[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects >170 million persons worldwide and is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The identification of more effective and better-tolerated agents for treating HCV is a high priority. We have reported elsewhere the discovery of the anti-HCV compound ceestatin using a high-throughput screen of a small molecule library.
To identify host or viral protein targets in an unbiased fashion, we performed affinity chromatography, using tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify specific potential targets. RESULTS. Ceestatin binds to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase and irreversibly inhibits HMG-CoA synthase in a dose-dependent manner. Ceestatin's anti-HCV effects are reversed by addition of HMG-CoA, mevalonic acid, or geranylgeraniol. Treatment with small interfering RNA against HMG-CoA synthase led to a substantial reduction in HCV replication, further validating HMG-CoA synthase as an enzyme essential for HCV replication.
Ceestatin therefore exerts its anti-HCV effects through inhibition of HMG-CoA synthase. It may prove useful as an antiviral agent, as a probe to study HCV replication, and as a cholesterol-lowering agent. The logical stepwise process employed to discover the mechanism of action of ceestatin can serve as a general experimental strategy to uncover the targets on which novel uncharacterized anti-HCV compounds act.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2011; 204(4):609-16. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jir303 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the synthesis and biological activity of a library of aminoalcohol-derived macrocycles from which robotnikinin, a binder to and inhibitor of Sonic Hedgehog, was derived. Using an asymmetric alkylation to set a key stereocenter and an RCM reaction to close the macrocycle, we were able to synthesize compounds for testing. High-throughput screening via small-molecule microarray (SMM) technology led to the discovery of a compound capable of binding ShhN. Follow-up chemistry led to a library of macrocycles with enhanced biological activity relative to the original hit compounds. Differences in ring size and stereochemistry, leading to alterations in the mode of binding, may account for differences in the degree of biological activity. These compounds are the first ones reported that inhibit Shh signaling at the ShhN level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small-molecule inhibition of extracellular proteins that activate membrane receptors has proven to be extremely challenging. Diversity-oriented synthesis and small-molecule microarrays enabled the discovery of robotnikinin, a small molecule that binds the extracellular Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein and blocks Shh signaling in cell lines, human primary keratinocytes and a synthetic model of human skin. Shh pathway activity is rescued by small-molecule agonists of Smoothened, which functions immediately downstream of the Shh receptor Patched.
Nature Chemical Biology 01/2009; 5(3):154-156. DOI:10.1038/nchembio.142 · 13.00 Impact Factor