[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related degenerative and malignant diseases represent major challenges for health care systems. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and age-associated pathologies is thus of growing biomedical relevance. We identified biallelic germline mutations in SPRTN (also called C1orf124 or DVC1) in three patients from two unrelated families. All three patients are affected by a new segmental progeroid syndrome characterized by genomic instability and susceptibility toward early onset hepatocellular carcinoma. SPRTN was recently proposed to have a function in translesional DNA synthesis and the prevention of mutagenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro characterization of identified mutations has uncovered an essential role for SPRTN in the prevention of DNA replication stress during general DNA replication and in replication-related G2/M-checkpoint regulation. In addition to demonstrating the pathogenicity of identified SPRTN mutations, our findings provide a molecular explanation of how SPRTN dysfunction causes accelerated aging and susceptibility toward carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggregation of misfolded proteins and the associated loss of neurons are considered as a hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Optineurin is present in protein inclusions observed in various neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeld-Jacob disease and Pick's disease. Optineurin deletion mutations have also been described in ALS patients. However, the role of optineurin in mechanisms of protein aggregation remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that optineurin recognized various protein aggregates via its C-terminal coiled-coil domain in a ubiquitin-independent manner. We also show that optineurin depletion significantly increase protein aggregation in HeLa cells and morpholino-silencing of the optineurin ortholog in zebrafish causes the motor axonopathy phenotype similar to a zebrafish model of ALS. A more severe phenotype is observed when optineurin is depleted in zebrafish carrying ALS mutations. Furthermore, TANK1 binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is co-localized with optineurin on protein aggregates and is important in clearance of protein aggregates through the autophagy-lysosome pathway. TBK1 phosphorylates optineurin at position Ser-177 and regulates its ability to interact with autophagy modifiers. This study provides evidence for a ubiquitin-independent function of optineurin in autophagic clearance of protein aggregates as well as additional relevance for TBK1 as an upstream regulator of the autophagic pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHARPIN is a ubiquitin-binding and ubiquitin-like-domain-containing protein which, when mutated in mice, results in immune system disorders and multi-organ inflammation. Here we report that SHARPIN functions as a novel component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and that the absence of SHARPIN causes dysregulation of NF-κB and apoptotic signalling pathways, explaining the severe phenotypes displayed by chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) in SHARPIN-deficient mice. Upon binding to the LUBAC subunit HOIP (also known as RNF31), SHARPIN stimulates the formation of linear ubiquitin chains in vitro and in vivo. Coexpression of SHARPIN and HOIP promotes linear ubiquitination of NEMO (also known as IKBKG), an adaptor of the IκB kinases (IKKs) and subsequent activation of NF-κB signalling, whereas SHARPIN deficiency in mice causes an impaired activation of the IKK complex and NF-κB in B cells, macrophages and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This effect is further enhanced upon concurrent downregulation of HOIL-1L (also known as RBCK1), another HOIP-binding component of LUBAC. In addition, SHARPIN deficiency leads to rapid cell death upon tumour-necrosis factor α (TNF-α) stimulation via FADD- and caspase-8-dependent pathways. SHARPIN thus activates NF-κB and inhibits apoptosis via distinct pathways in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>/=140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >/=90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is the cellular homeostatic pathway that delivers large cytosolic materials for degradation in the lysosome. Recent evidence indicates that autophagy mediates selective removal of protein aggregates, organelles and microbes in cells. Yet, the specificity in targeting a particular substrate to the autophagy pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the mitochondrial protein Nix is a selective autophagy receptor by binding to LC3/GABARAP proteins, ubiquitin-like modifiers that are required for the growth of autophagosomal membranes. In cultured cells, Nix recruits GABARAP-L1 to damaged mitochondria through its amino-terminal LC3-interacting region. Furthermore, ablation of the Nix:LC3/GABARAP interaction retards mitochondrial clearance in maturing murine reticulocytes. Thus, Nix functions as an autophagy receptor, which mediates mitochondrial clearance after mitochondrial damage and during erythrocyte differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is the most serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Proinflammatory cytokines have been suggested to regulate preneoplastic growth during CAC tumorigenesis. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional NF-kappaB-regulated cytokine that acts on epithelial and immune cells. Using genetic tools, we now demonstrate that IL-6 is a critical tumor promoter during early CAC tumorigenesis. In addition to enhancing proliferation of tumor-initiating cells, IL-6 produced by lamina propria myeloid cells protects normal and premalignant intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from apoptosis. The proliferative and survival effects of IL-6 are largely mediated by the transcription factor Stat3, whose IEC-specific ablation has profound impact on CAC tumorigenesis. Thus, the NF-kappaB-IL-6-Stat3 cascade is an important regulator of the proliferation and survival of tumor-initiating IECs.
Cancer cell 03/2009; 15(2):103-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2009.01.001 · 23.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify genetic variants underlying six anthropometric traits: body height, body weight, body mass index, brachial circumference, waist circumference, and hip circumference, using a genome-wide association study.
The study was carried out in the isolated population of the island of Korcula, Croatia, with 898 adult examinees who participated in the larger DNA-based genetic epidemiological study in 2007. Anthropometric measurements followed standard internationally accepted procedures. Examinees were genotyped using HumanHap 370CNV chip by Illumina, with a genome-wide scan containing 316730 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).
A total of 11 SNPs were associated with the investigated traits at the level of P<10(-5), with one SNP (rs7792939 in gene zinc finger protein 498, ZNF498) associated with body weight, hip circumference, and brachial circumference (P=3.59-5.73 x 10(-6)), and another one (rs157350 in gene delta-sarcoglycan, SGCD) with both brachial and hip circumference (P=3.70-6.08 x 10(-6). Variants in CRIM1, a gene regulating delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins to the cell surface, and ITGA1, involved in the regulation of mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and cartilage production, were also associated with brachial circumference (P=7.82 and 9.68 x 10(-6), respectively) and represent interesting functional candidates. Other associations involved those between genes SEZ6L2 and MAX and waist circumference, XTP6 and brachial circumference, and AMPA1/GRIA1 and height.
Although the study was underpowered for the reported associations to reach formal threshold of genome-wide significance under the assumption of independent multiple testing, the consistency of association between the 2 variants and a set of anthropometric traits makes CRIM1 and ITGA1 highly interesting for further replication and functional follow-up. Increased linkage disequilibrium between the used markers in an isolated population makes the formal significance threshold overly stringent, and changed allele frequencies in isolate population may contribute to identifying variants that would not be easily identified in large outbred populations.
Croatian Medical Journal 02/2009; 50(1):7-16. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism is a hereditary, pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that starts early in life. The main characteristics of the autism are impairment in social interactions, difficulties in adapting to novel environmental situations and improper reaction to stress. Since the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) axis plays a key role in the response to stress and because the previous research found abnormalities in HPA system, we conducted a study to test several elements of the HPA axis. Because autism is a heritable disorder, autistic subjects were studied as well as their parents. Cortisol circadian rhythm, cortisol daily secretion and its suppression response to dexamethasone had been measured from saliva or urine samples of the autistic children and their parents. Cortisol secretion response after ACTH stimulation was done with the autistic children only. The cortisol elevation after ACTH stimulation among the autistic individuals was slower (P = 0.017) than in healthy controls. No differences were found in salivary cortisol circadian rhythm or suppression response, as well as in cortisol daily excretion. These data indicate that, compared to healthy subjects, autistic individuals have fine differences in cortisol response to ACTH stimulation or possibly to other types of stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) transcription factors control cell survival, proliferation and innate and adaptive immune response. Post-translational modifications of key components of the NF-kappaB pathway provide the molecular basis for signal transmission from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Here, we describe the involvement of different types of ubiquitin modification in the regulation of the NF-kappaB signalling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency of known polymorphisms in the exon 2 of the NeuroD1 gene and in the interleukin (IL)-18 promoter region in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in healthy control subjects in Dalmatia, Southern Croatia.
A total of 134 unrelated patients (73 men and 61 women) and 132 consecutive unrelated healthy controls (61 men and 71 women) from the Dalmatian region of southern Croatia were recruited for the study. NeuroD1 genotypes (GG, GA, AA) were identified by means of polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP). IL-18 polymorphism in the position -137 of the promoter region was detected by using PCR sequence-specific primers.
Genotype distributions of both genes did not show significant difference between patients and controls.
Our results suggest that NeuroD1 exon 2 and IL-18 promoter gene polymorphisms are not associated with development of T1DM susceptibility in the population of South Croatia. In addition to previously published positive correlations of these polymorphisms with development of T1DM among different world populations, our findings indicate the existence of ethnic variations in the association of these genes with disease development.
Croatian Medical Journal 09/2006; 47(4):571-8. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D and interleukin (IL)-1 have been suggested to function in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Therefore, we examined the influence of gene polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor (VDR) and interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1-R1) on susceptibility to T1DM in the Dalmatian population of South Croatia. We genotyped 134 children with T1DM and 132 controls; for FokI polymorphism studies, we extended the control group to an additional 102 patients. The VDR gene polymorphism FokI displayed unequal distribution (P = 0.0049) between T1DM and control groups, with the ff genotype occurring more frequently in T1DM individuals whereas the VDR gene polymorphism Tru9I did not differ in frequency between studied groups. All tested polymorphisms of the IL-1-R1 gene [PstI, HinfI, and AluI (promoter region) and PstI-e (exon 1B region)] displayed no differences between cases and controls. Haplotype analysis of the VDR gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, TaqI, Tru9I) and of the IL-1-R1 gene (PstI, HinfI, AluI, PstI-e) found haplotypes VDR FbATu (P = 0.0388) and IL-1-R1 phap' (P = 0.0419) to be more frequent in T1DM patients whereas the BatU haplotype occurred more often in controls (P = 0.0064). Our findings indicate that the VDR FokI polymorphism and several VDR and IL-1-R1 haplotypes are associated with susceptibility to T1DM in the Dalmatian population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency protects from severe forms of malaria. It is interesting therefore to analyze the molecular basis underlying G6PD deficiency in regions such as the Mediterranean basin where malaria was present for a long time in history. Here we report on the genetic characterization of G6PD deficiency among inhabitants of one Mediterranean region-the Dalmatian region of south Croatia. We analyzed 24 unrelated G6PD-deficient male subjects. Molecular testing revealed several different mutations: G6PD Cosenza 9, G6PD Mediterranean 4, G6PD Seattle 3, G6PD Union 3, and G6PD Cassano 1. Furthermore, we have identified one novel G6PD variant that we named G6PD Split. This variant is caused by a nucleotide change 1442 C-->G leading to the amino acid substitution 481 Pro-->Arg and is characterized by moderate enzyme deficiency (class III variant). This study reveals a higher prevalence (37.5%) of the Cosenza mutation in the Dalmatian region than anywhere else previously investigated and overall shows the considerable molecular heterogeneity underlining G6PD deficiency that can be observed in Mediterranean populations.
Journal of Human Genetics 02/2005; 50(11):547-9. DOI:10.1007/s10038-005-0292-2 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Factor V Leiden has been described as a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism. The geographic distribution of this abnormality varies greatly, being high in Europe and almost absent in Asia and Africa. Particularly high prevalence is observed in some Mediterranean countries, which suggests the Mediterranean origin of this mutation. Similarly, prevalence of silent mutation 1311 of the G6PD gene seems to be higher among Mediterranean populations. Since the Dalmatian population (of south Croatia) geographically belongs to the Mediterranean populations we analyzed the prevalence of FV-Leiden and silent mutation 1311 in this region. Furthermore, because the coincidence of G6PD deficiency and venous thromboembolism was described earlier, we tested a possible association of FV-Leiden and G6PD deficiency.
One hundred sixty-eight healthy blood donors and 55 G6PD deficient individuals originating from the Dalmatian region were tested for the presence of FV-Leiden mutation and silent mutation 1311.
Prevalence of FV-Leiden among blood donors was 2.4%, while among G6PD deficient individuals it was significantly higher, 11% (p=0.011). Prevalence of silent mutation 1311 among blood donors and G6PD deficient individuals was 21 and 15%, respectively.
Observed allele frequencies among individuals originating from the Dalmatian region is similar to the neighboring European and Mediterranean populations. Interestingly, our results indicate the association of the FV-Leiden and G6PD deficiency and warrant further studies.
Archives of Medical Research 11/2004; 35(6):546-8. DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2004.07.005 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CIN85 is a multidomain scaffold protein involved in downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Here we show that disabled-2 (Dab2), an endocytic adaptor molecule implicated in clathrin-coat assembly, associates with CIN85 in mammalian cells. All three SH3 domains of CIN85 were able to bind to the PKPAPR peptide in the carboxyl-terminal part of Dab2, possibly enabling CIN85 to simultaneously interact with multiple Dab2 molecules. CIN85 association with Dab2 is essential for its recruitment to clathrin coat and appears to be modulated by growth factor stimulation. Dab2 and clathrin dissociated from CIN85 following growth factor treatment, enabling other molecules, such as Cbl, to bind to CIN85. Taken together, our data indicate a dynamic interplay between CIN85 and its effectors during endocytosis of receptor tyrosine kinases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood concentrations of pituitary hormones adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), prolactin, growth hormone, and adrenal hormone-cortisol were measured in 36 autistic and 27 control individuals. Individuals with autism had significantly lower serum concentrations of cortisol (p < 10(-6)), and significantly higher concentrations of ACTH (p = 0.002) than control age- and sex-matched subjects. Also, prolactin concentrations in autistic patients with epilepsy were significantly higher when compared with normal subjects. The observed hormonal changes may indicate dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in individuals with autism.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 09/2003; 33(4):443-8. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have found a relationship between polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The meaning of this observation remains unclear and its relevance must be checked in different population samples. To examine the association of VDR polymorphisms and susceptibility to T1DM in the Dalmatian population of South Croatia we studied 134 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 132 control subjects. VDR genotyping was performed using PCR and BsmI, ApaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Data were analysed using the chi(2)-test. The genotype combination which conferred strongest susceptibility to T1DM was BBAAtt (P=0.002). Interestingly, the BAt haplotype was found to be a risk factor in a German population, the only European population tested thus far. Our results indicate that VDR polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of T1DM in the Dalmatian population of South Croatia and warrant further studies.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 02/2003; 59(1):31-5. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(02)00195-X · 2.54 Impact Factor