.
The groups refed with HF diets showed elevation of MDA levels compared to the C group (p<0.001 for GVH and p<0.01 for TF and O). Hepatic catalase activity was higher in the TF and O groups compared to group C (p<0.05 for both). The amount of saturated fatty acids was lower in the PHVO and O groups compared to the remaining ones (p<0.001).
The consumption of high-fat diets after prolonged fasting favors oxidative imbalance in hepatic tissue.
Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 03/2014; 29(3):178-185. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no consensus about the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism, especially in animals fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum, liver and adipose tissue, as well as the oxidative stress generated in rats refed with high-fat diets after a 48 hour fast. Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t10,c12- CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). The CLA group showed lower weight gain and liver weight after refeeding, as well as increased serum cholesterol. The high dietary fat intake induced fat accumulation and an increase in -tocopherol in the liver, which were not observed in the CLA group. Circulating -tocopherol was increased in the CLA and CLA+LA groups. The high- fat diets reduced liver catalase activity. CLA isomers were incorporated into serum and tissues. In this shortterm refeeding experimental model, CLA prevented hepatic fat accumulation, although it produced an increase in serum cholesterol.
Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) plasma levels after acute exercise in humans.
Twenty-three young (under-20) soccer players were divided into 2 groups: creatine (Cr)- and placebo (Pla)-supplemented groups. The supplementation was performed in double-blind controlled manner using creatine or placebo tablets with 0.3 g/kg during 7 days. Before and after 7 days of supplementation, the athletes performed an acute high-intensity sprint exercise (two consecutive running-based anaerobic sprint test protocol consisted in 6 × 35 m sprint with 10 s between them). Blood samples were collected before and after 7 days of supplementation as well as 0 and 1 h after exercise protocol.
Homocysteine concentration significant increased (P < 0.05) 1 h after acute exercise (18 %). Acute exercise also decreased red blood cell S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) 30 % with no changes in SAM/SAH ratio. Seven days of creatine supplementation were able to increase (P < 0.05) plasma creatine concentration (Pla 130.1 ± 21.7 vs Cr 1,557.2 ± 220.3 μmol/L) as well as decrease (P < 0.05) plasma guanidinoacetic acid (33 %). Controversially, creatine supplementation did not change Hcy plasma level after 7-day supplementation (Pla 6.9 ± 0.2 vs Cr 7.2 ± 0.2 μmol/L) or after acute exercise (Pla 8.2 ± 0.3 vs Cr 8.4 ± 0.3 μmol/L). No changes in plasma vitamin B12 and folate as well as cysteine and methionine were found.
Seven days of creatine supplementation does not avoid increased plasma Hcy induced by acute sprint exercise in humans.
European Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; 53(6). · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin C offered through a dietary supplement and an ascorbic acid (AA)-rich diet on exercise-induced oxidative stress. METHODS: The sample consisted of 13 elite swimmers (6 men and 7 women) aged 18 to 26 years. The same athletes were submitted to an acute exercise session in 3 phases, with different treatments: control (C), AA-rich diet (D) and AA supplement (S), where blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 24 hours after exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model was used to compare phases and stages. RESULTS: The habitual consumption of antioxidants did not differ between phases, except that AA intake was higher during the D and S phases than during the C phase. The use of an AA-rich diet provided lower lipid peroxidation due to lower lipid hydroperoxide (FOX) values, a reduction of peroxidation after exercise due to reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and an increase in vitamin C levels after exercise. The use of an AA supplement also restricted lipid peroxidation after exercise and increased the antioxidant power due to higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Without the addition of AA , the swimmers had greater hepatic damage as shown by higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower antioxidant levels (vitamin C and GSH) and increased uric acid. CONCLUSION: Thus, the changes observed after the addition of AA to the diet of swimmers suggest an important role of this micronutrient in the defense against exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 12/2013; 19(6):394-398. · 0.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This controlled, prospective, nonrandomized clinical investigation has as its chief strength the fact that it was done in humans with active disease and apparently on fairly modest therapeutic regimens. The aim was to present the results of oxidative-stress biomarkers in humans suffering from pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Inflammation and oxidative stress are essential in PAH with increased lipid peroxidation and reduced antioxidant defenses. Twenty-four adult patients of both sexes, with a mean age of 21 years, were subdivided into 2 groups: a control group of 12 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers and a PAH group (PAHG) of 12 volunteers with PAH receiving outpatient treatment. Oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma activity of reduced glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation was expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxide (ferrous oxidation of xylenol orange [FOX] assay); vitamin E was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses showed significant differences for (1) the TNF-α measure, with highest values in PAHG patients; (2) the plasma GSH, with lowest values in PAHG patients; (3) vitamin E, with the lowest concentrations in PAHG patients; (4) MDA measure, with highest values in PAHG patients; and (5) the lipid hydroperoxide FOX measure, with highest values in PAHG patients. In conclusion, inflammation and oxidative stress are present in patients with PAH, as confirmed by increased lipid peroxidation, reduced GSH, and low concentrations of vitamin E.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some researchers found decreased levels of plasma taurine in obese subjects and animals, and reduced expression of an important enzyme of taurine synthesis. These evidences, coupled with the metabolic imbalance of obesity and the possible anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of taurine, highlighted the use of taurine as a supplement in obesity treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation, associated with nutritional counseling, modulates oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and glucose homeostasis in obese women.
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted with 16 women with obesity diagnosis and 8 women in the normal weight range. The obese volunteers were matched by age and body mass index and randomly assigned to either the placebo (3 g/day starch flour) or taurine (3 g/day taurine) group. The study lasted 8 weeks, and the experimental protocol included nutritional assessment and determination of plasma sulfur amino acids, insulin, and adiponectin, serum glycemia, and markers of inflammatory response and oxidative stress.
Plasma taurine levels were significantly decreased (41 %) in the obese volunteers. Both the placebo and taurine groups showed significant reduction in weight (3 %), with no differences between groups. Different from placebo, taurine-supplemented group showed significant increase in plasma taurine (97 %) and adiponectin (12 %) and significant reduction in the inflammatory marker hs-C-reactive protein (29 %) and in the lipid peroxidation marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (20 %).
Eight weeks of taurine supplementation associated with nutritional counseling is able to increase adiponectin levels and to decrease markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in obese women.
European Journal of Nutrition 09/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipodystrophy syndrome is an unexpected clinical manifestation in patients infected with HIV and might be a clinical marker of increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Because hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with CVD, the goal of the present study was to investigate homocysteine (Hcy) levels and their association with the factors of lipodystrophy syndrome in men with HIV.
Hcy metabolism-related molecules were determined in 13 men infected with HIV with lipodystrophy (HIV+LIP), 10 men with HIV without lipodystrophy (HIV), and 10 healthy controls (C).
Significant (P < 0.05) increased Hcy plasma levels were found in HIV (20.5%) and in HIV+LIP (35.2%) compared with the control group. Plasma levels of vitamin B12 (HIV, 26.5%; HIV+LIP, 28.8%) and folate (HIV, 39.1% and HIV+LIP, 49.4%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the two groups of HIV patients compared with control. HIV+LIP men presented raised plasma total sulfur-containing amino acids (20.1%) and lower total plasma thiol (11.3%) than controls. The same was not observed in the HIV group. Spearman's correlation test revealed significant (P < 0.05) association between plasma Hcy and duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and plasma insulin, as well as plasma adiponectin levels.
Our results demonstrated that HIV+LIP men were more susceptible to disturbances in Hcy metabolism compared with men infected with HIV without lipodystrophy characteristics. Duration of HAART treatment, elevated plasma insulin, and low levels of adiponectin seem to be relevant for the appearance of these Hcy metabolic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation markers after acute repeated-sprint exercise in humans.
Twenty-five players under age 20 y were randomly assigned to two groups: Cr supplemented and placebo. Double-blind controlled supplementation was performed using Cr (0.3 g/kg) or placebo tablets for 7 d. Before and after 7 d of supplementation, the athletes performed two consecutive Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Tests (RAST). RAST consisted of six 35-m sprint runs at maximum speed with 10 sec rest between them. Blood samples were collected just prior to start of test (pre), just after the completion (0 h), and 1 h after completion.
Average, maximum, and minimum power values were greater in the Cr-supplemented group compared with placebo (P < 0.05). There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) up to 1 h after acute sprint exercise in the placebo-supplemented group. Malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes also were increased after exercise in both groups. Red blood cell glutathione was lower after exercise in both groups. Cr supplementation reversed the increase in TNF-α and CRP as well as LDH induced by acute exercise. Controversially, Cr supplementation did not inhibit the rise in oxidative stress markers. Also, antioxidant enzyme activity was not different between placebo and Cr-supplemented groups.
Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The marker most frequently used to indicate the level of lipid peroxidation in the field of exercise and sports is malondialdehyde (MDA), which can be determined by many different techniques. However, there are few studies discussing differences and advantages of the methods for MDA assay in sports science field. The aim of the present study was to compare three techniques for quantification of MDA in plasma of humans subjected to acute exercise. MDA was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (MDA-HPLC), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (MDA-TBARS) and 1-methyl-2-phenylindole (MDA-MP) techniques in the plasma of 8 healthy male soccer athletes before and after acute exercise. Acute exercise significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma MDA concentration determined by MDA-HPLC (18%) and MDA-TBARS (56%) techniques. MDA-MP technique did not reveal significant differences, although it increased 25% after exercise. When correlated to the gold standard (MDA-HPLC), MDA-TBARS and MDA-MP techniques showed weak Lin concordance coefficients and non-significant correlation. Also, MDA-TBARS and MDA-MP techniques overestimated the MDA-HPLC technique by 100 and 122%, respectively. In conclusion, MDA-HPLC and MDA-TBARS are sensitive to detect change in MDA induced by acute exercise. MDA-HPLC is the most suitable technique for accurate detection of MDA in sports and exercise area due to its sensitivity and accuracy.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2013; · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a multifactorial disease associated with vascular dysfunction, low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and oxidative stress. However, it is not known whether low NO bioavailability and oxidative stress affect the responsiveness of ED patients to sildenafil. We tested this hypothesis by studying 28 healthy subjects (control group), 26 patients with ED without comorbidities (ED group), and 18 patients with ED and diabetes mellitus (ED/DM group). The International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was used to assess the erectile function of all participants, and their responsiveness to sildenafil was assessed as the percentage of change in the five-item version of IIEF score before and after sildenafil treatment. Levels of whole blood nitrite, antioxidants markers (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduced glutathione), and oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and protein carbonyl) were determined. We found a negative correlation between whole blood nitrite levels and the responses to sildenafil in both ED groups (P < 0.05). FRAP correlated negatively with the responses to sildenafil in the ED/DM group (P < 0.05). No other significant associations were found. Our findings show evidence that low NO bioavailability is associated with better responses to sildenafil in patients with ED (with or without DM).
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 05/2013; 386(9). · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Understanding the consequences of cancer for energy metabolism is required in order to define strategies that both prevent and treat malnutrition. Carnitine is essential for lipid energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to assess presurgical plasma carnitine levels in cancer patients and their association with dietary intake, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, indirect calorimetry, plasma amino acid levels, and urinary carnitine and nitrogen values. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which two groups were randomly selected: one consisting of esophageal and gastric cancer patients (n = 24) and the other of healthy volunteers (control group, n = 12). RESULTS: Average plasma and urinary carnitine values ranged from 60 to 80 μM and 78 to 124 μM, respectively, in both groups, with no significant difference between them. Moreover, methionine and lysine levels, as well as resting energy expenditure, did not differ between cancer patients and controls. Plasma free carnitine levels, however, were significantly lower in cancer patients, 80 % (p < 0.05) of whom had deficient urinary carnitine excretion, insufficient dietary protein intake, and low body fat reserves. CONCLUSION: Although cancer patients had carnitine deficiency and lower carnitine stores, these did not affect resting energy expenditure, total food intake, or plasma lysine and methionine levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the vitamin's status and the inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers in adult patients up to 3 days after thermal injury. This prospective study was conducted with 11 patients 24 to 72 hours after thermal injury (Burn Group), total surface area ranging from 10 to 41%, 34.3 ± 9.3 years, 82% of males, body mass index of 22.3 ± 2.9 kg/m. We included 11 healthy adults (Control Group), 36.5 ± 7.6 years, 73% of males, and body mass index of 23.8 ± 2.5 kg/m. Laboratory data were measured (plasma total protein, albumin, transferrin, lymphocyte counts, zinc, and iron), as well as serum vitamins (folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamins A, C, and E), inflammatory stress markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and acid α1-glycoprotein) and oxidative stress markers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The inflammatory stress was characterized by lower levels of total protein (median difference 1.2 g/dL, 95% CI: 0.4-2.1) and albumin (median difference 0.9 g/dL, 95% CI: 0.5-1.5), and higher levels of C-reactive protein (median difference -8.12 mg/dL, 95% CI: -11.62 to 4.61) and α-1 glycoprotein acid (median difference -28.56 mg/dL, 95% CI: -51.57 to -5.07) in burn patients. Decreased serum levels of vitamin A (median difference 1.10 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.42-1.66) and vitamin C (median difference 0.82 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.50-1.04) were also detected. There was no statistical evidence of difference in the serum levels of glutathione peroxidase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances between burn patients and controls, respectively. Even though there is an inflammatory stress, the obtained data showed that oxidative stress markers are normal 24 to 72 hours after burn injury. The decrease in negative acute phase protein may account for the diminished serum levels of vitamin A, which seems to be related to inflammatory stress. The marked decrease in the serum levels of vitamin C can be justified by augmented cutaneous loss and consumption in the regeneration of vitamin E.
Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 01/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiamine and benfotiamine are vitamin B1 and pro-vitamin B1 substances, respectively. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in energy metabolism, and its deficiency leads to neurologic and cardiovascular pathologies, as seen in alcoholics. This study presents new data about the effects of thiamine hydrochloride or benfotiamine treatment given to rats with acute alcohol intoxication, on the distribution of thiamine and its phosphate esters in liver, plasma and erythrocytes. The treatments were effective in increasing thiamine levels in plasma, erythrocytes and liver cells. The benfotiamine-treated group had its total plasma thiamine increased by 100%. In erythrocytes, thiamine levels were 4- and 25-fold higher in the groups treated with thiamine and benfotiamine, respectively, compared with the untreated groups. Liver thiamine was increased by 60% in the treated groups compared with the untreated groups. Thus, we verified the high bioavailability especially of benfotiamine within six hours of ethanol administration.
European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.