[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC) over the 2007-2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia.
A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs).
We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht(2)] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC), aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run), physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry), healthy eating (dietary recall) and cardiovascular risk (CV risk).
zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05). No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01). There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05) but otherwise no dietary changes were detected.
While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in children and adolescents is a growing public health concern. Although the prevalence of T2D in First Nations children has been documented to be as high as 1% in central Canada, no paediatric data are available for any Aboriginal community in British Columbia (BC).
To determine the prevalence of obesity, glucose intolerance and the metabolic syndrome in children living in a remote BC First Nations community.
Children who were six to 18 years of age and living in the community of Hartley Bay, BC, participated in the study. A medical history, a physical examination and a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test were completed. Overweight was defined as a body mass index between the 85th and 95th percentiles, and obese was defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile, which were standardized for age and sex.
Thirty of 34 children (88%) participated (mean +/- SD age 11.8+/-3.4 years). Ten children (33%) were obese, and five (17%) were overweight. There were seven children (23%) with abnormal glucose tolerance as per the 2007 American Diabetes Association criteria: five with only impaired fasting glucose ([IFG] 5.6 mmol/L to 6.9 mmol/L), one with both IFG and impaired glucose tolerance and one with T2D. However, using the 2008 Canadian Diabetes Association criteria, two children (6.7%) had abnormal glucose tolerance (one with IFG plus impaired glucose tolerance and one with T2D) because no child met the definition for IFG alone (6.1 mmol/L to 6.9 mmol/L). Four children (13%) met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome.
There is a high prevalence of the components of the metabolic syndrome, including overweight, obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance, in the children of this community.
Paediatrics & child health 03/2009; 14(2):79-83. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canadian Aboriginal people have been disproportionately affected by obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our objective was to determine the prevalence of obesity, glucose intolerance and the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Tsimshian Nation youth living in 3 remote coastal communities.
A medical history, anthropometric measurements and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed in youth aged 6-18 years. We defined "overweight" by a body mass index (BMI) at the 85th percentile or higher and "obese" by a BMI at the 95th percentile or higher, by age and sex. We used the International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS.
Of the 224 eligible youth, 192 (85%) participated in the study. Nineteen percent were overweight, 26% were obese and 36% had central obesity (waist circumference > or = 90th percentile for age and sex). No new cases of T2D were identified. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT 2-hr glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/L) were 19.3% and 5.2%, respectively. Five of the 10 youth with IGT had a fasting glucose less than 5.6 mmol/L. The prevalence of MetS was 4.7% and increased to 8.3% when pediatric hypertension norms were applied.
Tsimshian Nation youth have a high prevalence of central obesity, impaired glucose homeostasis and other components of MetS. The oral glucose tolerance test may be a more appropriate screening test to identify IGT in Aboriginal youth.
Canadian journal of rural medicine: the official journal of the Society of Rural Physicians of Canada = Journal canadien de la medecine rurale: le journal officiel de la Societe de medecine rurale du Canada 02/2009; 14(2):61-7.