ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients are particularly susceptible to medical error during transitions from inpatient to outpatient care. We evaluated discharge summaries produced by incoming postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) internal medicine residents for their completeness, accuracy, and relevance to family physicians. METHODS: Consecutive discharge summaries prepared by PGY-1 residents for patients discharged from internal medicine wards were retrospectively evaluated by two independent reviewers for presence and accuracy of essential domains described by the Joint Commission for Hospital Accreditation. Family physicians rated the relevance of a separate sample of discharge summaries on domains that family physicians deemed important in previous studies. RESULTS: Ninety discharge summaries were assessed for completeness and accuracy. Most items were completely reported with a given item missing in 5 % of summaries or fewer, with the exception of the reason for medication changes, which was missing in 15.9 % of summaries. Discharge medication lists, medication changes, and the reason for medication changes---when present---were inaccurate in 35.7 %, 29.5 %, and 37.7 % of summaries, respectively. Twenty-one family physicians reviewed 68 discharge summaries. Communication of follow-up plans for further investigations was the most frequently identified area for improvement with 27.7 % of summaries rated as insufficient. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that medication details were frequently omitted or inaccurate, and that family physicians identified lack of clarity about follow-up plans regarding further investigations and visits to other consultants as the areas requiring the most improvement. Our findings will aid in the development of educational interventions for residents.
BMC Medical Education 08/2012; 12(1):77. · 1.15 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between treatment induced change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total death, coronary heart disease death, and coronary heart disease events (coronary heart disease death and non-fatal myocardial infarction) adjusted for changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol and drug class in randomised trials of lipid modifying interventions.
Systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Medline, Embase, Central, CINAHL, and AMED to October 2006 supplemented by contact with experts in the field.
In teams of two, reviewers independently determined eligibility of randomised trials that tested lipid modifying interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, reported high density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality or myocardial infarctions separately for treatment groups, and treated and followed participants for at least six months.
Using standardised, pre-piloted forms, reviewers independently extracted relevant information from each article. The change in lipid concentrations for each trial and the weighted risk ratios for clinical outcomes were calculated.
The meta-regression analysis included 108 randomised trials involving 299 310 participants at risk of cardiovascular events. All analyses that adjusted for changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no association between treatment induced change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk ratios for coronary heart disease deaths, coronary heart disease events, or total deaths. With all trials included, change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol explained almost no variability (<1%) in any of the outcomes. The change in the quotient of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not explain more of the variability in any of the outcomes than did the change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol alone. For a 10 mg/dl (0.26 mmol/l) reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol, the relative risk reduction was 7.2% (95% confidence interval 3.1% to 11%; P=0.001) for coronary heart disease deaths, 7.1% (4.5% to 9.8%; P<0.001) for coronary heart disease events, and 4.4% (1.6% to 7.2%; P=0.002) for total deaths, when adjusted for change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and drug class.
Available data suggest that simply increasing the amount of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol does not reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events, coronary heart disease deaths, or total deaths. The results support reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol as the primary goal for lipid modifying interventions.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 01/2009; 338:b92.
ABSTRACT: Identifying paroxysmal atrial fibrillation/flutter is an essential part of the etiological workup of patients with ischemic stroke. However, there is controversy in the literature regarding the use of noninvasive cardiac rhythm monitoring with previous reviews reporting a low detection rate with routine monitoring. We performed a systematic review to determine the frequency of occult atrial fibrillation/flutter detected by noninvasive methods of continuous cardiac monitoring after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Studies were identified from comprehensive searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and bibliographies of relevant articles. Only English language articles were included. Randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke that fulfilled predefined criteria were eligible. Two authors conducted searches and abstracted data from eligible studies independently.
Sixty studies were deemed potentially eligible. After application of eligibility criteria, 5 studies (736 participants) were included in the analysis. All studies evaluated Holter monitoring; 2 also evaluated event loop recording. In studies that evaluated Holter monitoring (588 participants), new atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected in 4.6% (95% CI: 0% to 12.7%) of consecutive patients with ischemic stroke. Duration of monitoring ranged from 24 to 72 hours. Two studies (140 participants) evaluated event loop recorders after Holter monitoring. New atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected in 5.7% and 7.7% of consecutive patients in these 2 studies.
Screening consecutive patients with ischemic stroke with routine Holter monitoring will identify new atrial fibrillation/flutter in approximately one in 20 patients. Although based on limited data, extended duration of monitoring may improve the detection rate. Further research is required before definitive recommendations can be made.
Stroke 12/2007; 38(11):2935-40. · 5.73 Impact Factor