[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical application of continuous infusion (CoI) of vancomycin has gained interest in recent years. Since no international guidelines on initial dosing of vancomycin CoI exist, there is a need for methods to facilitate the switch from intermittent to continuous vancomycin dosing algorithms in clinically infected populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate an a priori dosing schedule for CoI of vancomycin in clinical practice.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients the paranasal sinuses can constitute a niche for bacteria, which can migrate to the lungs. Nasal administration of antibiotics may be effective, but safety of this treatment has to be established first. The objective of this study was to investigate the systemic absorption of nasally administered tobramycin, colistin (administered as colistin sulfomethate sodium; CMS) and a combination of both drugs using systemic absorption as surrogate for safety. In addition, tolerability of the nasal irrigations was examined.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Ertapenem, a carbapenem, relies on time-dependant killing. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) should be considered, when used in specific populations, to achieve optimal bactericidal activity and optimize drug-dosing regimens. No validated LC-MS/MS method has been reported using deuterated ertapenem as internal standard. A new simple and robust LC-MS/MS method using a quadruple mass spectrometer was developed for analysis of ertapenem in human plasma, using deuterated ertapenem as internal standard. The calibration curve was linear over a range of 0.1 (LLOQ) to 125 mg/L. The calculated accuracy ranged from -2.4 % to 10.3%. Within-run CV ranged from 2.7 % to 11.8% and between-run CV ranged from 0 % to 8.4%. Freeze-thaw stability biased between -3.3% and 0.1%. Storage of QC samples for 96h at 4°C differed -4.3 to 5.6%, storage at room temperature for 24h, biased from -10.7% to -14.8% and storage in the autosampler biased between -2.9% and -10.0%. A simple LC-MS/MS method to quantify ertapenem in human plasma using deuterated ertapenem as internal standard has been validated. This method can be used in pharmacokinetic studies and in clinical studies by performing TDM.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Observational data sets can be used for population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. However, these data sets are generally less precisely recorded than experimental data sets. This article aims to investigate the influence of erroneous records on population PK modeling and individual maximum a posteriori Bayesian (MAPB) estimation.
: A total of 1123 patient records of neonates who were administered vancomycin were used for population PK modeling by iterative 2-stage Bayesian (ITSB) analysis. Cut-off values for weighted residuals were tested for exclusion of records from the analysis. A simulation study was performed to assess the influence of erroneous records on population modeling and individual MAPB estimation. Also the cut-off values for weighted residuals were tested in the simulation study.
: Errors in registration have limited the influence on outcomes of population PK modeling but can have detrimental effects on individual MAPB estimation. A population PK model created from a data set with many registration errors has little influence on subsequent MAPB estimates for precisely recorded data. A weighted residual value of 2 for concentration measurements has good discriminative power for identification of erroneous records.
: ITSB analysis and its individual estimates are hardly affected by most registration errors. Large registration errors can be detected by weighted residuals of concentration.
Therapeutic drug monitoring 07/2012; 34(5):526-34. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Azithromycin maintenance therapy results in improvement of respiratory function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In azithromycin maintenance therapy, several dosing schemes are applied. In this review, we combine current knowledge about azithromycin pharmacokinetics with the dosing schedules used in clinical trials in order to come to a dosing advise which could be generally applicable. We used data from a recently updated Cochrane meta analysis (2011), the reports of clinical trials and pharmacokinetic studies. Based on these data, it was concluded that a dose level of 22-30 mg/kg/week is the lowest dose level with proven efficacy. Due to the extended half-life in patients with CF, the weekly dose of azithromycin can be divided in one to seven dosing moments, depending on patient preference and gastro-intestinal tolerance. No important side effects or interactions with other CF-related drugs have been documented so far.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esomeprazole and rabeprazole are metabolised in the liver by means of the CYP2C19 enzyme, which has several functional genetic polymorphisms. Among Caucasians, 70% of the population has a fast metaboliser phenotype, 25-30% an intermediate and 2-5% a slow metaboliser phenotype. It is unknown whether different PPIs are affected to the same extent by these phenotypic differences.
To compare the acid-inhibitory effects of esomeprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg in relation to CYP2C19 genotype and pharmacokinetics.
Eighteen healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative Caucasian subjects with CYP2C19*2-*6 and *17 genotype were included in a randomised investigator-blinded crossover study with esomeprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg. Intragastric 24-h pH-monitoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 5 of oral dosing.
Onset of acid inhibition during the first 4 h after administration did not differ significantly between PPIs. During the upright period, the proportion of time with pH >4 was significantly higher with esomeprazole compared to rabeprazole (52.2 vs. 40.3%, P = 0.003). At day 1 and 5, acid inhibition was significantly greater with esomeprazole than with rabeprazole (median intragastric pH: day 1: 3.7 vs. 3.0, P = 0.008; day 5: 4.7 vs. 3.8, P < 0.001; percentage of time pH >4: day 1: 45 vs. 39%, P = 0.054; day 5: 65 vs. 48%, P < 0.001). Differences in acid inhibition between wt/wt and wt/*2 genotype were significant for both PPIs.
Once-daily dosing with esomeprazole 40 mg provides a more effective and faster acid-inhibitory effect than rabeprazole 20 mg. The acid-inhibitory effect of esomeprazole and rabeprazole are both influenced by CYP2C19 polymorphism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, there are very few guidelines linking the results of pharmacogenetic tests to specific therapeutic recommendations. Therefore, the Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy established the Pharmacogenetics Working Group with the objective of developing pharmacogenetics-based therapeutic (dose) recommendations. After systematic review of the literature, recommendations were developed for 53 drugs associated with genes coding for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, thiopurine-S-methyltransferase (TPMT), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), HLA-B44, HLA-B*5701, CYP3A5, and factor V Leiden (FVL).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maximum a posteriori Bayesian (MAPB) pharmacokinetic parameter estimation is an accurate and flexible method of estimating individual pharmacokinetic parameters using individual blood concentrations and prior information. In the past decade, many studies have developed optimal sampling strategies to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters as accurately as possible using either multiple regression analysis or MAPB estimation. This has been done for many drugs, especially immunosuppressants and anticancer agents. Methods of development for optimal sampling strategies (OSS) are diverse and heterogeneous. This review provides a comprehensive overview of OSS development methodology using MAPB pharmacokinetic parameter estimation, determines the transferability of published OSSs, and compares sampling strategies determined by MAPB estimation and multiple regression analysis. OSS development has the following components: 1) prior distributions; 2) reference value determination; 3) optimal sampling time identification; and 4) validation of the OSS. Published OSSs often lack all data necessary for the OSS to be clinically transferable. MAPB estimation is similar to multiple regression analysis in terms of predictive performance but superior in flexibility.
Therapeutic drug monitoring 03/2011; 33(2):133-46. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esomeprazole and pantoprazole are metabolized in the liver and the polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme is involved in that process. This genetic polymorphism determines fast (70% of Caucasians), intermediate (25-30% of Caucasians) and slow (2-5% of Caucasians) metabolism of PPIs.
To compare the acid-inhibitory effects of esomeprazole 40 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg at 4, 24 and 120 h after oral administration in relation to CYP2C19 genotype and pharmacokinetics.
CYP2C19*2, *3, *4, *5 and *17 genotypes were determined in healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative Caucasian subjects. 7 wt/wt, 7 wt/*2, 2 wt/*17, 2 *2/*17 and 1 *2/*2 were included in a randomized investigator-blinded cross-over study with esomeprazole 40 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg. Intragastric 24-h pH-monitoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 5 of oral dosing.
A total of 19 subjects (mean age 24 years, 7 male) completed the study. At day 1 and 5, acid-inhibition with esomeprazole was significantly greater and faster than with pantoprazole. Differences in acid-inhibition and pharmacokinetics between wt/wt and wt/*2 genotype were significant for pantoprazole at day 1 and 5.
Esomeprazole provides acid-inhibition faster than and superior to pantoprazole after single and repeated administration. The acid-inhibitory effect and the kinetics of pantoprazole are influenced by CYP2C19 genotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent position papers addressing the profession of clinical pharmacology have expressed concerns about the decline of interest in the field among clinicians and medical educators in the United Kingdom and other Western countries, whether clinical pharmacology is actually therapeutics, and whether the profession should be limited to physicians. The Dutch Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmacy offers answers to these questions and presents a new model for clinical pharmacology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy and toxicity of aminoglycosides show a strong direct positive relationship with blood drug concentrations, therefore, therapy with aminoglycosides in adults is usually guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. Dosing regimens in adults have evolved from multiple daily dosing to extended-interval dosing. This evolution has also taken place in neonates. Neonates, however, display large interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides due to developmental differences early in life. The volume of distribution of aminoglycosides shows a strong relationship with bodyweight, which tends to be larger (corrected for bodyweight) in more premature infants and those with sepsis. Renal clearance of aminoglycosides increases with gestational age and accelerates immediately after birth. Because of these developmental influences, there is great inter- and intraindividual variability in the volume of distribution and clearance of these drugs, and investigators have established aminoglycoside dosing regimens based on bodyweight and/or gestational age. Widely practised dosing regimens comprise 4-5 mg/kg bodyweight of gentamicin every 24-48 hours as a first dose, followed by dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring. Although formal toxicity studies are scarce, there is no evidence that aminoglycoside toxicity in neonates differs from that in adults. Monitoring of blood drug concentrations and intelligent reconstruction of individual pharmacokinetic behaviour using a population pharmacokinetic model, optimally chosen blood sampling times and appropriate pharmacokinetic software, help clinicians to quickly optimize aminoglycoside dosing regimens to maximize the clinical effect and minimize the toxicity of these drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of intravenous (iv) levetiracetam (LEV) added to the standard therapeutic regimen in adults with status epilepticus (SE), and as secondary objective to assess a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for ivLEV in patients with SE.
In 12 adults presenting with SE, 2,500 mg ivLEV was added as soon as possible to standardized protocol, consisting of iv clonazepam and/or rectal diazepam, as needed followed by phenytoin or valproic acid. ivLEV was administered over approximately 5 min, in general after administration of clonazepam, regardless the need for further treatment. During 24-h follow-up, patients were observed for any clinically relevant side-effects. Blood samples for PK analysis were available in 10 patients. A population PK model was developed by iterative two-stage Bayesian analysis and compared to PK data of healthy volunteers.
Eleven patients with a median age of 60 years were included in the per protocol analysis. Five were diagnosed as generalized-convulsive SE, five as partial-convulsive SE, and one as a nonconvulsive SE. The median time from hospital admission to ivLEV was 36 min. No serious side effects could be related directly to the administration of ivLEV. During PK analysis, four patients showed a clear distribution phase, lacking in the others. The PK of the population was best described by a two-compartment population model. Mean (standard deviation, SD) population parameters included volume of distribution of central compartment: 0.45 (0.084) L/kg; total body clearance: 0.0476 (0.0147) L/h/kg; distribution rate constants, central to peripheral compartment (k(12)): 0.24 (0.12)/h, and peripheral to central (k(21)): 0.70 (0.22)/h. Mean maximal plasma concentration was 85 (19) mg/L.
The addition of ivLEV to the standard regimen for controlling SE seems feasible and safe. PK data of ivLEV in patients with SE correspond to earlier values derived from healthy volunteers, confirming a two-compartment population model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite initial enthusiasm, the use of pharmacogenetics has remained limited to investigation in only a few clinical fields such as oncology and psychiatry. The main reason is the paucity of scientific evidence to show that pharmacogenetic testing leads to improved clinical outcomes. Moreover, for most pharmacogenetic tests (such as tests for genetic variants of cytochrome P450 enzymes) a detailed knowledge of pharmacology is a prerequisite for application in clinical practice, and both physicians and pharmacists might find it difficult to interpret the clinical value of pharmacogenetic test results. Guidelines that link the result of a pharmacogenetic test to therapeutic recommendations might help to overcome these problems, but such guidelines are only sparsely available. In 2001, an early step was taken to develop such guidelines for the therapeutic use of antidepressants, and these included CYP2D6-related dose recommendations drawn from pharmacokinetic study data. However, the use of such recommendations in routine clinical practice remains difficult, because they are currently outside the ambit of the clinical environment and are not accessible during the decision-making process by physicians and pharmacists, namely the prescription and dispensing of drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we examined pharmacokinetics, systemic exposure and sputum penetration of azithromycin (AZM) in CF patients on chronic daily AZM therapy after changing to a once weekly dosing scheme. Eight adult CF patients using AZM 500 mg/day were changed to a once weekly dose of 1000 mg during 3 months. Once per month sputum and blood samples were collected. AZM was quantified in blood plasma and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The cumulative weekly dose was reduced with a factor of 3.5 (7x500 mg vs. 1x1000 mg weekly). This led to a reduction in area under the curve (AUC+/-S.D.) with a factor of 2.5+/-0.8 in plasma, 2.8+/-0.9 in blood, 2.2+/-1.1 in PMNNs and to a reduction in average sputum concentration with a factor of 3.0 (+/-1.5). At 1000 mg once weekly reduced but still substantial concentrations were achieved in PMNNs and in sputum. Although not significant, a tendency towards less than linear reduction was found. In order to calculate and propose an optimal dosing scheme we need to establish a relation between exposure levels and clinical efficacy.
Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 02/2008; 7(1):79-84. · 2.87 Impact Factor