[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 protein is known for performing essential functions in the maintenance of genomic stability in somatic cells and prevention of tumor formation. Studies of the p53 signaling pathway have suggested associations between some polymorphisms and infertility, post-in vitro fertilization implantation failure and recurrent abortions. The TP53 Pro72Arg polymorphism has been implicated as a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL); however, the association is controversial. In this study, our objective was to evaluate selected polymorphisms in genes of the p53 signalling pathway [TP53 c.215G>C (Pro72Arg), MDM2 c.14+309T>G (SNP309) and LIF c.1414T>G in the region 3' UTR] and determine their effect as risk factors for RPL. In a case-control study, we investigated 120 women with two or more pregnancy losses and 143 fertile control women reporting at least two live births and no history of pregnancy loss. When analyzed separately, the allele and genotype distributions of the polymorphisms in the two groups were not different. However, in a multivariate analysis adjusted for alcohol consumption, smoking, ethnicity, and number of pregnancies, the interaction between the genotypes TP53 Arg/Arg (rs1042522) and MDM2 TT (rs2279744) showed to be associated to RPL, increasing the risk for this condition (OR = 2.58, 95 % CI: 1.31-5.07, p = 0.006). In conclusion, our study indicates that the combination of TP53 Arg/Arg (rs1042522) and MDM2 TT (rs2279744) genotypes may be a risk factor for RPL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.
We compiled data from publications and hereditary cancer registries to characterize the Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum in South America. In total, data from 267 families that fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria and/or the Bethesda guidelines from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Uruguay were included.
Disease-predisposing mutations were identified in 37% of the families and affected MLH1 in 60% and MSH2 in 40%. Half of the mutations have not previously been reported and potential founder effects were identified in Brazil and in Colombia.
The South American Lynch syndrome mutation spectrum includes multiple new mutations, identifies potential founder effects and is useful for future development of genetic testing in this continent.
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 12/2013; 11(1):18. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A few studies have reported phyllodes tumors (PT) of the breast with germline TP53 mutations. Given this potential association and the high frequency of the TP53 p.R337H in southern and southeastern Brazil, the aim of this study was to assess whether p.R337H occurs among women diagnosed with such rare tumors in this region. Benign, borderline, and malignant breast PT were retrieved from eight pathology laboratories, and DNA was extracted from tumor tissue to perform p.R337H analysis. Overall, 128 cases classified as benign, 7 as borderline, and 13 as malignant PT were included in the study. The TP53 p.R337H mutation was identified in tumor cells of eight (5.4 %) cases. Analysis of DNA from non-tumoral tissue was possible in two of these, and both were p.R337H carriers in the germline. In addition, haplotype analysis was done in these two p.R337H carriers showing the presence of the founder haplotype previously reported in Brazilian mutation-positive individuals. Mutation frequency was significantly higher among malignant (3 of 13; 23 %) compared to benign tumors (5 of 128; 3.4 %) (p = 0.004). Mean age at PT diagnosis was not significantly different between mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, when subgroups where analyzed, the difference in age at diagnosis of carriers versus non-carriers within the group of benign tumors reached borderline significance. Our findings reinforce previous evidence that TP53 mutations have an important role in the development of both benign and malignant PT of the breast.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 06/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are among the most common childhood cancers occurring in infants affected with the Li-Fraumeni and Li- Fraumeni-like (LFS/LFL) syndromes, which are caused by dominant germline mutations in the TP53 gene. In Brazil, a particular mutation, occurring in the tetramerisation domain of the gene, p.R337H, is exceedingly common due to a founder effect and is strongly associated with ACC. In this report, we describe the phenotype and long-term clinical follow-up of a female child diagnosed with ACC and homozygous for the TP53 p.R337H founder mutation. CASE PRESENTATION: At age 11 months, the patient was diagnosed with a virilising anaplastic adrenal cortical tumour, which was completely excised without disturbing the adrenal capsule. Family history was consistent with an LFL tumour pattern, and genotyping identified the TP53 p.R337H mutation in both alleles in genomic DNA from lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Haplotype analysis confirmed the occurrence of the mutation in the same founder haplotype previously described in other Brazilian patients. No other germline or somatic TP53 mutations or rearrangements were identified. At age 9 years, the child was asymptomatic and had no evidence of endocrine derangements. Full body and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to detect any suspicious proliferative lesions, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing results were within the normal reference for the child's age, ruling out a major exercise capacity deficiency. CONCLUSION: This is the first clinical and aerobic functional capacity documentation of a patient who carries two mutant TP53 alleles and no wild-type allele. Our results support the hypothesis that TP53 p.R337H, the most common TP53 mutation ever described in any population, is a conditional mutant. Furthermore, our observations over a long period of clinical follow-up suggest that TP53 p.R337H homozygotes do not have a more severe disease phenotype than do heterozygote carriers of the same mutation. Patients with the homozygous TP53 p.R337H genotype will require careful surveillance for lifetime cancer risk and for effects on metabolic capacity later in life.
BMC Cancer 04/2013; 13(1):187. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor alpha has a central role in human fertility by regulating estrogen action in all human reproductive tissues. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression, a cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation, is mediated by estrogen signaling, so we hypothesized that ESR1 gene polymorphisms might be candidate risk markers for endometriosis-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. We included 98 infertile women with endometriosis, 115 infertile women with at least one IVF failure and also 134 fertile women as controls. TaqMan SNP assays were used for genotyping LIF (rs929271), MDM2 (rs2279744), MDM4 (rs1563828), USP7 (rs1529916), and ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) polymorphisms. The SNP ESR1 rs9340799 was associated with endometriosis-related infertility (P < 0.001) and also with IVF failure (P = 0.018). After controlling for age, infertile women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotype presented 4-fold increased risk of endometriosis (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.84-11.83, P = 0.001) and 3-fold increased risk of IVF failure (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.38-8.03, P = 0.007). Our results demonstrate an association between ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism and infertile women with endometriosis and also with women who were submitted to IVF procedures and had no blastocyst implantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TP53 gene, first described in 1979, was identified as a tumor suppressor gene in 1989, when it became clear that its product, the p53 nuclear phosphoprotein, was frequently inactivated in many different forms of cancers. Nicknamed "guardian of the genome", TP53 occupies a central node in stress response networks. The p53 protein has a key role as transcription factor in limiting oncogenesis through several growth suppressive functions, such as initiating apoptosis, senescence, or cell cycle arrest. The p53 protein is directly inactivated in about 50% of all tumors as a result of somatic gene mutations or deletions, and over 80% of tumors demonstrate dysfunctional p53 signaling. Beyond the undeniable importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor, an increasing number of new functions for p53 have been reported, including its ability to regulate energy metabolism, to control autophagy, and to participate in various aspects of differentiation and development. Recently, studies on genetic variations in TP53 among different populations have led to the notion that the p53 protein might play an important role in regulating fertility. This review summarizes current knowledge on the basic functions of different genes of the TP53 family and TP53 pathway with respect to fertility. We also provide original analyses based on genomic and genotype databases, providing further insights into the possible roles of the TP53 pathway in human reproduction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. DESIGN: Transversal study. Subjects One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. RESULTS: In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio [greater than or equal to] 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cândido Godói (CG) is a small town in South Brazil, which has the highest prevalence of twin births in Brazil. Recently, a number of studies have shown that p53 plays an important role in reproduction through blastocyst implantation and intra utero embryo survival. Thus, gene polymorphisms in the p53 pathway were investigated in this population.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms from five genes in the p53 pathway were investigated, as well as background characteristics of 42 mothers of twins (cases) and 101 mothers of singletons (controls), all residents from CG.
Mothers of twins have higher number of pregnancies and higher frequencies of P72 allele at TP53 and T allele at MDM4 genes compared with controls. Logistic regression shows that both TP53 and number of pregnancies maintained their association with twinning (P =0.004 and P =0.002, respectively), with TP53 having a higher odds ratio than number of pregnancies (2.73 versus 1.70, respectively). No interactive effect between TP53 and MDM4 (P =0.966) is observed. As expected, mothers of twins have three times more cases of cancer in their first-degree relatives than control mothers (P =0.011).
Our results suggest that the P72 allele of TP53 is a strong risk factor for twinning in CG, while the number of pregnancies and the T allele at MDM4 may represent weaker risk factors. These two alleles are associated with infertility, but the anti-apoptotic effect of low levels of p53 in general, and of the P72 allele in particular, may play a role after implantation, enhancing the chance for a double pregnancy to succeed to term.
Human Reproduction 06/2012; 27(9):2866-71. · 4.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes are associated to germline TP53 mutations, and are characterized by the development of central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and other early-onset tumors. Due to the high frequency of breast cancer in LFS/LFL families, these syndromes clinically overlap with hereditary breast cancer (HBC). Germline point mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 genes are associated with high risk of breast cancer. Large rearrangements involving these genes are also implicated in the HBC phenotype. METHODS: We have screened DNA copy number changes by MLPA on BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 genes in 23 breast cancer patients with a clinical diagnosis consistent with LFS/LFL; most of these families also met the clinical criteria for other HBC syndromes. RESULTS: We found no DNA copy number alterations in the BRCA2 and TP53 genes, but we detected in one patient a 36.4 Kb BRCA1 microdeletion, confirmed and further mapped by array-CGH, encompassing exons 9-19. Breakpoints sequencing analysis suggests that this rearrangement was mediated by flanking Alu sequences. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of a germline intragenic BRCA1 deletion in a breast cancer patient with a family history consistent with both LFL and HBC syndromes. Our results show that large rearrangements in these known cancer predisposition genes occur, but are not a frequent cause of cancer susceptibility.
BMC Cancer 06/2012; 12(1):237. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms in genes related to the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as genes of the glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) superfamily have been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (BC). Considering the high incidence of BC in the city of Porto Alegre in southern Brazil, the purpose of this study was to characterize genotypic and allelic frequencies of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1, and correlate these molecular findings with established risk factors for breast cancer including mammographic density, in a sample of 750 asymptomatic women undergoing mammographic screening. Molecular tests were performed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for GSTM1 and GSTT1, and quantitative PCR for GSTP1 polymorphisms. Overall, the frequencies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were 45% and 21%, respectively. For GSTP1 polymorphism, genotypic frequencies were 44% for the Ile/Ile genotype, 44% for the Ile/Val genotype, and 12% for Val/Val genotype, with an allelic frequency of 66% for the wild type allele in this population, similar to results of previous international publications. There was a statistically significant association between the combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes (M-/T-) and mammographic density in post menopausal women (p = 0.031). When the GSTT1 null (T-) genotype was analyzed isolated, the association with mammographic density in post menopausal women and in the overall sample was also statistically significant (p = 0.023 and p = 0.027, respectively). These findings suggest an association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes with mammographic density.
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 06/2012; 15(2):246-55.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms of hormone receptor genes have been linked to modifications in reproductive factors and to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC). In the present study, we have determined the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the ERα-397 PvuII C/T, ERα-351 XbaI A/G and PGR PROGINS polymorphisms and investigated their relationship with mammographic density, body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for BC. A consecutive and unselected sample of 750 Brazilian BC-unaffected women enrolled in a mammography screening program was recruited. The distribution of PGR PROGINS genotypic frequencies was 72.5, 25.5 and 2.0% for A1A1, A1A2 and A2A2, respectively, which was equivalent to that encountered in other studies with healthy women. The distribution of ERα genotypes was: ERα-397 PvuII C/T: 32.3% TT, 47.5% TC, and 20.2% CC; ERα-351 XbaI A/G: 46.3% AA, 41.7% AG and 12.0% GG. ERα haplotypes were 53.5% PX, 14.3% Px, 0.3% pX, and 32.0% px. These were significantly different from most previously published reports worldwide (P < 0.05). Overall, the PGR PROGINS genotypes A2A2 and A1A2 were associated with fatty and moderately fatty breast tissue. The same genotypes were also associated with a high BMI in postmenopausal women. In addition, the ERα-351 XbaI GG genotype was associated with menarche ≥12 years (P = 0.02). ERα and PGR polymorphisms have a phenotypic effect and may play an important role in BC risk determination. Finally, if confirmed in BC patients, these associations could have important implications for mammographic screening and strategies and may be helpful to identify women at higher risk for the disease.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 05/2012; 45(10):891-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal serum ferritin levels are found in approximately 20%-30% of the patients with chronic hepatitis C and are associated with a lower response rate to interferon therapy.
To determine if the presence of HFE gene mutations had any effect on the sustained virological response rate to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients with elevated serum ferritin.
A total of 44 treatment naÏve patients with histologically demonstrated chronic hepatitis C, all infected with hepatitis C virus genotype non-1 (38 genotype 3; 6 genotype 2) and serum ferritin above 500 ng/mL were treated with interferon (3 MU, 3 times a week) and ribavirin (1.000 mg, daily) for 24 weeks.
Sustained virological response was defined as negative qualitative HCV-RNA more than 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Serum HCV-RNA was measured by qualitative in house polymerase chain reaction with a limit of detection of 200 IU/mL. HFE gene mutation was detected using restriction-enzyme digestion with RsaI (C282Y mutation analysis) and BclI (H63D mutation analysis) in 16 (37%) patients, all heterozygous (11 H63D, 2 C282Y and 3 both). Sustained virological response was achieved in 0 of 16 patients with HFE gene mutations and 11 (41%) of 27 patients without HFE gene mutations (P = 0.002; exact Fisher test).
Heterozigozity for H63D and/or C282Y HFE gene mutation predicts absence of sustained virological response to combination treatment with interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C, non-1 genotype and serum ferritin levels above 500 ng/mL.
Arquivos de gastroenterologia 03/2012; 49(1):9-13.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RET single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Here, we investigated the influence of multiple RET variants (G691S, L769L, S836S, and S904S) on the risk of MTC and tumor behavior.
One hundred and seven MTC patients and 308 cancer-unaffected control individuals were included. SNPs were analyzed using Custom TaqMan Genotyping Assays. Haplotypes based on the combination of allelic variants were inferred using a Bayesian statistical method.
The minor allele frequencies in MTC patients were as follows: L769L: 28.0%, S836S: 8.9%, and G691S/S904S: 22.2%. The RET L769L and S836S SNPs were associated with increased risk of MTC (odds ratio (OR)=1.95, 95% CI: 1.2-3.1, P=0.005 and OR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.2-4.5, P=0.017 respectively). The adjusted OR for individuals harboring haplotypes with three or more polymorphic alleles was 3.79 (95% CI: 1.5-9.5; P=0.004), indicating an additive effect of these variants on the risk for MTC. Among MTC patients, no significant associations were observed between RET variants and age of diagnosis or tumor size but serum calcitonin levels increased according to the number of risk alleles (P=0.003). Remarkably, patients carrying haplotypes with three or four risk alleles had increased risk for lymph node and distant metastases at diagnosis (OR=5.84, 95% CI: 1.1-31.2, P=0.039). Further analysis using Kaplan-Meier model demonstrated that metastatic disease occurred earlier in individuals harboring multiple risk alleles.
Our results demonstrated an additive effect of RET polymorphic alleles on the estimated risk of developing aggressive MTC.
European Journal of Endocrinology 02/2012; 166(5):847-54. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 has a crucial role in human fertility by regulating the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a secreted cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation. To examine whether TP53 polymorphisms may be involved with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure and endometriosis (END), we have assessed the associations between TP53 polymorphism in intron 2 (PIN2; G/C, intron 2), PIN3 (one (N, non-duplicated) or two (D, duplicated) repeats of a 16-bp motif, intron 3) and polymorphism in exon 4 (PEX4; C/G, p.P72R, exon 4) in 98 women with END and 115 women with post-IVF failure. In addition, 134 fertile women and 300 women unselected with respect to fertility-related features were assessed. TP53 polymorphisms and haplotypes were identified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 were associated with both END (P=0.042 and P=0.007, respectively) and IVF (P=0.004 and P=0.009, respectively) when compared with women both selected and unselected for fertility-related features. Haplotypes D-C and N-C were related to higher risk for END (P=0.002, P=0.001, respectively) and failure of IVF (P=0.018 and P=0.002, respectively) when compared with the Fertile group. These results support that specific TP53 haplotypes are associated with an increased risk of END-associated infertility and with post-IVF failure.
Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e392. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in TP53 are the underlying defect of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) Syndrome, autosomal dominant disorders characterized by predisposition to multiple early onset cancers. In Brazil, a variant form of LFS/LFL is commonly detected because of the high prevalence of a founder mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (p.R337H). The p53 protein exerts multiple roles in the regulation of oxidative metabolism and cellular anti-oxidant defense systems. Herein, we analyzed the redox parameters in blood samples from p.R337H mutation carriers (C, n = 17) and non-carriers (NC, n = 17). We identified a significant increase in erythrocyte GPx activity and in plasma carbonyl content,an indicator of protein oxidative damage, in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 0.048 and P = 0.035, respectively). Mutation carriers also showed a four-fold increase in plasma malondialdehyde levels, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (NC = 40.20±0.71, C = 160.5±0.88, P<0.0001). Finally, carriers showed increased total antioxidant status but a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid content. The observed imbalance could be associated with deregulated cell bioenergetics and/or with increased inflammatory stress, two effects that may result from loss of wild-type p53 function. These findings provide the first evidence that oxidative damage occurs in carriers of a germline TP53 mutation, and these may have important implications regarding our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for germline TP53 p.R337H mutation-associated carcinogenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47010. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG) and c.5266dup (5382insC) in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT) in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%). This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023). The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be further assessed in a larger well characterized high-risk cohort.
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 12/2011; 9:12. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several germline mutations and sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes have been described. Among these, the CDKN2A p.A148T variant appears to be frequent in patients with melanoma, at least in certain ethnic groups. In this case-control study, we evaluated 127 patients with cutaneous melanoma and 128 controls from Southern Brazil, the region with the highest melanoma incidence rates in the country. Using PCR-RFLP, we demonstrate that CDKN2A p.A148T variant was significantly more frequent in patients with melanoma than in controls (12.6% vs 3.9%; P=0.009). There was no association between presence of the polymorphism and tumor thickness, site of the primary tumor, melanoma subtype, age at diagnosis, quantitative and qualitative number of nevi. Patients with a positive family of history for other cancers were particularly prone to carry the CDKN2A p.A148T allele. All patients with p.A148T-positive melanoma reported European ancestry, especially German, and this was confirmed using a panel of ancestry-informative INDELs. Our data suggest that CDKN2A p.A148T is a melanoma susceptibility allele in Southern Brazil and is particularly common in patients with melanoma of predominantly European ancestry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation has so far only been reported in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families of Portuguese origin. Since this mutation is not detectable using the commonly used screening methodologies and must be specifically sought, we screened for this rearrangement in a total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four individuals requesting predictive testing living in France and in the USA, all being Portuguese immigrants. After performing an extensive haplotype study in carrier families, we estimate that this founder mutation occurred 558 ± 215 years ago. We further demonstrate significant quantitative differences regarding the production of the BRCA2 full length RNA and the transcript lacking exon 3 in c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation carriers and in controls. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer in carriers did not differ from that of other BRCA2 and BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry are specifically tested for this rearrangement.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2011; 127(3):671-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is an autosomal recessive cancer predisposition syndrome associated with the development of colorectal tumors and colonic polyps at an early age. MAP syndrome is associated to germline biallelic mutations in the MUTYH gene which lead to deficient DNA repair through the base-excision repair system and accumulation of G:C→T:A transversions. Occurrence of such mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes drives colorectal carcinogenesis and is associated with the development of colonic polyps. Two common mutations, p.Y179C and p.G396D, are present in approximately 70-80% of MAP in European families with identified MUTYH germline mutations. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of the germline MUTYH mutations p.Y179C and p.G396D in Brazilian patients with MAP and other hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes, as well as in sporadic CRC cases.
A total of 75 patients were included. Samples were screened for the MUTYH germline mutations p.Y179C and p.G396D by allelic discrimination assays using allele-specific TaqMan® probes. In all mutation-positive cases, results were confirmed by sequencing.
Biallelic germline MUTYH mutations were identified in 4 of 60 (6.6%) patients with a phenotype of hereditary colorectal cancer. Germline MUTYH mutation screening should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hereditary colorectal syndromes, and not only in MAP, but also in familial adenomatous polyposis and Bethesda criteria-positive families. Additional mutation screening studies of the MUTYH gene in a larger number of Brazilian patients will be necessary to confirm these results and determine the validity and applicability of MUTYH mutation screening in our population.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2011; 26(7):841-6. · 2.24 Impact Factor