C K Osborne

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (308)2780.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Genomic profiling studies suggest triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease. In this study we sought to define TNBC subtypes and identify subtype-specific markers and targets. Experimental Design: RNA and DNA profiling analyses were conducted on 198 TNBC tumors (ER-negativity defined as Allred Scale value ≤2) with >50% cellularity (discovery set: n=84; validation set: n=114) collected at Baylor College of Medicine. An external data set of 7 publically-accessible TNBC studies was used to confirm results. DNA copy number, disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analyzed independently using these datasets. Results: We identified and confirmed four distinct TNBC subtypes: (1) Luminal-AR (LAR); 2) Mesenchymal (MES); 3) Basal-Like Immune-Suppressed (BLIS), and 4) Basal-Like Immune-Activated (BLIA). Of these, prognosis is worst for BLIS tumors and best for BLIA tumors for both DFS (logrank test p=0.042 and 0.041, respectively) and DSS (logrank test p=0.039 and 0.029, respectively). DNA copy number analysis produced two major groups (LAR and MES/BLIS/BLIA), and suggested gene amplification drives gene expression in some cases (FGFR2 (BLIS)). Putative subtype-specific targets were identified: 1) LAR: androgen receptor and the cell surface mucin MUC1; 2) MES: growth factor receptors (PDGF receptor A; c-Kit); 3) BLIS: an immune suppressing molecule (VTCN1); and 4) BLIA: Stat signal transduction molecules and cytokines. Conclusions: There are four stable TNBC subtypes characterized by the expression of distinct molecular profiles that have distinct prognoses. These studies identify novel subtype-specific targets that can be targeted in the future for effective treatment of TNBCs.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 09/2014;
  • Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen has been a frontline treatment for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast tumors in premenopausal women. However, resistance to tamoxifen occurs in many patients. ER still plays a critical role in the growth of breast cancer cells with acquired tamoxifen resistance, suggesting that ERα remains a valid target for treatment of tamoxifen-resistant (Tam-R) breast cancer. In an effort to identify novel regulators of ERα signaling, through a small-scale siRNA screen against histone methyl modifiers, we found WHSC1, a histone H3K36 methyltransferase, as a positive regulator of ERα signaling in breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that WHSC1 is recruited to the ERα gene by the BET protein BRD3/4, and facilitates ERα gene expression. The small-molecule BET protein inhibitor JQ1 potently suppressed the classic ERα signaling pathway and the growth of Tam-R breast cancer cells in culture. Using a Tam-R breast cancer xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated in vivo anti-breast cancer activity by JQ1 and a strong long-lasting effect of combination therapy with JQ1 and the ER degrader fulvestrant. Taken together, we provide evidence that the epigenomic proteins BRD3/4 and WHSC1 are essential regulators of estrogen receptor signaling and are novel therapeutic targets for treatment of Tam-R breast cancer.Cell Research advance online publication 30 May 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.71.
    Cell research. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Modest up-regulation of either HER-ligands or receptors has been implicated in acquired endocrine resistance. AZD8931, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR)/HER2, has been shown to more effectively block ligand-dependent HER signaling than the HER TKIs lapatinib or gefitinib. We therefore examined the effect of AZD8931 in ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer cells with acquired resistance to tamoxifen, where there is ligand up-regulation associated with HER pathway activation. RNA-seq ligand profiling and levels of HER receptors and signaling by western blotting were conducted in ER+ MCF7 and T47D parental cells and their Tam-resistant derivatives (TamRes). In vitro cell growth and apoptosis and HER ligand-stimulated signaling were measured in response to endocrine and HER TKIs. For studies in vivo, transplantable MCF7/TamRes xenografts were treated with tamoxifen or fulvestrant, either alone or in combination with AZD8931. AZD8931 only minimally enhanced endocrine sensitivity in MCF7 parental cells, but showed a greater effect in the T47D parental model. AZD8931 combined with either tamoxifen or fulvestrant inhibited cell growth more than lapatinib in T47D TamRes cells, and was also significantly, though modestly, more potent in MCF7 TamRes cells. In both TamRes models, AZD8931 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Under ligand-stimulated conditions, AZD8931 more potently inhibited HER signaling than lapatinib or gefitinib. AZD8931 also significantly delayed the growth of MCF7 TamRes xenografts in the presence of tamoxifen or fulvestrant. The strongest inhibition was achieved with a fulvestrant and AZD8931 combination, though no tumor regression was observed. This study provides evidence that AZD8931 has greater inhibitory efficacy in tamoxifen-resistant settings than in an endocrine therapy naïve setting. The absence of tumor regression, however, suggests that additional escape pathways contribute to resistant growth and will need to be targeted to fully circumvent tamoxifen resistance.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionActivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in estrogen receptor inverted question mark (ER)-positive breast cancer is associated with reduced ER expression and activity, luminal B subtype, and poor outcome. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of this pathway, is typically lost in ER-negative breast cancer. We set out to clarify the role of reduced PTEN levels in endocrine resistance, and to explore the combination of newly developed PI3K downstream kinase inhibitors to overcome this resistance.MethodsAltered cellular signaling, gene expression, and endocrine sensitivity were determined in inducible PTEN-knockdown ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer cell and/or xenograft models. Single or two-agent combinations of kinase inhibitors were examined to improve endocrine therapy.ResultsModerate PTEN reduction was sufficient to enhance PI3K signaling, generate a gene signature associated with the luminal B subtype of breast cancer, and cause endocrine resistance in vitro and in vivo. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), protein kinase B (AKT), or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors, alone or in combination, improved endocrine therapy, but the efficacy varied by PTEN levels, type of endocrine therapy, and the specific inhibitor(s). A single agent AKT inhibitor combined with fulvestrant conferred superior efficacy in overcoming resistance, inducing apoptosis and tumor regression.ConclusionsModerate reduction in PTEN, without complete loss, can activate the PI3K pathway to cause endocrine resistance in ER-positive breast cancer, which can be overcome by combining endocrine therapy with inhibitors of the PI3K pathway. Our data suggests that the ER degrader fulvestrant, to block both ligand-dependent and -independent ER signaling, combined with an AKT inhibitor is an effective strategy to test in patients.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 01/2014; 16(5):430. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: About 20% to 40% of patients with breast cancer eventually develop recurrences in distant organs, which are often not detected until years to decades after the primary tumor diagnosis. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, suggesting that ER(+) cancer cells may stay dormant for a protracted period of time, despite adjuvant therapies. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain how cancer cells survive and remain in dormancy, and how they become reactivated and exit dormancy. These mechanisms include angiogenic switch, immunosurveillance, and interaction with extracellular matrix and stromal cells. How to eradicate or suppress these dormant cancer cells remains a major clinical issue because of the lack of knowledge about the biologic and clinical nature of these cells. Herein, we review the clinical manifestation of metastasis dormancy in ER(+) tumors, the current biologic insights regarding tumor dormancy obtained from various experimental models, and the clinical challenges to predict, detect, and treat dormant metastases. We also discuss future research directions toward a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms and clinical management of ER(+) dormant metastasis. Clin Cancer Res; 19(23); 6389-97. ©2013 AACR.
    Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; 19(23):6389-97. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene amplifications in the 17q chromosomal region are observed frequently in breast cancers. An integrative bioinformatics analysis of this region nominated the MAP3K3 gene as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3/MEKK3), which has not yet been reported to be associated with cancer-causing genetic aberrations. We found that MAP3K3 was amplified in approximately 8-20% of breast cancers. Knockdown of MAP3K3 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in MAP3K3-amplified breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 but not in MAP3K3 non-amplified breast cancer cells. Knockdown of MAP3K3 expression in MAP3K3-amplified breast cancer cells sensitized breast cancer cells to apoptotic induction by TNFα and TRAIL, as well as doxorubicin, VP-16 and fluorouracil, three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for treating breast cancer. In addition, ectopic expression of MAP3K3, in collaboration with Ras, induced colony formation in both primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts and immortalized human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). Combined, these results suggest that MAP3K3 contributes to breast carcinogenesis and may endow resistance of breast cancer cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, MAP3K3 may be a valuable therapeutic target in patients with MAP3K3-amplified breast cancers, and blocking MAP3K3 kinase activity with a small molecule inhibitor may sensitize MAP3K3-amplified breast cancer cells to chemotherapy.
    The Journal of Pathology 10/2013; · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    Xiaoyong Fu, C Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff
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    ABSTRACT: PI3K is a central node mediating growth factor receptor signaling. With its downstream effectors such as AKT and mTOR, and its crosstalk with the RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK pathway, it plays a vital role in cancer cell proliferation, metabolism, and survival. Recent breast cancer (BC) molecular portraits delineate PI3K as the most frequently altered pathway, with recurrent PIK3CA mutations mostly found in the luminal subtypes of BC. The transcriptomic and proteomic signatures of PI3K pathway activation associate with reduced estrogen receptor α (ER) levels and activity, and with the luminal B subtype of BC that has a relatively poor outcome. However, oncogenic transforming PIK3CA mutations have been shown to predict a better outcome in ER+/HER2-negative BC treated with endocrine therapy. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the cause-and-effect of PI3K pathway aberration and endocrine sensitivity, especially the crosstalk with the ER pathway. Potential therapeutic approaches based on these findings are also discussed.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 09/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if development of acneiform rash is a predictor of objective response rate with lapatinib. DESIGN: Subanalysis of data from a prospective, phase II study. SETTING: Academic breast care clinic. PATIENTS: Forty-nine treatment-naïve patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive locally advanced breast cancer, who were treated with neoadjuvant lapatinib monotherapy for 6 weeks; 47 patients were included in the final analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 49 patients enrolled, 33 (67%) developed a rash of any type, and 26 (55%) had acneiform rash. Of the 26 evaluable patients with acneiform rash (55%), 19 (73%) responded to lapatinib and 7 (27%) did not. Of the 21 evaluable patients without acneiform rash, 11 (67%) responded to treatment and 7 (33%) did not. Thus, no association was found between the occurrence of acneiform rash and response to lapatinib monotherapy. CONCLUSION: This study does not support the development of the acneiform rash as a predictor of clinical efficacy of lapatinib in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Pharmacotherapy 06/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEWe previously reported the eradication of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified human xenografts in mice by inhibition of the HER2 pathway with lapatinib and trastuzumab to block all homo- and heterodimer signaling as well as by blockade of estrogen receptor (ER) when expressed. In this clinical trial, we sought to translate these findings to patients using targeted therapy without chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Women with stages II to III HER2-positive breast cancers were eligible. They received trastuzumab once per week (4 mg/kg loading, then 2 mg/kg) and lapatinib 1000 mg once per day for 12 weeks. Women with ER-positive tumors also received letrozole (plus a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonist if premenopausal). Pathologic response was assessed by ER status. Biopsies were obtained at baseline, weeks 2 and 8, and time of surgery.ResultsSixty-six patients were enrolled, and 64 were eligible and evaluable for response. Median tumor size was 6 cm (range, 1.5 to 30 cm). Adverse events were mainly grades 1 to 2 (GI, 63%; skin, 46%). Grade 3 metabolic, GI, and liver (18%; 12 patients) and grade 4 liver toxicities (one patient) were also observed. Overall, in-breast pathologic complete response (pCR; ypT0-is) was 27% (ER positive, 21%; ER negative, 36%). The rate of low-volume residual disease (ypT1a-b) was 22% (ER positive, 33%; ER negative, 4%). CONCLUSION In patients with locally advanced HER2-positive breast cancer, our approach of targeted therapy only resulted in a high pCR rate without chemotherapy. Our data support the hypothesis that selected patients with HER2-positive tumors may not need chemotherapy, and more-complete blockade of HER receptors and ER is an effective strategy worthy of further study.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While a first pregnancy before age 22 lowers breast cancer risk, a pregnancy after age 35 significantly increases life-long breast cancer risk. Pregnancy causes several changes to the normal breast that raise barriers to transformation, but how pregnancy can also increase cancer risk remains unclear. We show in mice that pregnancy has different effects on the few early lesions that have already developed in the otherwise normal breast-it causes apoptosis evasion and accelerated progression to cancer. The apoptosis evasion is due to the normally tightly controlled STAT5 signaling going astray-these precancerous cells activate STAT5 in response to pregnancy/lactation hormones and maintain STAT5 activation even during involution, thus preventing the apoptosis normally initiated by oncoprotein and involution. Short-term anti-STAT5 treatment of lactation-completed mice bearing early lesions eliminates the increased risk after a pregnancy. This chemoprevention strategy has important implications for preventing increased human breast cancer risk caused by pregnancy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00996.001.
    eLife Sciences 01/2013; 2:e00996.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on well characterized, large populations of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PgR)/HER2-negative [triple-negative (TN)] breast cancer (BC) patients with long-term follow-up are lacking. In this study, we analyze clinical outcomes of TN BC and implications of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Clinical and biologic features, time to first recurrence (TTFR), and overall survival (OS) were compared in 253 TN versus 1,036 ER positive, PgR positive, HER2-negative [estrogen-driven (ED)] BC. Compared to ED, TN tumors were larger (p = 0.02), more proliferative (high S-phase 54 vs. 17 %, p < 0.0001), more aneuploid (64 vs. 43 %, p < 0.0001) and more likely EGFR positive (≥10 fmol/mg by radioligand-binding assay, 49 vs. 7 %, p < 0.0001). Among TN, EGFR-positive BC were larger (p = 0.0018), more proliferative (p < 0.0001), and more aneuploid, (p < 0.0001) than EGFR-negative BC. Adjuvant-treated TN patients had shorter TTFR (p = 0.0003), and OS (p = 0.0017), than ED patients. However, in untreated patients, no differences in TTFR and OS were observed at 8 years median follow-up. Among TN patients, EGFR expression was not associated with worse outcome. TN tumors have a worse outcome in systemically treated patients but not in untreated patients. EGFR expression, does not predict for worse long-term survival.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2012; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied resistance to endocrine and HER2-targeted therapies using a xenograft model of estrogen receptor positive (ER)/HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Here, we report a novel phenotype of drug resistance in this model. MCF7/HER2-18 xenografts were treated with endocrine therapy alone or in combination with lapatinib and trastuzumab (LT) to inhibit HER2. Archival tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and with mucicarmine. RNA extracted from tumors at early time points and late after acquired resistance were analyzed for mucin4 (MUC4) expression by microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Protein expression of the MUC4, ER, and HER2 signaling pathways was measured by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The combination of the potent anti-HER2 regimen LT with either tamoxifen (Tam + LT) or estrogen deprivation (ED + LT) can cause complete eradication of ER-positive/HER2-overexpressing tumors in mice. Tumors developing resistance to this combination, as well as those acquiring resistance to endocrine therapy alone, exhibited a distinct histological and molecular phenotype-a striking increase in mucin-filled vacuoles and upregulation of several mucins including MUC4. At the onset of resistance, MUC4 mRNA and protein were increased. These tumors also showed upregulation and reactivation of HER2 signaling, while losing ER protein and the estrogen-regulated gene progesterone receptor. Mucins are upregulated in a preclinical model of ER-positive/HER2-overexpressing breast cancer as resistance develops to the combination of endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy. These mucin-rich tumors reactivate the HER2 pathway and shift their molecular phenotype to become more ER-negative/HER2-positive.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2012; 134(2):583-93. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MiRNAs are a class of short, endogenous, single-stranded RNA molecules that play a role in the regulation of gene expression. They have been shown to modulate a number of cellular processes including cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis and as a result have been implicated in carcinogenesis. They are detectable in tumour tissue, and altered expression levels have been identified in various cancer types. Of interest, miRNAs have recently been detected and identified to be dysregulated in the circulation of patients with breast cancer. The fact that a minimally invasive test can distinguish the presence or absence of disease illustrates the immense potential these molecules hold as predictive markers. This review serves to identify those systemic miRNAs that are upregulated or downregulated in malignancy and how treatment impacts on their circulating levels. In addition, this review questions the source of these small molecules in the bloodstream and how they may possibly play a role in the future detection of cancer as either prognostic or predictive markers. © 147.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2012; 131(10):2215-22. · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Mothaffar F Rimawi, C Kent Osborne
    Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 01/2012; 9(3):133-4. · 15.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coregulator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 increases transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) in a number of tissues including bone. Mice deficient in SRC-1 are osteopenic and display skeletal resistance to estrogen treatment. SRC-1 is also known to modulate effects of selective ER modulators like tamoxifen. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in SRC-1 may impact estrogen and/or tamoxifen action. Because the only nonsynonymous SNP in SRC-1 (rs1804645; P1272S) is located in an activation domain, it was examined for effects on estrogen and tamoxifen action. SRC-1 P1272S showed a decreased ability to coactivate ER compared with wild-type SRC-1 in multiple cell lines. Paradoxically, SRC-1 P1272S had an increased protein half-life. The Pro to Ser change disrupts a putative glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3)β phosphorylation site that was confirmed by in vitro kinase assays. Finally, knockdown of GSK3β increased SRC-1 protein levels, mimicking the loss of phosphorylation at P1272S. These findings are similar to the GSK3β-mediated phospho-ubiquitin clock previously described for the related coregulator SRC-3. To assess the potential clinical significance of this SNP, we examined whether there was an association between SRC-1 P1272S and selective ER modulators response in bone. SRC-1 P1272S was associated with a decrease in hip and lumbar bone mineral density in women receiving tamoxifen treatment, supporting our in vitro findings for decreased ER coactivation. In summary, we have identified a functional genetic variant of SRC-1 with decreased activity, resulting, at least in part, from the loss of a GSK3β phosphorylation site, which was also associated with decreased bone mineral density in tamoxifen-treated women.
    Molecular Endocrinology 12/2011; 26(2):220-7. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myc is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently dysregulated in human cancer. To identify pathways supporting the Myc oncogenic program, we used a genome-wide RNA interference screen to search for Myc-synthetic lethal genes and uncovered a role for the SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE1/2). Loss of SAE1/2 enzymatic activity drives synthetic lethality with Myc. Inactivation of SAE2 leads to mitotic catastrophe and cell death upon Myc hyperactivation. Mechanistically, SAE2 inhibition switches a transcriptional subprogram of Myc from activated to repressed. A subset of these SUMOylation-dependent Myc switchers (SMS genes) is required for mitotic spindle function and to support the Myc oncogenic program. SAE2 is required for growth of Myc-dependent tumors in mice, and gene expression analyses of Myc-high human breast cancers suggest that low SAE1 and SAE2 abundance in the tumors correlates with longer metastasis-free survival of the patients. Thus, inhibition of SUMOylation may merit investigation as a possible therapy for Myc-driven human cancers.
    Science 12/2011; 335(6066):348-53. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of HER2-directed therapies has significantly improved the outlook for patients with HER2-positive early stage breast cancer. However, a significant proportion of these patients still relapse and die of breast cancer. Trials to define, refine and optimize the use of the two approved HER2-targeted agents (trastuzumab and lapatinib) in patients with HER2-positive early stage breast cancer are ongoing. In addition, promising new approaches are being developed including monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting HER2 or other HER family members, antibodies linked to cytotoxic moieties or modified to improve their immunological function, immunostimulatory peptides, and targeting the PI3K and IGF-1R pathways. Improved understanding of the HER2 signaling pathway, its relationship with other signaling pathways and mechanisms of resistance has also led to the development of rational combination therapies and to a greater insight into treatment response in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Based on promising results with new agents in HER2-positive advanced-stage disease, a series of large trials in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings are planned or ongoing. This Review focuses on current treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and aims to update practicing clinicians on likely future developments in the treatment for this disease according to ongoing clinical trials and translational research.
    Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 11/2011; 9(1):16-32. · 15.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L) show high efficacy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, but resistance is prevalent. Here we investigate resistance mechanisms to each drug alone, or to their combination using a large panel of HER2-positive cell lines made resistant to these drugs. Response to L + T treatment was characterized in a panel of 13 HER2-positive cell lines to identify lines that were de novo resistant. Acquired resistant lines were then established by long-term exposure to increasing drug concentrations. Levels and activity of HER2 and estrogen receptor (ER) pathways were determined by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting assays. Cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis in parental cells and resistant derivatives were assessed in response to inhibition of HER or ER pathways, either pharmacologically (L, T, L + T, or fulvestrant) or by using siRNAs. Efficacy of combined endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies was studied in vivo using UACC-812 xenografts. ER or its downstream products increased in four out of the five ER+/HER2+ lines, and was evident in one of the two intrinsically resistant lines. In UACC-812 and BT474 parental and resistant derivatives, HER2 inhibition by T reactivated HER network activity to promote resistance. T-resistant lines remained sensitive to HER2 inhibition by either L or HER2 siRNA. With more complete HER2 blockade, resistance to L-containing regimens required the activation of a redundant survival pathway, ER, which was up-regulated and promoted survival via various Bcl2 family members. These L- and L + T-resistant lines were responsive to fulvestrant and to ER siRNA. However, after prolonged treatment with L, but not L + T, BT474 cells switched from depending on ER as a survival pathway, to relying again on the HER network (increased HER2, HER3, and receptor ligands) to overcome L's effects. The combination of endocrine and L + T HER2-targeted therapies achieved complete tumor regression and prevented development of resistance in UACC-812 xenografts. Combined L + T treatment provides a more complete and stable inhibition of the HER network. With sustained HER2 inhibition, ER functions as a key escape/survival pathway in ER-positive/HER2-positive cells. Complete blockade of the HER network, together with ER inhibition, may provide optimal therapy in selected patients.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2011; 13(6):R121. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocrine therapy represents the first and most efficacious targeted treatment for women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. In the last four decades several hormonal agents have been successfully introduced in clinical practice as both palliative therapy for advanced disease and adjuvant treatment for prevention of tumor relapse. Nevertheless, the intrinsic and acquired resistance occurs in a significant proportion of patients, limiting the efficacy of endocrine treatments. Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for endocrine resistance. Loss of ER expression, altered activity of ER coregulators, deregulation of apoptosis and cell cycle signaling, and hyperactive receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and stress/cell kinase pathways can collectively orchestrate the development and sustenance of pharmacologic resistance to endocrine therapy. Preclinical and clinical evidence documents the plasticity in ER expression levels and signaling. As such, ER can either drive gene transcription and tumor progression directly or crosstalk with alternate RTK and cellular kinase signaling pathways, resulting in modulation of its own expression levels and transcriptional program. For this reason a therapeutic approach based on the combination of agents targeting both ER and RTK signaling represents a promising strategy to be tested. Among many RTKs, EGFR, HER2, and PI3K have been found to be viable targets for the combination therapy strategy, at least in the preclinical setting. However, early results from clinical trials testing combination strategies have been discordant, suggesting the need for better approaches to simultaneously inhibit multiple escape pathways and to select the patients who may benefit the most from these strategies.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2011; 20 Suppl 3:S42-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
2,780.38 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Miami
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Roswell Park Cancer Institute
      Buffalo, New York, United States
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Medicine
      Lexington, KY, United States
    • Breakthrough Breast Cancer
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2008
    • Houston Methodist Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1993–2005
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2003
    • Institut Bergonié
      Burdeos, Aquitaine, France
  • 1981–2001
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Institute of Biotechnology
      • • Department of Pathology
      San Antonio, TX, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2000
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
    • Brooke Army Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1986–1999
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 1998
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Pretoria
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1989–1998
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • MetroHealth Medical Center
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • The University of Arizona
      • College of Medicine
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 1997
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1993–1997
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Wales
      • College of Medicine
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • University of New Mexico Hospitals
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1991
    • Cancer Treatment Centre
      Anaheim, California, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1987
    • Cancer Research Institute
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1985–1986
    • Swedish Medical Center
      Englewood, Colorado, United States
  • 1983
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Laboratory of Pathology
      Maryland, United States