ABSTRACT: The development of strategies for the protection of oral tissues against the adverse effects of resin monomers is primarily based on the elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms. The generation of reactive oxygen species beyond the capacity of a balanced redox regulation in cells is probably a cause of cell damage. This study was designed to investigate oxidative DNA damage, the activation of ATM, a reporter of DNA damage, and redox-sensitive signal transduction through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by the monomer triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). TEGDMA concentrations as high as 3-5 mM decreased THP-1 cell viability after a 24h and 48h exposure, and levels of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) increased about 3- to 5-fold. The cells were partially protected from toxicity in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). TEGDMA also induced a delay in the cell cycle. The number of THP-1 cells increased about 2-fold in G1 phase and 5-fold in G2 phase in cultures treated with 3-5 mM TEGDMA. ATM was activated in THP-1 cells by TEGDMA. Likewise, the amounts of phospho-p38 were increased about 3-fold by 3 mM TEGDMA compared to untreated controls after a 24h and 48h exposure period, and phospho-ERK1/2 was induced in a very similar way. The activation of both MAPKs was inhibited by NAC. Our findings suggest that the activation of various signal transduction pathways is related to oxidative stress caused by a resin monomer. Signaling through ATM indicates oxidative DNA damage and the activation of MAPK pathways indicates oxidative stress-induced regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.
Biomaterials 02/2009; 30(11):2006-14. · 7.40 Impact Factor