[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2 genes from twelve canine parvovirus (CPV) strains obtained from eleven domestic dogs and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. A novel canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected from the giant panda in China. RESULTS: Nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein VP2 gene classified the CPV as a new CPV-2a type. Substitution of Gln for Arg at the conserved 370 residue in CPV presents an unusual variation in the new CPV-2a amino acid sequence of the giant panda and is further evidence for the continuing evolution of the virus. CONCLUSIONS: These findings extend the knowledge on CPV molecular epidemiology of particular relevance to wild carnivores.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clinical cases of hemangioma associated with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) have been reported in commercial chicken layer flocks since 2006. We attempted to reproduce hemangioma through experimental infection with ALV-J to evaluate viral pathogenicity in layer birds and their progenies. RESULTS: Body weight and indexes for immune organs of chickens infected with ALV-J strain SCDY1 were lower than those in controls. Proliferation of lymphocytes was observed in many tissues, and viral integration was detected in the genome of lymphocytes at 14 days post-infection, along with virus shedding. ALV-J was also efficiently transmitted from eggs to progenies. Embryo hatchability and progeny mortality were lower than those for controls. The efficiencies of virus shedding and virus integration in the lymphocytes of progenies were higher than those in parents. CONCLUSIONS: ALV-J is able to inhibit the growth of infected chickens, and causes damage to immune organs. Vertical transmission of ALV-J appears to be more deleterious than horizontal transmission.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genome of a QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain Sczy3 isolated recently in Sichuan was sequenced. The genome contains 27,695 nucleotides (nt), and possesses a genomic structure similar to other IBV strains. Sequence comparisons demonstrated that the Sczy3 genome had the highest nt sequence identity with QX-like IBVs and was most dissimilar to the Massachusetts type IBV. Differences in the sequences of genes present in the Sczy3 genome and other IBVs gene sequences were also identified. Phylogenic analysis showed that the entire genome and most of the Sczy3 genes were located in the same cluster as LX4. Recombination analysis showed that Sczy3 is a chimeric strain derived from LX4 (major parental sequence) and H120 (minor parental sequence) suggesting that recombination occurred in a region containing the 3' terminal 5a sequence (83 nt), the 5' terminal 5b sequence (222 nt), and the 5' terminal nucleocapsid protein gene sequence (132 nt). Mutations and intergenic recombination may have played an important role in the evolution of IBVs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apxIC genes of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 5 (SC-1), encoding the ApxIactivating proteins, was deleted by a method involving sucrose counter-selection. In this study, a mutant strain of A. pleuropneumoniae (SC-1) was constructed and named DapxIC/ ompP2. The mutant strain contained foreign DNA in the deletion site of ompP2 gene of Haemophilus parasuis. It showed no haemolytic activity and lower virulence of cytotoxicity in mice compared with the parent strain, and its safety and immunogenicity were also evaluated in mice. The LD50 data shown that the mutant strain was attenuated 30-fold, compared with the parent strain (LD50 of the mutant strain and parent strain in mice were determined to be 1.0 × 107 CFU and 3.5 × 105 CFU respectively). The mutant strain that was attenuated could secrete inactivated ApxIA RTX toxins with complete antigenicity and could be used as a candidate live vaccine strain against infections of A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis.
The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research 01/2013; 80(1):E1-E6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attenuated Salmonella typhimurium χ4550 strain was used to harbour a reconstructed bicistronic DNA vaccine against porcine rotavirus, which carried the rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) and VP7 genes simultaneously. Using a balanced lethal system, the kanamycin resistance gene of expressing eukaryotic plasmids pVAX1 and pVAXD were replaced by the aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene. The NSP4 cleavage product (259-525) of rotavirus OSU strain and VP7 full-length genes were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then inserted into the eukaryotic single-expression plasmid, pVAX1-asd, and the eukaryotic dual-expression plasmid, pVAXD-asd, respectively. The recombinant plasmids pVAX1-asd-NSP4, pVAX1-asd-VP7 and pVAXD-asd-NSP4-VP7 were transformed into the attenuated S. typhimurium χ4550 strain by electrotransformation. An indirect immunofluorescence assay of the expressed COS-7 cell suggested that the recombinant S. typhimurium χ4550 strain was constructed successfully. The recombinant S. typhimurium χ4550 strain was orally administered to BALB/c mice. The group immunised with dual- expression plasmids produced a significantly higher level of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and intestinal Immunoglobulin A (IgA) than the group immunised with single-expression plasmids. These results indicated that eukaryotic bicistronic plasmid DNA vaccines could be successfully constructed to enhance humoural, mucosal and cellular immune response against rotavirus infection.
The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research 01/2013; 80(1):E1-E8. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avian reovirus (ARV) is an important pathogen in poultry industry and causes great economic losses. As attenuated Salmonella typhimurium is already being used as an effective vehicle for the transfer of DNA vaccines, so in this study we evaluated two DNA vaccines mediated by S. typhimurium on their ability of eliciting antibody production. SPF chickens were respectively immunized with SL7207 (pVAX-σB), SL7207 (pVAX-σC) and SL7027 (pVAX-σB-σC) three times. The results showed that the antibody production was highly dependent on the immunizing times, detectable antibodies of serum antibody IgG and small intestinal mucosal antibody IgA were generated at week 4 and were further improved at week 6 and antibody titers in group SL7207 (pVAX-σC) were higher than that in group SL7207 (pVAX-σB), demonstrating that SL7207 (pVAX-σC) was more powerful than SL7207 (pVAX-σB) in antibody production. The higher antibody titer in SL7027 (pVAX-σB-σC) than that in SL7207 (pVAX-σC) group showed that co-expressing σB and σC could improve antibody production. IFN-γ detection showed that significant higher IFN-γ was generated both in groups SL7027 (pVAX-σB-σC) and SL7207 (pVAX-σC). Subsequent challenge showed that SL7207 (pVAX-σB), SL7207 (pVAX-σC) and SL7027 (pVAX-σB-σC) conferred 50%, 75% and 87.5% respectively.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 04/2012; 147(3-4):154-60. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marek's disease (MD) is an economically important viral disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic herpesvirus. This disease was well controlled since the widespread use of commercial vaccines, but field MDVs have shown continuous increasing in virulence and acquired the ability to overcome the immune response induced by vaccines. Nowadays, MD continues to be a serious threat to poultry industry, isolation and characterization of MDVs are essential for monitoring changes of viruses and evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines.
Between 2008 and 2010, 18 field MDV strains were isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks in Sichuan province, China. Three oncogenic genes including Meq, pp38 and vIL-8 genes of the 18 isolates were amplified and sequenced. Homology analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of these three genes exhibit 95.0-98.8%, 99.3-100% and 97.0-98.5% homology respectively with these of other reference strains published in GenBank. Alignment analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that four amino acid mutations in Meq gene and two amino acid mutations in vIL-8 gene displayed perfect regularity in MDVs circulating in China, which could be considered as features of field MDVs prevalent in recent years in China. In addition, one amino acid mutation in pp38 gene can be considered as a feature of virulent MDVs from USA, and three amino acid mutations in Meq gene were identified and unique in very virulent plus (vv+) MDVs. Phylogenetic analysis based on Meq and vIL-8 protein sequences revealed that field MDVs in China evolved independently. Virulence studies showed that CVI988 could provide efficient protection against the field MDVs epidemic recently in China.
This study and other published data in the GenBank have demonstrated the features of Meq, pp38 and vIL-8 genes of MDVs circulating in recent years in Sichuan, China. Mutations, deletions or insertions were observed in these three genes, and some mutations could be considered as the unique marks of the MDVs circulating presently in China. The paper supplies some valuable information concerning the evolution of MDV which is useful for the vaccine development and control of MD in China.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the ability of a Salmonella typhimurium-mediated Avain Reovirus DNA vaccine in eliciting antibody production. Six-day-old SPF chickens were orally immunized with SL7207 (pVAX-σC) twice at 2-week interval, detectable antibody was generated 2 weeks after immunization and was significantly higher than the control groups (P<0.01) and ten chickens (66.7%) were considered safe in the subsequent challenge. These results show that SL7207 (pVAX-σC) can induce protective antibody in chickens and the newly-constructed vaccine is also effective in protection chickens against ARV infection.
Research in Veterinary Science 10/2010; 91(3):382-3. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to our previous study of the M genes of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) in infected chickens, A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (G1 97)-like M genes newly emerged in northern and eastern China in addition to the existing A/chicken/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (Y280)-like lineage M genes. To systematically track the genesis and evolution of H9N2 viruses in this region, whole genome sequences of seventeen H9N2 isolates were obtained and their phylogenetic properties were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed several newly emerged lineages of gene segments in addition to the Y280-like and A/chicken/Shanghai/F/98(F 98)-like lineages, which are prevailing in northern and eastern China according to previous reports. Reassortments among these gene segments generated five novel genotypes of H9N2 viruses that have not been reported before in China. The emerging genotypes of H9N2 viruses in this region indicate that H9N2 virus genes undergo active evolution, particularly their internal genes, which raises concern for their likely contribution to gene reassortment and production of AIVs with new properties. Our study provides valuable insight into the prevalence of H9N2 viruses in northern and eastern China and demonstrates the need of long-term monitoring of the evolution of H9N2 AIV.
Virus Research 03/2010; 151(1):26-32. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marek's disease is a highly contagious disease of poultry characterized by rapid-on set of T-cell lymphomas, which is caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), but its pathogenic mechanism is still not very clear. Recently, some new progress were achieved in molecular character of MDV. Along with the genomic sequencing of MDV serotype 1, some novel open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted, and ORF72.2 was one of them which have no homologues in other MDV serotypes or in other alphaherpesvirus. In the study, ORF72.2 was firstly identified as a protein-coding gene by the method of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. This study paved the way to conduct further studies to determine whether ORF72.2 plays a role in MDV replication and pathogenicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was selected as a transgenic vehicle for the development of live mucosal vaccines against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). A 2.2kb DNA fragment, encoding for N-terminal domain glycoprotein S of TGEV, was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-S was transformed by electroporation into attenuated S. typhimurium SL7207, the expression and translation of the pVAX-S delivered by recombinant S. typhimurium SL7207 (pVAX-S) was detected in vitro and in vivo respectively. BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with SL7207 (pVAX-S) at different dosages, the bacterium was safe to mice at dosage of 2x10(9)CFU and eventually eliminated from the spleen and liver at week 4 post-immunization. Mice immunized with different dosages of SL7207 (pVAX-S) elicited specific anti-TGEV local mucosal and humoral responses as measured by indirect ELISA assay. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine was highly dependent on the dosage of the attenuated bacteria used for oral administration, 10(9)CFU dosage group showed higher antibody response than 10(8)CFU and 10(7)CFU dosages groups during week 4-8 post-immunization. The results indicated that attenuated S. typhimurium could be used as a delivery vector for oral immunization of TGEV DNA vaccine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A DNA microarray system was prepared and shown to facilitate identification and typing of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. The DNA microarray, composed of 18 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons printed on glass slides and arranged in 3 subarrays, was developed. These target DNA included 1 or multiple fragments of the outer membrane lipoprotein, apx toxin, capsular polysaccharide, and disulfide bound formation protein E (dsbE)-like genes of A. pleuropneumoniae. These arrayed target DNA retained their expected hybridization properties. The hybridization signal intensities ranged from the least-intense to the most-intense, 4626 to 9789 arbitrary fluorescence units, respectively. Cy3-probes of A. pleuropneumoniae strains labeled with multiplex PCR were hybridized to the DNA microarray. A total of 51 different A. pleuropneumoniae strains representing serotype 1 to 12 reference strains and clinical isolates were detected and typed by the DNA microarray. Twelve reference serotypes produced 11 distinct target DNA hybridization patterns, and hybridization patterns of serotypes 1 (n = 7), 3 (n = 5), and 7 (n = 6) field isolates were identical to hybridization patterns of reference serotypes 1, 3, and 7, respectively. Non-serotyped isolates 4, 6, and 11 (out of 21) from diseased pigs had identical hybridization patterns to reference serotypes 3, 7, and 1, respectively. The results show that the DNA microarray system described in the present study is a valuable tool for identifying and typing reference strains and isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, and enables relatively rapid identification of non-serotyped isolates.
Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 07/2009; 73(3):190-9. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix (M) protein genes of 17 H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from chickens in northern China during the last 10 years were completely sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Homology of nucleotide sequences in the M gene of 17 isolates was 92.7-99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 11 of the tested M genes belong to the A/chicken/HongKong/Y280/97 (Y280)-like lineage, while the other six belong to the A/Quail/HongKong/G1/97 (G1)-like lineage. This is also the first time that a G1-like M gene of a H9N2 virus was detected in chicken flocks in northern China. These newly appearing changes in M genes may be due to reassortment events of AIVs, or they may have come from the H9N2 strains of southern China which surged in northern China after translocation. An analysis of the viral amino acid sequence of M2 protein has revealed substitution of S31N in two isolates, which is the molecular characterization of amantadine resistance in AIVs. Results of this study suggest that long-term monitoring should be continued to track the transmission and evolution of H9N2 AIVs in chickens in China.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the feasibility of using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as carrier for oral immunization of TGEV DNA vaccine.
The 2.1 Kb fragments of the TGVE SC-H strain S gene that encompasses all the four major antigenic domains were amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-S was transfected into COS7 cellsand the expression of recombinant plasmids was identified by indirect immunofluorscence assay. Then pVAX-S was transformed by electroporation into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207. The recombinant was screened and designated as SL7207 (pVAX-S). Mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with SL7207 (pVAX-S), the transcription and expression of S gene were detected by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorscence. BALB/c mouse were inoculated orally with SL7207(pVAX-S) at dosage of 5 x 10(8), 1 x 10(9) and 2 x 10(9) CFU for safety analysis. In a vaccination test, BALB/c mouse were immunized orally with recombinant bacterium at dosage of 1 x 10(9) CFU, for 3 times and specific serum IgG and intestinal mucosal IgA antibody were detected by indirect ELISA.
Recombinant plasmid pVAX-S was constructed correctly and expressed in COS7 cells. The transcription and expression of S gene were detected after mouse peritoneal macrophages were infected with SL7207 (pVAX-S). The recombinant bacterium was safe to mouse at dosage of 2 x 10(9) CFU. Specific serum IgG and intestinal mucosal IgA antibody against TGEV S protein were detected in SL7207 (pVAX-S) immunized group at 2 weeks post-boosting,and there were significant difference (P < 0.05) in serum IgG and most significant difference (P < 0.01) in intestinal mucosal IgA at 2 weeks after the third immunization, compared with SL7207(pVAX) control group.
The recombinant Salmonella carrying TGEV S gene DNA vaccines had good immunogenicity and safety in mouse.