M Degrange

Université Paris Descartes, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (40)72.07 Total impact

  • E Vennat, J-P Attal, D Aubry, M Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: Dentine is the fundamental substrate of restorative dentistry, and its properties and characteristics are the key determinants of restorative processes. In contemporary restorative techniques, bonding to Dentine is created by the impregnation of the demineralised dentine by blends of resin monomers. In this paper, a numerical model of dentinal infiltration is proposed. The aim is to follow the resin front and to point out the optimal parameter set. The main tool is a level set technique to follow the evolving interface. It is coupled with the Navier-Stokes equation where capillary effect gives rise to the appearance of a new term in the variational approach than discretised by finite elements. Using an appropriate geometry representing demineralised dentine, the moving front is observed. First, a simulation of porosimetry test is achieved in order to validate the model. The two expected pore sizes are detected and the simulation also points out limitations of mercury intrusion porosimetry test in an educational way. Then a wetting fluid (representing the dental resin) is numerically infiltrated. In the dentinal porous network, capillarity is taken into account in our model by including a capillary term. A crucial conclusion is drawn from this study: resin application time by practitioners is sufficient if, in the infiltration process, the wetting phase is the resin.
    Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 08/2012; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Syntheses of novel 5-(methacryloyloxy)pentylphosphonic acid 1, 5-(methacryloyloxy)pentylidenebisphosphonic acid 2 and 1,1-difluoro-5-(methacryloyloxy)pentylphosphonic acid 3 are described. The ability of these monomers to adhere to hydroxyapatite was demonstrated using 31P CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. Their copolymerization with N,N′-diethyl-1,3-bis(acrylamido)propane (DEBAAP) was investigated with photo differential scanning calorimetry. These mixtures exhibit a significantly higher reactivity than DEBAAP alone. Bisphosphonic acid 2 was shown to be significantly more reactive than monomers 1 and 3. Adhesive properties of these monomers were also studied. Adhesives based on bisphosphonic acid 2 and difluoromethylphosphonic acid 3 provide significantly higher dentin shear bond strength than the one based on phosphonic acid 1.
    European Polymer Journal - EUR POLYM J. 02/2012;
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    Elsa Vennat, Denis Aubry, Michel Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: In dentin restoration, collagen fiber network infiltration is an issue. Using data from the litterature, we have constructed a relevant numerical geometrical model of the network. The specificity of our model is that the fibers are taken into account implicitly using a regularized Heaviside function. This function is either used to set the viscosity or to localize the contact line where capillary forces are applied. A level set technique with respect to fluid infiltration front tracking in five fiber networks using the level set method and Navier-Stokes equations with capillary terms is used to point out efficient critical infiltration parameters. A variational formulation which can be implemented in FEM is proposed both for the infiltration front and the contact line. Because of lack of knowledge on fiber orientation, different configurations were tested through permeability assessment of the whole network. Fiber orientation, interfibrillar space and contact angle influence were investigated.
    Transport in Porous Media 09/2010; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    Congxiao Zhang, Michel Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the bond strengths of three self-adhesive resin cements (Rely X Unicem, Maxcem and Multilink Sprint) fixing dentine to four different restorative substrates (Ni-Cr alloy, E-Max glass-ceramic, Y-TZP Zirconia and Adoro micro-filled composite) and to compare their performances with those of two conventional dual-cured luting cements (Variolink II + Total-etch Excite DSC and Multilink Automix + Self-etching Primer A + B). Cylindric specimens (5 x 5 mm) were prepared with the four restorative materials for bonding to human dentine. Three surface treatments were performed depending on the restorative material: (i) Al2O3 50 microm sandblasting (Ni-Cr, Adoro), (ii) #800 SiC polishing (Zirconia, E-Max), (iii) hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etching (E-Max). Twenty-five groups (n = 10) were designed according to luting cements, restorative materials and surface pre-treatments. In some experimental groups, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were coupled with, respectively, a silane primer (Monobond S) and an alloy/zirconia primer (Multilink A/Z primer). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then loaded in shear until failure. Variolink II and Multilink Automix showed the highest bond strengths, regardless of the restorative substrate, when used with dentine bonding systems and primers, while the weakest bonds were with Maxcem. The bond strength recorded with the two other self-adhesive cements depended on the nature of the restorative substrate. Increasing retention at the interfaces (i.e., HF ceramic etching) and using specific primers significantly improves the bond strength of luted restorative materials to dentine.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 01/2010; 21(5):593-608. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Dental Materials 01/2010; 26:e6. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four new monomers, 3-(N-methylacrylamido)propylidenebisphosphonic acid, 3-(N-propyl-acrylamido)propylidenebisphosphonic acid, 3-(N-hexylacrylamido)propylidenebisphosphonic acid, and 3-(N-octylacrylamido)propylidenebisphosphonic acid, have been synthesized in good yields and fully characterized by 1H, 13C, 31P NMR, and HRMS. The copolymerization of these monomers with N,N′-diethyl-1,3-bis(acrylamido)propane (DEBAAP) has been investigated with differential scanning calorimetry. These mixtures show a higher reactivity than DEBAAP. New self-etch dental primers, based on these acrylamide monomers, have been formulated. Dentin shear bond strength measurements have shown that primers based on these bisphosphonic acids assure a strong bond between the tooth substance and a dental composite. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 5258–5271, 2009
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 09/2009; 47(20):5258 - 5271. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility between five self-etching bonding systems (SEBSs) and two resin luting cements (RLCs) assessed by use of an in vitro dentin shear bond test. The selected RLCs were: Variolink II in a dual-cure mode and Multilink in a self-cure mode. The SEBSs combined with the RLCs were: two one-step SEBSs (One Up Bond F and Xeno III) and three two-step SEBSs (Clearfil SE Bond, Unifil Bond, and Xeno III primer coupled with Clearfil SE Bond bonding resin as an experimental combination). One hundred fifty human molars were divided into ten groups of fifteen samples each. The samples were tested in shear after seven days of storage at 100% RH and 37°C. After each test, the failure mode was recorded. Significant differences in shear bond strength (SBS) were observed according to both the curing mode of the RLC and the adhesive. The one-step systems Xeno III and One Up Bond F revealed a total incompatibility when bonded with the chemical-curing RLC. Conversely, the two-step SEBSs were compatible with chemical and dual-curing RLC. Failure modes and shear values were in good agreement. A positive correlation was found between the pH of the tested adhesive solutions or resins and the SBS data
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 09/2009; 12(2):137-42. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In adhesive restorations, one major problem is hybrid layer degradation. At present, this deterioration is explained by the activation of the endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) present in dentin due to the acidic property of adhesive systems. We hypothesized that self-etching adhesive should also stimulate the expression of MMPs in odontoblasts. In cultured tooth slices, we evaluated the changes in MMP-2 and proMMP-9 expression in the dentin-pulp complex after self-etching adhesive treatment on dentin cavities in immunochemistry and by zymography. The treatment resulted in increased MMP-2 expression in odontoblasts, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Zymography showed increased proMMP-9 and MMP-2 in dentin under self-etching treatment when pulp was present. These results showed that self-etching adhesive stimulates the secretion of MMPs from the dentin-pulp complex and, more precisely, by odontoblasts, suggesting that odontoblasts participate in hybrid layer degradation.
    Journal of dental research 02/2009; 88(1):77-82. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to assess demineralized dentin porosity and quantify the different porous features distribution within the material using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) technique. We compared hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) drying and lyophilization (LYO) (freeze-drying) in sample preparation. Fifty-six dentin discs were assigned into three groups. The control (CTR) group discs were superficially acid-etched (15s 37% H(3)PO(4)) to remove the smear layer and then freeze-dried whereas LYO and HMDS groups samples were first totally demineralized using EDTA 0.5M and then freeze-dried and HMDS-dried respectively. MIP was used to determine open porosity and pore size distribution of each pair of samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to illustrate the results. The results showed two types of pores corresponding either to tubules and micro-branches or to inter-fibrillar spaces created by demineralization. Global porosity varied from 59% (HMDS-dried samples) to 70% (freeze-dried samples). Lyophilization drying technique seems to lead to less shrinkage than HMDS drying. FESEM revealed that collagen fibers of demineralized lyophilized samples are less melted together than in the HMDS-dried samples. Demineralized dentin porosity is a key parameter in dentin bonding that will influence the hybrid layer quality. Its characterization could be helpful to improve the monomers infiltration.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 02/2009; 25(6):729-35. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel monomers 2-(N-methylacrylamido)ethylphosphonic acid, 6-(N-methylacrylamido)hexylphosphonic acid, 10-(N-methylacrylamido)decylphosphonic acid, and 4-(N-methylacrylamidomethyl)benzylphosphonic acid have been prepared in good yields for use in dental adhesives. They have been fully characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P-NMR, and by HRMS. All monomers are hydrolytically stable in aqueous solution. Free radical homopolymerizations of these monomers have been carried out in solution of ethanol/water (2.5/1:v/v), using 2,2′-azo(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AMPAHC) as initiator. They lead to homopolymers in moderate to excellent yields. Structure of the polymers has been confirmed by SEC/MALLS and 1H-NMR spectra. The photopolymerization behavior of the synthesized monomers with N,N′-diethyl-1,3-bis(acrylamido)propane has been investigated by DSC. New self-etch primers, based on these acrylamide monomers, have been formulated. Dentin shear bond strength measurements have shown that primers based on (N-methylacrylamido)alkylphosphonic acids assure a strong bond between the tooth substance and a dental composite. Moreover, the monomer with the longest spacer group provides the highest shear bond strength. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 7074–7090, 2008
    Journal of Polymer Science Part A Polymer Chemistry 09/2008; 46(21):7074 - 7090. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Nicolas Cheleux, Patrick Sharrock, Michel Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: Fibre-reinforced composite posts are currently used to restore endodontically-treated teeth. Push-out tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of several bonding agents on the retention of an endodontic quartz fibre post to a composite resin core. Five bonding agents were investigated in both self-cure and light-cure modes. Ten experimental groups of 10 posts each were constituted as a function of curing mode and bonding agent. Specimens were mounted in a dedicated Teflon mould. This experimental set-up allowed the determination of true shear strength. One-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were used for statistical analysis. The bonding strengths ranged from 23.4 MPa to 35.3 MPa. The best results were obtained with a light-cure self-etch bonding agent; in all cases photo-polymerisation led to statistically higher bonding strengths compared to chemical auto-polymerisation. Shear bond strength at the post-adhesive interface was also found to be significantly dependent on the nature of the bonding agent. AdheSe self-etch bonding agent was more effective than etch-and-rinse single-component bonding agents.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 02/2008; 19(7):853-61. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Nicolas Cheleux, Patrick Sharrock, Michel Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate (1) the effect of various surface treatments to optimize post adhesion, and (2) if these surface treatments had any adverse effect on the overall mechanical and chemical properties of the posts. Six experimental batches were set according to the nature of the surface treatments which were followed or not by post silanization. Post surface treatments were: control, chloroform (CHCl3) and sandblasting (sand) with Al2O3 50 microm. The silane (sil) used was Silane Coupling Agent Calibra. In all cases, a dual-cure bonding agent was applied Prime&Bond NT + Self Cure Activator. The Groups were: 1 (control), 2 (sil), 3 (CHCl3), 4 (CHCl3 + sil), 5 (sand), 6 (sand + sil). Following surface treatments, the posts were embedded in resin composite and the composite-post interfacial strength was investigated with a push-out test. Flexural and fatigue tests were performed to control the mechanical performances of the treated posts. Push-out data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Scheffé's multiple means comparisons test (alpha = 0.05). SEM observations revealed the topographical modifications induced by sandblasting and the solvent. Sandblasting or surface treatment with chloroform increased the bond strength (P < 0.001). The best values were obtained with the combination of sandblasting followed by post silanization. The flexural properties were not modified by the surface treatments (P = 0.072) and all the posts reached 3,000,000 cycles without breaking.
    American journal of dentistry 12/2007; 20(6):375-9. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • F Courson, D Bouter, N D Ruse, M Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of nine dentine bonding systems (DBS) of different classes to human primary and permanent dentine. Flat dentine occlusal surfaces were produced on human molars (100 primary, 100 permanent) by wet grinding on a 800-grit SiC paper. Nine DBS were applied following the manufacturers' instructions: One total etch multi-step system: Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (3M/ESPE); Four total etch one-bottle system: Prime &Bond 2.1 (Dentsply), One Step (Bisco), Scotchbond 1 (3M/ESPE), and OptibondSolo Plus (Kerr); Three two-step self-etching primer systems: Clearfil Liner Bond 2 (Kuraray), Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray), and Prime &Bond NT with NRC (Dentsply); An 'all-in-one' self-etching system: Prompt L-Pop (3M/ESPE). Composite (Z100; 3M/ESPE) cylinders (2 mm diameter, 3 mm high) were polymerized on the treated dentine surfaces and the specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 h prior to testing. Twenty experimental groups were produced and tested. Statistical analysis revealed both a substrate and a bonding system effect. Two adhesive systems (One Step, Prime &Bond NT) had significantly higher bond strengths on permanent than on primary dentine. There was an effect of dentine bonding system on the mode of fracture. Although eight of the 10 DBS tested exhibited higher median SBS values on permanent dentine than on primary dentine, the dependent pairwise comparison identified a significant difference only for two groups. The use of simplified bonding systems does not necessarily result in improved bond strength to primary or to permanent dentine.
    Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 04/2005; 32(4):296-303. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vitro shear bond strength of the dentin-titanium interface mediated by Fuji Plus, a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, applied in combination with several self-etching bonding systems, and to compare the values obtained with those of SuperBond, chosen as a reference luting agent. The self-etching bonding systems used in combination with Fuji Plus were AdheSE, Xeno III, Clearfil SEBond, Unifil Bond, and an experimental self-etching bonding system comprising the sequential application of Xeno III and the bonding component of SE Bond. Two control groups were also tested: a negative control with Fuji Plus along with its conditioner (10% ferric chloride, 2% citric acid solution); and a positive control with the resin cement SuperBond. One hundred five human molars were used to prepare seven groups of fifteen samples each. The samples were tested in shear after 7-day storage at 100% relative humidity and 37 degrees C. Three of the tested combinations of self-etching bonding systems with Fuji Plus significantly improved in comparison with the negative control group, from 9% to 44%. The self-etching bonding systems obtained using Fuji Plus in combination with Clearfil SEBond, Unifil Bond, and the experimental system were not different from those obtained with SuperBond.
    The International journal of prosthodontics 01/2005; 18(2):112-6. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the improvements of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, the dentin bond strength of these materials remains inferior to that provided by "bonding system/composite" combinations and limits the clinical use of RMGIC. The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of new self-etching bonding systems on the adhesion to dentin of Fuji II LC. Seven recent self-etching systems were studied (Clearfil SE Bond = CSE, Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etching Primer = OSP, One Up Bond F = OUP, Mac Bond II = MB2, Xeno III = XB3, ADPER Prompt-L-Pop = ADP, Unifil Bond = UB) and compared with Cavity Conditioner (C). After the bonding procedure, a resin-modified glass-ionomer cylinder (Fuji II LC) was bonded to the surface using a Teflon mold (diameter: 3 mm; height: 5 mm). The different specimens were tested in a shear bond mode (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA and Fischer PLSD test (p < 0.05). The one-way ANOVA revealed a significant influence of the surface treatment parameter (p < 0.0001). The lowest shear bond strength values were obtained with Cavity Conditioner. The highest values were obtained with MB2. The multiple comparisons revealed that ADP = OBP = XB3 = OUB = UB = CSE and that UB = CSE = MB2. The application of the 7 self-etching adhesives tested in this study improves the dentin shear bond strengths of Fuji II LC. This increase depended on the adhesive system and ranged from 50% for ADP up to 130% for MB2.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 02/2004; 6(1):55-9. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The loss and replacement of anterior maxillary teeth pose several challenges. Treatment must successfully address immediate tooth replacement, esthetics, patient comfort, and psychologic acceptance. The purpose of this case report is to present a prosthetic and surgical technique for immediate tooth replacement following extraction in an area of severe localized bone loss. Combined full- and partial-thickness flaps associated with the use of Bio-Oss collagen grafting material and a Bio-Gide membrane were used for alveolar ridge reconstruction. To improve the final esthetic result, a connective tissue graft was used to increase ridge volume and papillary height.
    The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry 11/2003; 23(5):491-7. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test how the number of sections affects the maximum depth of tracer penetration. This study was simultaneously performed in three different centers. C-shaped Class V cavities were made on 60 human third molars. The cavities were located across the cementum-enamel junction. One restorative system was used: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Z100. After restoration, the samples were thermally cycled 3000 times, between 5 and 55 degrees C with a dwell time immersion of 10 seconds. Silver nitrate was used by two centers and basic fuchsin was used by the third. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned with a diamond saw: 5 sections per tooth provided 10 surfaces for evaluation. The penetration of the tracer was recorded on a scale from 0 to 3. The deepest leakage per restoration was identified for comparison with lesser measured values elsewhere in the tooth. The Spearman test was applied to evaluate the relationship between the reference and data from one, two and three sections (i.e. two, four and six measurements). The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the three centers. Whatever the study center, the Spearman correlation coefficient (r(s)) increased as a function of the number of sections (S) up to three: Center 1 (1S, 0.47; 2S, 0.68; 3S, 1.0), Center 2 (1S, 0.60; 2S, 0.99; 3S, 0.99), Center 3 (S1, 0.40; 2S, 0.73; 3S, 1.0). No statistically significant difference was found between the three study centers.
    American journal of dentistry 07/2003; 16(3):207-10. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regional odontodysplasia is a localized disorder of tissues of dental origin that results in a ghost-like appearance of the affected teeth. We present a case with a study of gingival tissue around the follicle. The results show evidence of the role of the matrix metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors by resident cells in this pathosis. An imbalance in the amounts of matrix metalloproteinases and their natural inhibitors is associated with the pathologic breakdown of the collagen.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 02/2003; 95(1):60-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the penetration and the imperviousness of two pit and fissure sealants according to surface treatments involving different cleaning procedures with or without subsequent acid etching. Two sealants were used: a resin-based sealant (Concise White Sealant) and a compomer-based material (Dyract Seal) coupled with an enamel-dentin bonding agent (Dyract Seal and Prime&Bond NT). Extracted molars (n = 120) were randomly divided into 12 groups: 4 control and 8 experimental groups that received different surface treatments. Pumice, alumina, or bicarbonate was used to clean the surfaces. Phosphoric acid or non-rinse conditioner was used as acid etching agents. After sealing, the Concise White Sealant groups were directly thermocycled for 1800 cycles, while the Dyract Seal groups were stored in water for one month before thermocycling. After apex sealing and varnish coating, the fillings were stained with silver nitrate and embedded. Three to 6 cross sections of 200 microm each were made per sample to assess both sealant penetration (% of the length of the fissure) and the imperviousness of the seal (scores method). Concise White Sealant achieves a better enamel sealing than Dyract Seal when the teeth are treated with air abrasion or air polishing followed by etching. Acid etching is essential for good sealing, whatever the material and cleaning technique tested. Only the combination of air abrasion and phosphoric acid etching yielded a leak-free joint. This study clearly shows that penetration and sealing are two different phenomena. Ideally, an efficient sealant must have a good sealing ability and a high rate of infiltration as well, but these two properties probably do not have the same clinical relevance. The imperviousness of the seal remains the most important requirement.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 01/2003; 5(4):313-21. · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • L Hitmi, D Bouter, M Degrange
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying time and primer pre-application (35% HEMA in water) on water spreading/infiltration on dentin. Freshly extracted molars were embedded in resin and sectioned on their coronal side. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces were prepared using wet SiC paper from nos. 80-4000. A computerized contact angle device complementing a special software (Wingoutt) was used to measure the contact angle (theta) kinetics of a reference liquid (pure H(2)O) in the ten groups each of ten dentin surfaces during 120 s: Gp1: etched (37% phosphoric acid for 15 s) and blot-dried; Gp2: 3 s dried; Gp3: 5 s air-dried; Gp4: 10 s air-dried; Gp5: 20 s air-dried; Gp6: 30 s air-dried; Gp7: 1 min dried with hair dryer; Gp8: 5 s air-dried and HEMA treated; Gp9: 30 s air-dried followed by HEMA treatment; Gp10: HEMA treated prior to 30 s air-drying. three drops were applied on each sample. 40 contact angles were recorded for each drop with a frequency of one measure every 3 s. A one-way ANOVA test was used for data analysis. A PLSD test was conducted to identify statistical differences between pairs of groups at a reliability level of 95%. At each measurement time, air-drying, whatever its duration, significantly decreased the wetting ability of the pure water on the etched dentin in comparison with the blot-dried group. The contact angle increases with drying time. No significant differences in water contact angle were obtained between 3, 5 and 10 s in spite of a slight decrease in the spreading/infiltration ability of water the longer the drying time. HEMA increases the spreading/infiltration ability of water on 5 or 30 s air-dried etched dentin surfaces; 30 s air-drying did not alter the spreading/infiltration ability of the water on etched and HEMA treated dentin. Dentin hydrophobicity increases depending on air-drying time. HEMA-based primer allows to prevent collagen collapse, which may be created by air-drying and partly rewet the collapsed collagen network.
    Dental Materials 12/2002; 18(7):503-11. · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

469 Citations
72.07 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2012
    • Université Paris Descartes
      • Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Ecole Centrale Paris
      • Laboratory of Mechanics, Structures and Materials (MSSMat) - UMR CNRS 8579
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2012
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Faculté de chirurgie dentaire
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007–2008
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2000
    • Semmelweis University
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 1993–1995
    • University of Copenhagen
      • School of Dentistry
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark