[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichome initiation and patterning are controlled by the TTG1-bHLH-MYB regulatory complex. Several MYB transcription factors have been determined to function in trichome development via incorporation into this complex. This study examined the role of MYB82, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, in Arabidopsis trichome development. MYB82 was revealed to be a nuclear-localized transcription activator. Suppression of MYB82 function by fusion with a dominant repression domain (SRDX) resulted in glabrous leaves, as did overexpression of N-terminal-truncated MYB82. Overexpression of MYB82 genomic sequence, but not its cDNA sequence, led to reduced trichome numbers. Further investigation indicated that at least one of the two introns in MYB82 is essential to the protein's trichome developmental function. An MYB-binding box was identified in the third exon of MYB82, which was inferred to be crucial for MYB82 function because the mutation of this box interfered with the ability of MYB82 to rescue the gl1 mutant. Protein interaction analysis revealed that MYB82 physically interacts with GLABRA3 (GL3). In addition, MYB82 and GL1 can form homodimers and heterodimers at R2R3-MYB domains, which may explain why their overexpression reduces trichome numbers. These results demonstrate the functional diversification of MYB82 and GL1 in trichome development.
Journal of Experimental Botany 05/2014; · 5.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaf senescence is regulated by diverse developmental and environmental factors. Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) can induce leaf senescence, whereas auxin suppresses this physiological process. Crosstalk between JA and auxin signaling has been well studied, but not during JA-induced leaf senescence. Here, we found that upon methyl jasmonate treatment, Arabidopsis thaliana wrky57 mutants produced typical leaf senescence symptoms, such as yellowing leaves, low chlorophyll content, and high cell death rates. Further investigation suggested that senescence-associated genes were upregulated in the wrky57 mutants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that WRKY57 directly binds to the promoters of SENESCENCE4 and SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE12 and represses their transcription. In vivo and in vitro experiments suggested that WRKY57 interacts with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN4/8 (JAZ4/8) and the AUX/IAA protein IAA29, repressors of the JA and auxin signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with the opposing functions of JA and auxin in JA-induced leaf senescence, JAZ4/8 and IAA29 also displayed opposite functions in JA-induced leaf senescence and competitively interacted with WRKY57. Our results suggested that the JA-induced leaf senescence process can be antagonized by auxin via WRKY57. Moreover, WRKY57 protein levels were downregulated by JA but upregulated by auxin. Therefore, as a repressor in JA-induced leaf senescence, WRKY57 is a common component of the JA- and auxin-mediated signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth and development. A number of genes respond to N starvation conditions. However, the functions of most of these N-starvation responsive genes are unclear. Our recent survey suggested that many miRNAs are responsive to N starvation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we identified a new miRNA (miR5090) from the complementary transcript of the MIR826 gene. Further investigation uncovered that both miRNA genes recently evolved from the inverse duplication of their common target gene, AOP2. Similar to miR826, miR5090 is induced by N starvation. In contrast, the AOP2 transcript level was negatively correlated with miR826 and miR5090 under N starvation. GUS-fused AOP2 expression suggested that AOP2 was post-transcriptionally suppressed by miR826 and miR5090. miRNA transgenic plants with significantly low AOP2 expression accumulated much less methionine-derived glucosinolates, phenocopying the aop2 mutants. Most glucosinolate synthesis associated genes were repressed under N starvation conditions. Furthermore, miRNA transgenic plants with less glucosinolate displayed enhanced tolerance to N starvation, such as high biomass, more lateral roots, increased chlorophyll and decreased anthocyanin. Meanwhile, N-starvation-responsive genes were upregulated in transgenic plants, implying improved N uptake activity. Our study reveals a mechanism by which A.thaliana regulates the synthesis of glucosinolates to adapt to environmental changes in N availability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precise control of gene regulation, and hence, correct spatio-temporal tissue patterning, is crucial for plant development. Plant microRNAs can constrain the expression of their target genes at post-transcriptional levels. Recently, miR396 has been characterized to regulated leaf development by mediating cleavage of its GRF targets. miR396 is also preferentially expressed in flowers. However, its function in flower development is unclear. In addition to narrow leaves, pistils with a single carpel were also observed in miR396 over-expression plants. The dramatically reduced expression levels of miR396 targets (GRF1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 9) caused pistil abnormalities, because the miR396-resistant version of GRF was able to rescue miR396-over-expressing plants. Both GRFs and GIFs are highly expressed in developing pistils, and their expression patterns are negatively correlated with that of miR396. GRF interacted with GIF to form the GRF/GIF complex in plant cell nucleus, and both GRFs and GIFs showed transactivation abilities. miR396 suppressed the expression of GRFs, resulting in reduction of GRF/GIF complex. gif single mutant displayed normal pistils whereas gif triple mutant, gif1/gif2/gif3, produced abnormal pistils, which was a phenocopy of 35S:MIR396a/grf5 plants. GRF and GIF function as co-transcription factors and both are required for pistil development. Our analyses reveal an important role for miR396 in controlling carpel number and pistil development via regulation of the GRF/GIF complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION (ICE)-C-REPEAT BINDING FACTOR/DRE BINDING FACTOR1 (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional pathway plays a critical role in modulating cold stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissecting crucial upstream regulatory signals or components of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 cascade will enhance our understanding of plant cold-tolerance mechanisms. Here, we show that jasmonate positively regulates plant responses to freezing stress in Arabidopsis. Exogenous application of jasmonate significantly enhanced plant freezing tolerance with or without cold acclimation. By contrast, blocking endogenous jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling rendered plants hypersensitive to freezing stress. Consistent with the positive role of jasmonate in freezing stress, production of endogenous jasmonate was triggered by cold treatment. In addition, cold induction of genes acting in the CBF/DREB1 signaling pathway was upregulated by jasmonate. Further investigation revealed that several JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, the repressors of jasmonate signaling, physically interact with ICE1 and ICE2 transcription factors. JAZ1 and JAZ4 repress the transcriptional function of ICE1, thereby attenuating the expression of its regulon. Consistent with this, overexpression of JAZ1 or JAZ4 represses freezing stress responses of Arabidopsis. Taken together, our study provides evidence that jasmonate functions as a critical upstream signal of the ICE-CBF/DREB1 pathway to positively regulate Arabidopsis freezing tolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WRKY transcription factors are key players in the plant immune response, but less is known about their involvement in antiviral defense than about their roles in defense against bacterial or fungi pathogens. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY DNA-binding protein 8 (WRKY8) has a role in mediating the long-distance movement of crucifer-infecting tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-cg). The expression of WRKY8 was inhibited by TMV-cg infection, and mutation of WRKY8 accelerated the accumulation of TMV-cg in systemically infected leaves. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of ABA insensitive 4 (ABI4) was reduced and the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 6 (ACS6) and ethylene response factor 104 (ERF104) was enhanced in the systemically infected leaves of wrky8. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that WRKY8 could bind selectively to putative W-boxes of the ABI4, ACS6, and ERF104 promoters. Furthermore, TMV-cg infection enhanced WRKY8 binding to the ABI4 promoter but reduced the binding of WRKY8 to the ACS6 and ERF104 promoters, indicating that regulation of ABI4, ACS6, and ERF104 by WRKY8 is at least partially dependent on TMV-cg. Exogenous applications of abscisic acid (ABA) reduced the systemic accumulation of TMV-cg. Mutations in ABA deficient 1, ABA deficient 2, ABA deficient 3, or abi4 accelerated systemic TMV-cg accumulation. In contrast, exogenous application of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid enhanced the systemic accumulation of TMV-cg, but mutations in acs6, erf104, or an octuple acs mutant inhibited systemic TMV-cg accumulation. Our results demonstrate that WRKY8 is involved in the defense response against TMV-cg through the direct regulation of the expression of ABI4, ACS6, and ERF104 and may mediate the crosstalk between ABA and ethylene signaling during the TMV-cg-Arabidopsis interaction.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drought is one of the most serious environmental factors that limit the productivity of agricultural crops worldwide. However, the mechanism underlying drought tolerance in plants is unclear. WRKY transcription factors are known to function in adaptation to abiotic stresses. By screening a pool of WRKY-associated T-DNA insertion mutants, we isolated a gain-of-function mutant, acquired drought tolerance (adt), showing improved drought tolerance. Under drought stress conditions, adt accumulated higher levels of ABA than wild-type plants. Stomatal aperture analysis indicated that adt was more sensitive to ABA than wild-type plants. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that a T-DNA insertion in adt led to activated expression of a WRKY gene that encodes the WRKR57 protein. Constitutive expression of WRKY57 also conferred similar drought tolerance. Consistently with the high ABA content and enhanced drought tolerance, three stress-responsive genes (RD29A, NCED3, and ABA3) were up-regulated in adt. ChIP assays demonstrated that WRKY57 can directly bind the W-box of RD29A and NCED3 promoter sequences. In addition, during ABA treatment, seed germination and early seedling growth of adt were inhibited, whereas, under high osmotic conditions, adt showed a higher seed germination frequency. In summary, our results suggested that the activated expression of WRKY57 improved drought tolerance of Arabidopsis by elevation of ABA levels. Establishment of the functions of WRKY57 will enable improvement of plant drought tolerance through gene manipulation approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant resistance against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Arabidopsis WRKY46 is specifically induced by salicylic acid (SA) and biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae infection. To determine its possible roles in plant defense and elucidate potential functional redundancy with structurally related WRKY70 and WRKY53, we examined loss-of-function T-DNA insertion single, double and triple mutants, as well as gain-of-function transgenic WRKY46 over-expressing plants in response to P. syringae. WRKY46 over-expressing plants were more resistant to P. syringae. In contrast, pathogen-infected wrky46wrky70, wrky46wrky53 double mutants and wrky46wrky70wrky53 triple mutants showed increased susceptibility to this pathogen, with increased bacterial growth and more severe disease symptoms. The contrasting responses of gain-of-function plants and loss-of-function mutants were correlated with increased or reduced expression of defense-related PR1 gene. Expression studies of WRKY46, WRKY70, and WRKY53 in various defense-signaling mutants suggested that they are partially involved in SA-signaling pathway. In addition, our findings demonstrated negative cross-regulation among these three genes. These results indicate that WRKY46, WRKY70, and WRKY53 positively regulate basal resistance to P. syringae; and that they play overlapping and synergetic roles in plant basal defense.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that specifically suppress their target genes by transcript cleavage or/and translation repression. Natural miRNA precursors have been used for the backbones of artificial miRNA precursors, which can give rise to expected artificial miRNAs with which to repress specific target genes. Artificial miRNA technology is a powerful tool to silence genes of interest. However, it is costly and time-consuming to construct artificial miRNA precursors by the use of an overlapping PCR method. We describe a new strategy to construct artificial miRNAs. A miRNA gene consists of three components (upstream, stem-loop, and downstream regions). Upstream and downstream regions of a natural miRNA transcript were amplified in conjunction with the introduction of two suitable restriction sites in the amplicons, which were inserted into a plasmid to form a median vector. Production of an artificial miRNA vector was easily achieved by insertion of an artificial stem-loop into the median vector. The artificial miRNAs produced by this method efficiently repressed their target genes in Arabidopsis. In addition, two artificial miRNA constructs were expressed as one polycistron driven by the CaMV 35S promoter and their targets were suppressed simultaneously in Arabidopsis. Thus, artificial miRNAs are a powerful tool with which to analyze rapidly the functions of not only a single gene or multiple homologous genes, but also multiple non-homologous genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulators that take part in many processes such as growth and development, stress responses, and metabolism in plants. Recently, miRNAs were shown to function in plant nutrient metabolism. Moreover, several miRNAs were identified in the response to nitrogen (N) deficiency. To investigate the functions of other miRNAs in N deficiency, deep sequencing technology was used to detect the expression of small RNAs under N-sufficient and -deficient conditions. The results showed that members from the same miRNA families displayed differential expression in response to N deficiency. Upon N starvation, the expression of miR169, miR171, miR395, miR397, miR398, miR399, miR408, miR827, and miR857 was repressed, whereas those of miR160, miR780, miR826, miR842, and miR846 were induced. miR826, a newly identified N-starvation-induced miRNA, was found to target the AOP2 gene. Among these N-starvation-responsive miRNAs, several were involved in cross-talk among responses to different nutrient (N, P, S, Cu) deficiencies. miR160, miR167, and miR171 could be responsible for the development of Arabidopsis root systems under N-starvation conditions. In addition, twenty novel miRNAs were identified and nine of them were significantly responsive to N-starvation. This study represents comprehensive expression profiling of N-starvation-responsive miRNAs and advances our understanding of the regulation of N homeostasis mediated by miRNAs.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48951. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The WRKY gene family has been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant stress responses. Modification of the expression patterns of WRKY genes and/or changes in their activity contribute to the elaboration of various signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Furthermore, a single WRKY gene often responds to several stress factors, and then their proteins may participate in the regulation of several seemingly disparate processes as negative or positive regulators. WRKY proteins also function via protein-protein interaction and autoregulation or cross-regulation is extensively recorded among WRKY genes, which help us understand the complex mechanisms of signaling and transcriptional reprogramming controlled by WRKY proteins. Here, we review recent progress made in starting to reveal the role of WRKY transcription factors in plant abiotic stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant gene regulation in response to abiotic stress.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2011; 1819(2):120-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited information is available regarding the exact function of specific WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to heat stress. We analyzed the roles of WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33, three types of group I WRKY proteins, in the regulation of resistance to heat stress. Expression of WRKY25 and WRKY26 was induced upon treatment with high temperature, whereas WRKY33 expression was repressed. Heat-treated WRKY single mutants exhibited small responses, while wrky25wrky26 and wrky25wrky33 double mutants and the wrky25wrky26wrky33 triple mutants showed substantially increased susceptibility to heat stress, showing reduced germination, decreased survival, and elevated electrolyte leakage, compared with wild-type plants. In contrast, constitutive expression of WRKY25, WRKY26, or WRKY33 enhanced resistance to heat stress. Expression studies of selected heat-defense genes in single, double, and triple mutants, as well as in over-expressing lines, were correlated with their thermotolerance phenotypes and demonstrated that the three WRKY transcription factors modulate transcriptional changes of heat-inducible genes in response to heat treatment. In addition, our findings provided evidence that WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33 were involved in regulation of the heat-induced ethylene-dependent response and demonstrated positive cross-regulation within these three genes. Together, these results indicate that WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33 positively regulate the cooperation between the ethylene-activated and heat shock proteins-related signaling pathways that mediate responses to heat stress; and that these three proteins interact functionally and play overlapping and synergetic roles in plant thermotolerance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis WRKY proteins are plant-specific transcription factors, encoded by a large gene family, which contain the highly conserved amino acid sequence WRKYGQK and the zinc-finger-like motifs, Cys(2)His(2) or Cys(2)HisCys. They can recognize and bind the TTGAC(C/T) W-box ciselements found in the promoters of target genes, and are involved in the regulation of gene expression during pathogen defense, wounding, trichome development, and senescence. Here we investigated the physiological function of the Arabidopsis WRKY22 transcription factor during dark-induced senescence. WRKY22 transcription was suppressed by light and promoted by darkness. In addition, AtWRKY22 expression was markedly induced by H(2)O(2). These results indicated that AtWRKY22 was involved in signal pathways in response to abiotic stress. Dark-treated AtWRKY22 over-expression and knockout lines showed accelerated and delayed senescence phenotypes, respectively, and senescence-associated genes exhibited increased and decreased expression levels. Mutual regulation existed between AtWRKY22 and AtWRKY6, AtWRKY53, and AtWRKY70, respectively. Moreover, AtWRKY22 could influence their relative expression levels by feedback regulation or by other, as yet unknown mechanisms in response to dark. These results prove that AtWRKY22 participates in the dark-induced senescence signal transduction pathway.
Molecules and Cells 02/2011; 31(4):303-13. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sulfur element plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development. Recently, we have demonstrated that miR395 is crucial for the sulfate homeostasis through regulating the sulfate uptake, transport and assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana. miR395 controls the sulfate concentration in the shoot by targeting three ATP sulfurylase genes (APS), which encode the first enzymes catalyzing sulfate activation in sulfur assimilation pathway. Furthermore, miR395 also regulates the transport of sulfate between leaves. Under sulfate starvation conditions, up-regulated miR395 represses the expression of SULTR2;1, which then confined the transport of sulfate from mature to young leaves. Of note, transcript expression analysis suggested that, unlike APS1 and APS4 mRNA, APS3 and shoot SULTR2;1 is in accordance with miR395 in response to sulfate deprivation. We proposed that the differential regulation of targets by miR395 may be required for adaptation to the sulfate deficiency environment. In addition, our results revealed that there is reciprocal regulation between SULTR2;1 and APS genes through miR395.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mature pollen is very sensitive to cold stress in chilling-sensitive plants. Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Previous studies have suggested that WRKY34 (At4g26440) gene might be involved in pollen viability, although the mechanism involved is unclear. In this study, it is shown that cold treatment increased WRKY34 expression in the wild type, and promoter-GUS analysis revealed that WRKY34 expression is pollen-specific. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged WRKY34 was localized in the nuclei. Pollen harbouring the wrky34 allele showed higher viability than pollen with the WRKY34 allele after cold treatment. Further functional analysis indicated that the WRKY34 transcription factor was involved in pollen development regulated by the pollen-specific MIKC* class of MADS-domain transcription factors under cold stress, and cold-insensitivity of mature wrky34 pollen might be partly attributable to the enhanced expression of transcriptional activator CBFs in the mutants. Thus, the WRKY34 transcription factor negatively mediated cold sensitivity of mature Arabidopsis pollen and might be involved in the CBF signal cascade in mature pollen.
Journal of Experimental Botany 09/2010; 61(14):3901-14. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. An endosporeforming bacterium, strain XTBG34, was isolated from a Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden soil sample and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The strain's volatiles had remarkable plant growth promotion activity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; after 15 days treatment, the fresh weight of plants inoculated with XTBG34 was almost 2-fold compared with those inoculated with DH5alpha. Head space volatile compounds produced by XTBG34, trapped with headspace solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, included aldehydes, alkanes, ketones and aroma components. Of the 11 compounds assayed for plant growth promotion activity in divided Petri plates, only 2-pentylfuran increased plant growth. We have therefore identified a new plant growth promotion volatile of B. megaterium XTBG34, which deserves further study in the mechanisms of interaction between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and plants.
The Journal of Microbiology 08/2010; 48(4):460-6. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The WRKY family of plant transcription factors controls several types of plant stress responses. Arabidopsis WRKY8, localized to the nucleus, is mainly induced by abscissic acid, H(2)O(2), wounding, Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea infection, and aphid and maggot feeding. To determine its biological functions, we isolated loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants and generated gain-of-function overexpressing WRKY8 transgenic plants in Arabidopsis. Plants expressing the mutated WRKY8 gene showed increased resistance to P. syringae but slightly decreased resistance to B. cinerea. In contrast, transgenic plants overexpressing WRKY8 were more susceptible to P. syringae infection but more resistant to B. cinerea infection. The contrasting responses to the two pathogens were correlated with opposite effects on pathogen-induced expression of two genes; salicylic acid-regulated PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) and jasmonic acid-regulated PDF1.2. Therefore, our results suggest that WRKY8 is a negative regulator of basal resistance to P. syringae and positive regulator to B. cinerea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY39, a transcription factor that is induced by heat stress, is a member of the group II WRKY proteins and responds to both abiotic and biotic stress. Heat-treated seeds and plants of WRKY39 knock-down mutants had increased susceptibility to heat stress, showing reduced germination, decreased survival, and elevated electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. In contrast, WRKY39 over-expressing plants exhibited enhanced thermotolerance compared with wild-type plants. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis of wrky39 mutants and WRKY39 over-expressing plants identified putative genes regulated by WRKY39. Consistent with a role for WRKY39 in heat tolerance, the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA)-regulated PR1 and SA-related MBF1c genes were downregulated in wrky39 mutants. In contrast, over-expression of WRKY39 increased the expression of PR1 and MBF1c. The WRKY39 transcript was induced in response to treatment with SA or methyljasmonate. Analysis of heat stress-induced WRKY39 in defense signaling mutants, including coi1, ein2, and sid2, further indicated that WRKY39 was positively co-regulated by the SA and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. Together, these findings reveal that heat stress-induced WRKY39 positively regulates the cooperation between the SA- and JA-activated signaling pathways that mediate responses to heat stress.
Molecules and Cells 05/2010; 29(5):475-83. · 2.21 Impact Factor