[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized as a key element of cell migration, invasion, and drug resistance in several types of cancer. In this study, our aim was to clarify microRNAs (miRNAs)-related mechanisms underlying EMT followed by acquired resistance to chemotherapy in glioblastoma (GBM). We used multiple methods to achieve our goal including microarray analysis, qRT-PCR, western blotting analysis, loss/gain-of-function analysis, luciferase assays, drug sensitivity assays, wound-healing assay and invasion assay. We found that miR-203 expression was significantly lower in imatinib-resistant GBM cells (U251AR, U87AR) that underwent EMT than in their parental cells (U251, U87). Ectopic expression of miR-203 with miRNA mimics effectively reversed EMT in U251AR and U87AR cells, and sensitized them to chemotherapy, whereas inhibition of miR-203 in the sensitive lines with antisense oligonucleotides induced EMT and conferred chemoresistance. SNAI2 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-203. The knockdown of SNAI2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited EMT and drug resistance. In GBM patients, miR-203 expression was inversely related to SNAI2 expression, and those tumors with low expression of miR-203 experienced poorer clinical outcomes. Our findings indicate that re-expression of miR-203 or targeting SNAI2 might serve as potential therapeutic approaches to overcome chemotherapy resistance in GBM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant glioma is the most prevalent form of malignant brain tumor. Although radiotherapy is widely used in glioma treatment, the radioresistance of glioma cells limits the success of the glioma treatment. The lack of effective targets and signaling pathways to reverse glioma radioresistance is the critical obstacle in successful treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mtKATP channels) are overexpressed in glioma cells and are closely related to the malignancy grade and the overall survival of the patients. Importantly, we showed that mtKATP channels could control glioma radioresistance by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ERK activation. The inhibition of mtKATP channels suppresses glioma radioresistance by inhibiting ERK activation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal the important roles of the mitochondria and mtKATP channels as key regulators in the radioresistance of glioma cells, and suggest that mtKATP channel blockers and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors are potential targets for drug development of glioma treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study is to investigate if polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) acts as a modulator in glioblastoma (GBM) chemoresistance.
Multidrug resistant (MDR) GBM cell line U251AR was established by exposing the U251 cell line to imatinib. The 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were performed on U251 and U251AR cell lines to screen MDR-related proteins. The expression of PTRF was determined by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses.
When compared with the parental U251 cells, expression of 21 proteins was significantly altered in U251AR cells. Among the 21 differentially expressed proteins, the expression of PTRF was up-regulated by 2.14 folds in U251AR cells when compared with that in the parental U251 cells. Knockdown of PTRF in GBM cell lines significantly increased chemosensitivity of cells to various chemical drugs and decreased the expression levels of caveolin1, a major structural component of caveolae. Expression levels of PTRF and caveolin1 were significantly up-regulated in the relapsed GBM patients. The mRNA level of PTRF and caveolin1 showed a positive correlation in the same GBM specimens.
Our results indicate that PTRF acts as a modulator in GBM chemoresistance.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93439. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093439 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. This study is to investigate the in vivo apoptotic processes in glioma tissues following cryoablation and the effects of glioma tissue extracts on GL261 glioma cells in vitro. Methods. TUNEL and flow cytometry analysis were performed to detect the apoptotic processes in the glioma tissues following cryoablation and in the GL261 cells treated with cryoablated tumor extracts. The scratch assay, the transwell assay, and Western blot analysis were carried out to evaluate the effects of cryoablated tumor extracts on the migration, invasion, and proliferation of tumor cells. Results. Our in vivo results indicated that the rapid-onset apoptosis was induced via the intrinsic pathway and the delayed apoptosis was triggered through the extrinsic pathway. The in vitro results showed that extracts from glioma tissues following cryoablation induced apoptosis via extrinsic pathways in GL261 glioma cells. Furthermore, cryoablated tumor extracts significantly inhibited the migration and proliferation of these cells, which would be related to the inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway and the activation of P38 pathway. Conclusion. Glioma cells surviving in cryoablation undergo intrinsic or extrinsic apoptosis. Augmenting the induction of apoptosis or enhancing the cryosensitization of tumor cells by coupling cryoablation with specific chemotherapy effectively increases the efficiency of this therapeutic treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) – short non-coding RNA molecules – post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions and play crucial roles in diverse biological processes such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. In order to investigate the possible role of miRNAs in the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in human glioblastoma, we first detected (by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] and immunohistochemistry) the expression of miR-296-3p and ether-à-go-go (EAG1 or KCNH1) in U251 cells, U251/imatinib mesylate (U251AR cells) and clinical specimens. The results showed that miR-296-3p was down-regulated in U251AR cells, concurrent with the up-regulation of EAG1 protein, compared with the parental U251 cell line. In vitro drug sensitivity assay demonstrated that over-expression of miR-296-3p sensitised glioblastoma (GBM) cells to anticancer drugs, whereas down-expression using antisense oligonucleotides conferred MDR. Ectopic expression of miR-296-3p reduced EAG1 expression and suppressed cell proliferation drug resistance, and the luciferase activity of an EAG1 3′-untranslated region-based reporter construct in U251AR cells, whereas EAG1 over-expression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-296-3p in U251AR cells. We also found that EAG1 was widely over-expressed and inversely correlated with miR-296-3p in clinical specimens. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-296-3p may play a role of MDR in glioblastoma at least in part by targeting EAG1.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2013; 49(3):710–724. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2012.08.020 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion channels are found in a variety of cancer cells and necessary for cell cycle and cell proliferation. The roles of K(+) channels in the process are, however, poorly understood. In the present study, we report that adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel activity plays a critical role in the proliferation of glioma cells. The expression of K(ATP) channels in glioma tissues was greatly increased than that in normal tissues. Treatment of glioma cells with tolbutamide, K(ATP) channels inhibitor, suppressed the proliferation of glioma cells and blocked glioma cell cycle in G(0)/G(1) phase. Similarly, downregulation of K(ATP) channels by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited glioma cell proliferation. On the other hand, K(ATP) channels agonist diazoxide and overexpression of K(ATP) channels promoted the proliferation of glioma cells. Moreover, inhibiting K(ATP) channels slowed the formation of tumor in nude mice generated by injection of glioma cells. Whereas activating K(ATP) channels promoted development of tumor in vivo. The effect of K(ATP) channels activity on glioma cells proliferation is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. We found that activating K(ATP) channel triggered ERK activation and inhibiting K(ATP) channel depressed ERK activation. U-0126, the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPK kinase) inhibitors blocked ERK activation and cell proliferation induced by diazoxide. Furthermore, constitutively activated MEK plasmids transfection reversed the inhibitory effects of tolbutamide on glioma proliferation, lending further support for a role of ERK in mediating this process. Our results suggest that K(ATP) channels control glioma cell proliferation via regulating ERK pathway. We concluded that K(ATP) channels are important in pathological cell proliferation and open a promising pathway for novel targeted therapies.