[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose:
Seeds are the key link between two sporophytic generations in the life cycle of flowering plants. The seed maturation program is repressed after seed germination and during seedling establishment (1).
We report an HDA19-associated co-regulator, SCL15, that physically interacts with HDA19 and results in the repression of seed maturation genes in Arabidopsis seedlings (2,3).
23rd International Conference on Arabidopsis Research (ICAR) 2012; 09/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular basis of canola ( Brassica napus L.) susceptibility to the crucifer flea beetle (FB, Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze) was investigated by comparing transcript representation in FB-damaged and undamaged cotyledons. The B. napus cotyledon transcriptome increased and diversified substantially after FB feeding damage. Twenty-two genes encoding proteins with unknown function, six encoding proteins involved in signaling, and a gene encoding a B-box zinc finger transcription factor were moderately or strongly changed in representation with FB feeding damage. Zinc finger and calcium-dependent genes formed the largest portion of transcription factors and signaling factors with changes in representation. Six genes with unknown function, one transcription factor, and one signaling gene specific to the FB-damaged library were co-represented in a FB-damaged leaf library. Out of 188 transcription factor and signaling gene families screened for "early" expression changes, 16 showed changes in expression within 8 h. Four of these early factors were zinc finger genes with representation only in the FB-damaged cotyledon. These genes are now available to test their potential at initiating or specifying cotyledon responses to crucifer FB feeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The seed maturation program is repressed during germination and seedling development so that embryonic genes are not expressed in vegetative organs. Here, we describe a regulator that represses the expression of embryonic seed maturation genes in vegetative tissues. ASIL1 (for Arabidopsis 6b-interacting protein 1-like 1) was isolated by its interaction with the Arabidopsis thaliana 2S3 promoter. ASIL1 possesses domains conserved in the plant-specific trihelix family of DNA binding proteins and belongs to a subfamily of 6b-interacting protein 1-like factors. The seedlings of asil1 mutants exhibited a global shift in gene expression to a profile resembling late embryogenesis. LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and 2 were markedly derepressed during early germination, as was a large subset of seed maturation genes, such as those encoding seed storage proteins and oleosins, in seedlings of asil1 mutants. Consistent with this, asil1 seedlings accumulated 2S albumin and oil with a fatty acid composition similar to that of seed-derived lipid. Moreover, ASIL1 specifically recognized a GT element that overlaps the G-box and is in close proximity to the RY repeats of the 2S promoters. We suggest that ASIL1 targets GT-box-containing embryonic genes by competing with the binding of transcriptional activators to this promoter region.
The Plant Cell 02/2009; 21(1):54-71. · 9.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of B. carinata seedlings to increasing concentrations of a non-physiological ion, lithium, showed significant effects on the germination rate, root length, chlorophyll content and fresh weight in brown-seeded and yellow-seeded near-isogenic lines. Metal content analysis and phytochemical profiling indicated that lithium hyper-accumulated and the lipid and phenolic composition dramatically changed in brown-seeded seedlings. Here, sinapic acid esters and chloroplast lipid were replaced by benzoate derivatives, resveratrol and oxylipins after lithium exposure. In contrast, the yellow-seeded plants maintained the same phenolic and lipid composition before and after exposure to lithium and did not tolerate the high metal concentrations tolerated by the brown-seeded line. Microarray analysis using a Brassica napus 15,000 expressed sequence tag (EST) array indicated a total of 89 genes in the brown-seeded line and 95 genes in the yellow-seeded line were differentially expressed more than 20-fold after treatment of B. carinata seedlings with lithium chloride and more than 1083 genes with expression changes greater than 2-fold. The putative functions of the differentially expressed genes included proteins involved in defense, primary metabolism, transcription, transportation, secondary metabolism, cytochrome P450, as well as proteins with unknown functions. Transcriptome changes between yellow-seeded and brown-seeded B. carinata seedlings after lithium chloride exposure indicated that the two lines responded differently to lithium treatment. The expression patterns generally supported the phytochemical data. From the results of this study, B. carinata brown-seeded germplasm showed an ability to survive under moderately high concentrations of lithium chloride (>150 mM). The ability to accumulate this metal ion suggests brown-seeded B. carinata has some potential in phytoremediation of lithium-contaminated water and soil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries are a powerful tool for gene discovery in plants with genomes that are not fully sequenced. Adonis aestivalis (Ranunculaceae) is unusual among higher plants in that it accumulates large amounts of the valuable red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin in the flower petals, in addition to other carotenoids, and should therefore be a rich source of transcripts involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. To create a resource for gene discovery and increase our understanding of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in plants, we sequenced 4189 cloned cDNAs from the floral tissues of A. aestivalis. The EST collection was annotated using sequence homology searches comparing the A. aestivalis ESTs with reference databases. ESTs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were identified based on sequence homology to published sequences and by functional prediction using InterProScan. This study identified expressed transcripts for most of the known genes involved in the carotenoid pathway. Using an Escherichia coli functional expression system, two candidate transcripts from the A. aestivalis cDNA library were functionally characterized and identified as a novel beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase (CrtH2) and a beta-carotene monooxygenase. The expanded use of this EST collection combined with the E. coli expression system as presented here will greatly facilitate the cloning and characterization of candidate genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Applications of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH (reduced glutathione), which switches the cellular glutathione pool towards the oxidized form GSSG, positively influences embryo quality by improving the structure of the shoot apical meristem and promoting embryo maturation, both of which improve the post-embryonic performance of the embryos. To investigate the mechanisms underlying BSO-mediated improvement in embryo quality the transcript profiles of developing Brassica napus microspore-derived embryos cultured in the absence (control) or presence of BSO were analyzed using a 15,000-element B. napus oligo microarray. BSO applications induced major changes in transcript accumulation patterns, especially during the late phases of embryogenesis. BSO affected the transcription and activities of key enzymes involved in ascorbate metabolism, which resulted in major fluctuations in cellular ascorbate levels. These changes were related to morphological characteristics of the embryos and their post-embryonic performance. BSO applications also activated many genes controlling meristem formation and function, including ZWILLE, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, and ARGONAUTE 1. Increased expression of these genes may contribute to the improved structural quality of the shoot poles observed in the presence of BSO. Compared to their control counterparts, middle- and late-stage BSO-treated embryos also showed increased accumulation of transcripts associated with the maturation phase of zygotic embryo development, including genes encoding ABA-responsive proteins and storage- and late-embryogenic abundant (LEA) proteins. Overall these transcriptional changes support the observation that the BSO-induced oxidized glutathione redox state allows cultured embryos to reach both morphological and physiological maturity, which in turn guarantees successful regeneration and enhanced post-embryonic growth.