[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86362. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 30% of infants in the United States are exposed to high doses of isoflavones resulting from soy infant formula consumption. Soybeans contain the isoflavones genistin and daidzin, which are hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to their genistein and daidzein aglycones. Both aglycones possess hormonal activity and may interfere with male reproductive development. Testosterone, which supports male fertility, is mainly produced by testicular Leydig cells. Our previous studies indicated that perinatal exposure of male rats to isoflavones induced proliferative activity in Leydig cells and increased testosterone concentrations into adulthood. However, the relevance of the neonatal period as part of the perinatal window of isoflavone exposure remains to be established. The present study examined the effects of exposure to isoflavones on male offspring of dams maintained on a casein-based control or whole soybean diet in the neonatal period, i.e., days 1 to 21 postpartum. Results showed that the soybean diet stimulated proliferative activity in developing Leydig cells while suppressing their steroidogenic capacity in adulthood. In addition, isoflavone exposure decreased production of anti-Müllerian hormone by Sertoli cells. Similar to our previous in vitro studies of genistein action in Leydig cells, daidzein induced proliferation and interfered with signaling pathways to suppress steroidogenic activity. Overall, data showed that the neonatal period is a sensitive window of exposure to isoflavones and support the view that both genistein and daidzein are responsible for biological effects associated with soy-based diets.
Biology of Reproduction 01/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The default mode network (DMN) in humans has been extensively studied using seed-based correlation analysis (SCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). While DMN has been observed in monkeys as well, there are conflicting reports on whether they exist in rodents. Dogs are higher mammals than rodents, but cognitively not as advanced as monkeys and humans. Therefore, they are an interesting species in the evolutionary hierarchy for probing the comparative functions of the DMN across species. In this study, we sought to know whether the DMN, and consequently its functions such as self-referential processing, are exclusive to humans/monkeys or can we also observe the DMN in animals such as dogs. To address this issue, resting state functional MRI data from the brains of lightly sedated dogs and unconstrained and fully awake dogs were acquired, and ICA and SCA were performed for identifying the DMN. Since anesthesia can alter resting state networks, confirming our results in awake dogs was essential. Awake dog imaging was accomplished by training the dogs to keep their head still using reinforcement behavioral adaptation techniques. We found that the anterior (such as anterior cingulate and medial frontal) and posterior regions (such as posterior cingulate) of the DMN were dissociated in both awake and anesthetized dogs.
Brain Structure and Function 01/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Head movement is a critical issue for fMRI, as motion on the order of voxel resolution will degrade the data. Motion becomes even more critical for high-field, high-resolution methods and is especially problematic for the study of awake animals.
The results with integration of optical head tracking parameters showed the same basic activation pattern obtained by using only SPM realignment parameters, but also additional areas of activation in the frontal cortex, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum. 171 voxels were activated during the olfactory testing using only SPM alignment, and 591 voxels were activated using SPM plus camera motion. The overlap between the two methods was 167 voxels. N=5 subjects.
19th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) 2013; 10/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The melanocortin receptors (MCRs 1-5) are G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) that regulate food intake, inflammation, skin pigmentation, sexual function and steroidogenesis. Their peptide ligands, the melanocortins, are α-, β- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) all of which are secreted from the anterior pituitary gland under hypothalamic control. MC2R binds ACTH but has no affinity for the other melanocortins and is, thereby, pharmacologically different from MCRs that bind those ligands. Evidence suggests that elevated GPCRs transactivate the androgen receptor (AR), the critical mediator of prostate cell growth, and consequently promote prostate cancer cell proliferation. It may be that reduced central melanocortin signaling is coincidental with reversal of prostate cancer cachexia, but no data are available on the expression of, or the role for, MCRs in prostate cancer. Here, we show that MCR (1-5) mRNAs are expressed in androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cell lines. Further, MC2R, the specific target of ACTH, is expressed in LNCaP, PC3 and DU-145 cells. Among the several synthetic MCR peptide ligands that we used, only ACTH promoted concentration-dependent cell proliferation in the three cell lines as shown by MTT cell proliferation assay. In LNCaP cells, the effect was additive with testosterone stimulation and was partially blunted with SHU9119, a non-selective MCR antagonist. In the same cells, ACTH induced cAMP production and increased AR nuclear labeling in immunocytochemical assays. Our observations suggest that MC2R is involved in prostate carcinogenesis and that targeting MC2R signaling may provide a novel avenue in prostate carcinoma treatment.
International Journal of Oncology 07/2012; · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many odorants related to manufactured explosives have low volatilities and are barely detectable as odors. We previously reported that zinc metal nanoparticles increased rat olfactory epithelium responses, measured by electroolfactogram (EOG), to several odorants. Here, we report that nanomolar concentrations of zinc metal nanoparticles strongly enhanced olfactory responses to the explosives related odorants cyclohexanone, methyl benzoate, acetophenone, and eugenol. Rat olfactory epithelium was exposed to metal nanoparticles and odorant responses were quantified by EOG. Zinc nanoparticles added to explosive odorants strongly increased the odorant response in a dose-dependent manner. The enzymatic breakdown of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was prevented by adding the membrane-permeable phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). This caused the olfactory cilia cAMP concentration to increase and generated EOG signals. The EOG responses generated by IBMX were not enhanced by zinc nanoparticles. Based on these observations, we conclude that zinc nanoparticles act at the receptor site and are involved in the initial events of olfaction. Our results suggest that zinc metal nanoparticles can be used to facilitate a canine detection of explosive odorants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although all platyrrhine primates possess a vomeronasal organ (VNO), few species have been studied in detail. Here, we revisit the microanatomy of the VNO and related features in serially sectioned samples from 41 platyrrhine cadavers (14 species) of mixed age. Procedures to identify terminally differentiated vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) via immunolabeling of olfactory marker protein (OMP) were used on selected specimens. The VNO varies from an elongated epithelial tube (e.g., Ateles fusciceps) to a dorsoventrally expanded sac (e.g., Saguinus spp.). The cartilage that surrounds the VNO is J-shaped or U-shaped in most species, and articulates with a groove on the bony palate. Preliminary results indicate a significant correlation between the length of this groove and length of the VNO neuroepithelium, indicating this feature may serve as a skeletal correlate. The VNO neuroepithelium could be identified in all adult primates except Alouatta, in which poor preservation prevented determination. The VNO of Ateles, described in detail for the first time, had several rows of VSNs and nerves in the surrounding lamina propria. Patterns of OMP-reactivity in the VNO of perinatal platyrrhines indicate that few or no terminally differentiated VSNs are present at birth, thus supporting the hypothesis that some platyrrhines may have delayed maturation of the VNO. From a functional perspective, all platyrrhines studied possess structures required for chemoreception (VSNs, vomeronasal nerves). However, some microanatomical findings, such as limited reactivity to OMP in some species, indicate that some lineages of New World monkeys may have a reduced or vestigial vomeronasal system.
The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 12/2011; 294(12):2158-78. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) but its role in PCa is unclear. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a family of PPARγ activators and type 2 anti-diabetic drugs, exhibit anti-tumor apoptotic effects in human PCa cell lines. Likewise, pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a metabolic enzyme highly expressed in PCa, induce apoptosis in prostate and other cancer cells. Here, we show positive correlation between PPARγ and FASN protein in PCa cell lines and synergism between TZDs and FASN blockers in PCa cell viability reduction and apoptosis induction. Combined TZDs/FASN has enhanced anti-tumor properties in both androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3 and DU-145 cells when compared with single drug exposure. Low concentrations (5-10 μM) of the TZD drug rosiglitazone failed to alter cell viability but, paradoxically, upregulated lipogenic genes [PPARγ, FASN, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and acetyl-Co A carboxylase-1 (ACC1)], which diminish the apoptotic effects of rosiglitazone. The mean IC50 in all cell lines was 45 ± 2 μM for rosiglitazone compared with significantly lower 5 ± 1 μM for rosiglitazone plus the FASN blocker cerulenin, and 10.2 ± 2 μM for rosiglitazone plus the cerulenin synthetic analog C75. The IC50 for the combined rosiglitazone and FASN blockers contrasts with the relatively higher IC50 for rosiglitazone (45 ± 2 μM), the TZD drug troglitazone (13 ± 2 μM), cerulenin (32 ± 1 μM), or C75 (26 ± 3 μM) when these drugs were used alone. In summary, this study shows proof-of-principle for combining FASN blockers and TZDs for PCa treatment.
International Journal of Oncology 02/2011; 38(2):537-46. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the vomeronasal neuroepithelium (VNNE) microanatomy is disproportionately based on rodents. To broaden our knowledge, we examined olfactory marker protein (OMP) expression in a sample of twenty-three non-human primates. The density of OMP (+) vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) in the VNNE was measured. Here we compared OMP (+) VSN density in five species of Saguinus (a genus of New World monkey) of different ages to a comparative primate sample that included representatives of every superfamily in which a VNO is postnatally present. In Saguinus spp., the VNNE at birth is thin, usually comprising one or two nuclear rows. At all ages studied, few VNNE cells are OMP reactive as view in coronal sections. In the comparative sample, the OMP (+) VSNs appear to be far more numerous in the spider monkey (another New World monkey) and the bushbaby (a distant relative). Other species (e.g., owl monkey) had a similar low density of OMP (+) VSNs as in Saguinus. These results expand our earlier finding that few VSNs are OMP (+) in Saguinus geoffroyi to other species of the genus. Our sample indicates that the number of OMP (+) VSNs in primates varies from ubiquitous to few with New World monkeys varying the most. The scarcity of OMP (+) cells in some primate VNOs reflects a lower number of terminally differentiated VSNs compared to a diverse range of mammals. If primates with relatively few OMP (+) VSNs have a functional vomeronasal system, OMP is not critical for stimulus detection.
Brain research 02/2011; 1375:7-18. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular Leydig cells, which are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone, express estrogen receptors (ESRs) and are subject to regulation by estrogen. Following ingestion, the two major isoflavones in soybeans, genistin and daidzin, are hydrolyzed by gut microflora to form genistein and daidzein, which have the capacity to bind ESRs and affect gene expression. Thus, the increasing use of soy-based products as nondairy sources of protein has raised concerns about the potential of these products to cause reproductive toxicity. In the present study, perinatal exposure of male rats to isoflavones induced proliferative activity in Leydig cells. Isoflavones have the capacity to act directly as mitogens in Leydig cells, because genistein treatment induced Leydig cell division in vitro. Genistein action regulating Leydig cell division involved ESRs, acting in concert with signaling molecules in the transduction pathway mediated by protein kinase B (AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Enhanced proliferative activity in the prepubertal period increased Leydig cell numbers, which alleviated deficits in androgen biosynthesis and/or augmented serum and testicular testosterone concentrations in adulthood. Together, these observations indicate that the perinatal exposures of male rats to isoflavones affected Leydig cell differentiation, and they imply that including soy products in the diets of neonates has potential implications for testis function.
Biology of Reproduction 09/2010; 83(3):488-501. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leptin-regulated melanocortin (MC) system modulates energy homeostasis and hypothalamic MC neuronal circuits regulate insulin secretion. We therefore hypothesized that MC system components were present in the pancreas. In order to determine the veracity of the hypothesis, we examined c-Fos, melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) expression levels in nondiabetic (intact leptin receptor signaling) and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF; leptin receptor deficiency) rats. We infused rats via the third ventricle with the α-MSH analog Nle4, D-Phe7-α-MSH (NDP-MSH), a Mc4r agonist. Subsequently, both hypothalamic and pancreatic c-Fos and Mc4r mRNAs were upregulated. Likewise, immunohistochemical analysis showed that an increased Mc4r and α-MSH expression in nerves surrounding the pancreatic vasculature and islets. Increases in c-Fos, α-MSH, and Mc4r expression were independent of leptin receptor function. Conversely, serum insulin was significantly reduced by NDP-MSH treatment, an effect which was reversed by the Mc4r specific blocker HS014. Finally, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA, the precursor of α-MSH, was detected by RT-PCR in pancreatic tissue homogenates. These findings suggest that pancreatic Mc4r and autonomic neurons participate in a communication pathway between the central MC system and pancreatic islets to regulate insulin secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian olfactory epithelium can withstand the external environment, undergo life-long regeneration, and respond to thousands of odorant stimuli, making it an attractive system for a variety of studies. Previously, we described a long-lived olfactory coculture of olfactory epithelium and bulb tissues and we present here the kinetic properties of that culture system. Neonatal mouse epithelial-bulbar explants were grown for periods as long as 121 days in vitro (DIV), nearly doubling the survival time of our previously longest lived cultures. Cultures at all ages responded to air-borne odorants. The youngest cultures (1-15 DIV) showed shorter half-rise and half-decay times than older cultures (21-121 DIV), and were more variable in their half-decay times. Zinc nanoparticles enhanced electro-olfactogram responses of both younger and older cultures and both groups were immunopositive for olfactory marker protein. The results show that our olfactory culture model can support mature, odorant-responsive olfactory receptor neurons that possess many of the response features of in situ olfactory receptor neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc metal nanoparticles in picomolar concentrations strongly enhance odorant responses of olfactory sensory neurons. One- to 2-nm metallic particles contain 40-300 zinc metal atoms, which are not in an ionic state. We exposed rat olfactory epithelium to metal nanoparticles and measured odorant responses by electroolfactogram and whole-cell patch clamp. A small amount of zinc nanoparticles added to an odorant or an extracellular/intracellular particle perfusion strongly increases the odorant response in a dose-dependent manner. Zinc nanoparticles alone produce no odor effects. Copper, gold, or silver nanoparticles do not produce effects similar to those of zinc. If zinc nanoparticles are replaced by Zn(+2) ions in the same concentration range, we observed a reduction of the olfactory receptor neuron odorant response. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that zinc nanoparticles are closely located to the interface between the guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the receptor proteins and are involved in transferring signals in the initial events of olfaction. Our results suggest that zinc metal nanoparticles can be used to enhance and sustain the initial olfactory events.
Chemical Senses 07/2009; 34(7):547-57. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation decreased serum testosterone (T) in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2) in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPARγ. It is not clear if PPARγ modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPARγ activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPARγ activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPARγ activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione). Treatment for eight weeks increased PPARγ mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPARγ activation. PPARγ activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPARγ activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPARγ by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.
PPAR Research 02/2009; 2009:101857. · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular Leydig cells express estrogen receptors and are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone (T). Previous studies demonstrated that genistein acts through estrogen receptors in Leydig cells. In the present study, pre-treatment of Leydig cells isolated from 35 day-old male Long Evans rats with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor AG 1478 abrogated genistein inhibition of T biosynthesis. Also, incubation of Leydig cells in culture medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreased T secretion (control: 255+/-16; EGF: 190+/-17ng/10(6) cells, 24h) (P<0.05). However, T secretion by genistein-treated Leydig cells (0.1nM, 10muM; 24h) was rescued by post-treatment incubation with forskolin (control: 275+/-28 versus 325+/-35; 780+/-85; ng/10(6) cells, 3h) and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (dbcAMP) (control: 370+/-65 versus 580+/-75; 2500+/-200; ng/10(6) cells, 3h) (P>0.05). Furthermore, post-treatment incubation with cholera toxin, an activator of G proteins, caused genistein-treated Leydig cells to produce similar T amounts as untreated control (control: 55+/-5 versus 52+/-2 and 47+/-4; ng/10(6) cells, 3h) (P>0.05). These observations imply that genistein action interferes with coupling of transmembrane luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) with G proteins. Uncoupling of LHR from G proteins adversely affects adenylate cyclase function and impacts LH-dependent stimulation of Leydig cells. These findings have implications for testicular steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to genistein and soy-based products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide and an iron-regulatory hormone that is conserved in fish, amphibians, and mammalians. Here we report the genomic and biochemical characterization of two amphibian hepcidins (tHEP1 and tHEP2) from the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis). Similar to fish and mammalian hepcidins, both tHEP1 and tHEP2 genes contain three exons and two introns. The predicted mature tHEP1 and tHEP2 hepcidins are a 25 amino acid peptide and a 24 amino acid peptide, respectively. Both tHEP1 and tHEP2 are strongly expressed in the liver and kidney, with detectable expression in the heart. In addition, tHEP2 is also moderately expressed in the stomach and testis. The expression of tHEP2 (but not tHEP1) in the liver is strongly induced by iron overloading, while the expression of tHEP1 (but not tHEP2) in the liver is significantly inhibited by corticosterone. Genomic analysis of the promoter regions of these two frog hepcidin genes indicates that transcription regulation factors NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta may be involved in hepcidin regulation by iron. Hence, X. tropicalis is a useful model for the study of molecular evolution, transcriptional regulation, and structure-activity relationships of vertebrate hepcidins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) ligand diethylstilbesterol (DES) between neonatal days 2 to 12 induces penile adipogenesis and adult infertility in rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo interaction between DES-activated ERalpha and the proadipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Transcripts for PPARs alpha, beta, and gamma and gamma1a splice variant were detected in Sprague-Dawley normal rat penis with PPARgamma predominating. In addition, PPARgamma1b and PPARgamma2 were newly induced by DES. The PPARgamma transcripts were significantly upregulated with DES and reduced by antiestrogen ICI 182, 780. At the cellular level, PPARgamma protein was detected in urethral transitional epithelium and stromal, endothelial, neuronal, and smooth muscular cells. Treatment with DES activated ERalpha and induced adipocyte differentiation in corpus cavernosum penis. Those adipocytes exhibited strong nuclear PPARgamma expression. These results suggest a biological overlap between PPARgamma and ERalpha and highlight a mechanism for endocrine disruption.
PPAR Research 02/2008; 2008:651419. · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The canine nasal airway is an impressively complex anatomical structure, having many functional roles. The complicated branching and intricate scrollwork of the nasal conchae provide large surface area for heat, moisture, and odorant transfer. Of the previous anatomical studies of the canine nasal airway, none have included a detailed rendering of the maxilloturbinate and ethmoidal regions of the nose. Here, we present a high-resolution view of the nasal airway of a large dog, using magnetic resonance imaging scans. Representative airway sections are shown, and a three-dimensional surface model of the airway is reconstructed from the image data. The resulting anatomic structure and detailed morphometric data of the airway provide insight into the functional nature of canine olfaction. A complex airway network is revealed, wherein the branched maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate scrolls appear structurally distinct. This is quantitatively confirmed by considering the fractal dimension of each airway, which shows that the maxilloturbinate airways are more highly contorted than the ethmoidal airways. Furthermore, surface areas of the maxilloturbinate and ethmoidal airways are shown to be much different, despite having analogous physiological functions. Functionally, the dorsal meatus of the canine nasal airway is shown to be a bypass for odorant-bearing inspired air around the complicated maxilloturbinate during sniffing for olfaction. Finally, nondimensional analysis is used to show that the airflow within both the maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate regions must be laminar. This work has direct relevance to biomimetic sniffer design, chemical trace detector development, intranasal drug delivery, and inhalation toxicology.
The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 12/2007; 290(11):1325-40. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impaired expression of alpha-defensin antimicrobial peptides and overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we examine the interactions between alpha-defensins and IL-1beta and the role of defensin deficiency in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. It was found that matrix metalloproteinase-7-deficient (MMP-7(-/-)) mice, which produce procryptdins but not mature cryptdins (alpha-defensins) in the intestine, were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Furthermore, both baseline and dextran sulfate sodium-induced IL-1beta production in the intestine were significantly up-regulated in MMP-7(-/-) mice compared with that in control C57BL/6 mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for the increased IL-1beta production in defensin deficiency in vivo, we evaluated the effect of defensins on IL-1beta posttranslational processing and release. It was found that alpha-defensins, including mouse Paneth cell defensins cryptdin-3 and cryptdin-4, human neutrophil defensin HNP-1, and human Paneth cell defensin HD-5, blocked the release of IL-1beta from LPS-activated monocytes, whereas TNF-alpha expression and release were not affected. Unlike alpha-defensins, human beta-defensins and mouse procryptdins do not have any effect on IL-1beta processing and release. Thus, alpha-defensins may play an important role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the production of IL-1beta.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2007; 179(2):1245-53. · 5.36 Impact Factor