Boris Häußler

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (83)325.68 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bulge-disc decomposition is a valuable tool for understanding galaxies. However, achieving robust measurements of component properties is difficult, even with high quality imaging, and it becomes even more so with the imaging typical of large surveys. In this paper we consider the advantages of a new, multi-band approach to galaxy fitting. We perform automated bulge-disc decompositions for 163 nearby galaxies, by simultaneously fitting multiple images taken in five photometric filters. We show that we are able to recover structural measurements that agree well with various other works, and confirm a number of key results. We additionally use our results to illustrate the link between total S\'ersic index and bulge-disc structure, and demonstrate that the visually classification of lenticular galaxies is strongly dependent on the inclination of their disc component. By simulating the same set of galaxies as they would appear if observed at a range of redshifts, we are able to study the behaviour of bulge-disc decompositions as data quality diminishes. We examine how our multi-band fits perform, and compare to the results of more conventional, single-band methods. Multi-band fitting improves the measurement of all parameters, but particularly the bulge-to total flux ratio and component colours. We therefore encourage the use of this approach with future surveys.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a new multi-wavelength technique for two-dimensional parametric modelling of galaxy surface-brightness profiles, which we have incorporated into the widely used software GALFIT. Our new method, named GALFITM, extends GALFIT3's current single-band fitting process by simultaneously using multiple images of the same galaxy to constrain a wavelength-dependent model. Each standard profile parameter may vary as a function of wavelength, with a user-definable degree of smoothness, from constant to fully free. The performance of GALFITM is evaluated by fitting elliptical S\'ersic profiles to ugriz imaging data for 4026 galaxies, comprising the original SDSS imaging for 163 low redshift (v < 7000 kms) galaxies and 3863 artificially redshifted (0.01 < z < 0.25) images of the same galaxies. Comparing results from single-band and multi-band techniques, we show that GALFITM significantly improves the extraction of information, particularly from bands with low signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., u and z SDSS bands) when combined with higher signal-to-noise images. We also study systematic trends in the recovered parameters, particularly S\'ersic index, that appear when one performs measurements of the same galaxies at successively higher redshifts. We argue that it is vital that studies investigating the evolution of galaxy structure are careful to avoid or correct for these biases. The resulting multi-band photometric structural parameters for our sample of 163 galaxies are provided. We demonstrate the importance of considering multi-band measurements by showing that the S\'ersic indices of spiral galaxies increase to redder wavelengths, as expected for composite bulge-disk systems. Finally, for the ellipticals in our sample, which should be well-represented by single-S\'ersic models, we compare our measured parameters to those from previous studies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence for a strong relationship between galaxy size and environment for the quiescent population in the redshift range 1 < z < 2. Environments were measured using projected galaxy overdensities on a scale of 400 kpc, as determined from ~ 96,000 K-band selected galaxies from the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS). Sizes were determined from ground-based K-band imaging, calibrated using space-based CANDELS HST observations in the centre of the UDS field, with photometric redshifts and stellar masses derived from 11-band photometric fitting. From the resulting size-mass relation, we confirm that quiescent galaxies at a given stellar mass were typically ~ 50 % smaller at z ~ 1.4 compared to the present day. At a given epoch, however, we find that passive galaxies in denser environments are on average significantly larger at a given stellar mass. The most massive quiescent galaxies (M_stellar > 2 x 10^11 M_sun) at z > 1 are typically 50 % larger in the highest density environments compared to those in the lowest density environments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we reject the null hypothesis that the size-mass relation is independent of environment at a significance > 4.8 sigma for the redshift range 1 < z < 2. In contrast, the evidence for a relationship between size and environment is much weaker for star-forming galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Projected axis ratio measurements of 880 early-type galaxies at redshifts 1<z<2.5 selected from CANDELS are used to reconstruct and model their intrinsic shapes. The sample is selected on the basis of multiple rest-frame colors to reflect low star-formation activity. We demonstrate that these galaxies as an ensemble are dust-poor and transparent and therefore likely have smooth light profiles, similar to visually classified early-type galaxies. Similar to their present-day counterparts, the z>1 early-type galaxies show a variety of intrinsic shapes; even at a fixed mass, the projected axis ratio distributions cannot be explained by the random projection of a set of galaxies with very similar intrinsic shapes. However, a two-population model for the intrinsic shapes, consisting of a triaxial, fairly round population, combined with a flat (c/a~0.3) oblate population, adequately describes the projected axis ratio distributions of both present-day and z>1 early-type galaxies. We find that the proportion of oblate versus triaxial galaxies depends both on the galaxies' stellar mass, and - at a given mass - on redshift. For present-day and z<1 early-type galaxies the oblate fraction strongly depends on galaxy mass. At z>1 this trend is much weaker over the mass range explored here (10^10<M*/M_sun<10^11), because the oblate fraction among massive (M*~10^11 M_sun) was much higher in the past: 0.59+-0.10 at z>1, compared to 0.20+-0.02 at z~0.1. In contrast, the oblate fraction among low-mass early-type galaxies (log(M*/M_sun)<10.5) increased toward the present, from 0.38+-0.11 at z>1 to 0.72+-0.06 at z=0. [Abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 773(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for fitting galaxy profiles which makes use of the full multi-wavelength data provided by modern large optical-near-infrared imaging surveys. We present a new version of GALAPAGOS, which utilises a recently-developed multi-wavelength version of GALFIT, and enables the automated measurement of wavelength dependent S\'ersic profile parameters for very large samples of galaxies. Our new technique is extensively tested to assess the reliability of both pieces of software, GALFIT and GALAPAGOS on both real ugrizY JHK imaging data from the GAMA survey and simulated data made to the same specifications. We find that fitting galaxy light profiles with multi-wavelength data increases the stability and accuracy of the measured parameters, and hence produces more complete and meaningful multi-wavelength photometry than has been available previously. The improvement is particularly significant for magnitudes in low S/N bands and for structural parameters like half-light radius re and S\'ersic index n for which a prior is used by constraining these parameters to a polynomial as a function of wavelength. This allows the fitting routines to push the magnitude of galaxies for which sensible values can be derived to fainter limits. The technique utilises a smooth transition of galaxy parameters with wavelength, creating more physically meaningful transitions than single-band fitting and allows accurate interpolation between passbands, perfect for derivation of rest-frame values.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 430(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a simulation analysis of weak gravitational lensing flexion and shear measurement using shapelet decomposition, and identify differences between flexion and shear measurement noise in deep survey data. Taking models of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and applying a correction for the HUDF point spread function we generate lensed simulations of deep, optical imaging data from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), with realistic galaxy morphologies. We find that flexion and shear estimates differ in our measurement pipeline: whereas intrinsic galaxy shape is typically the dominant contribution to noise in shear estimates, pixel noise due to finite photon counts and detector read noise is a major contributor to uncertainty in flexion estimates, across a broad range of galaxy signal-to-noise. This pixel noise also increases more rapidly as galaxy signal-to-noise decreases than is found for shear estimates. We provide simple power law fitting functions for this behaviour, for both flexion and shear, allowing the effect to be properly accounted for in future forecasts for flexion measurement. Using the simulations we also quantify the systematic biases of our shapelet flexion and shear measurement pipeline for deep Hubble data sets such as Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs, Space Telescope A901/902 Galaxy Evolution Survey or the Cosmic Evolution Survey. Flexion measurement biases are found to be significant but consistent with previous studies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a quantitative morphological comparison between the hosts of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z~0.7). The imaging data are taken from the large HST/ACS mosaics of the GEMS and STAGES surveys. Our main aim is to test whether nuclear activity at this cosmic epoch is triggered by major mergers. Using images of quiescent galaxies and stars, we create synthetic AGN images to investigate the impact of an optical nucleus on the morphological analysis of AGN hosts. Galaxy morphologies are parameterized using the asymmetry index A, concentration index C, Gini coefficient G and M20 index. A sample of ~200 synthetic AGN is matched to 21 real AGN in terms of redshift, host brightness and host-to-nucleus ratio to ensure a reliable comparison between active and quiescent galaxies. The optical nuclei strongly affect the morphological parameters of the underlying host galaxy. Taking these effects into account, we find that the morphologies of the AGN hosts are clearly distinct from galaxies undergoing violent gravitational interactions. In fact, the host galaxies' distributions in morphological descriptor space are more similar to undisturbed galaxies than major mergers. Intermediate-luminosity (Lx < 10^44 erg/s) AGN hosts at z~0.7 show morphologies similar to the general population of massive galaxies with significant bulges at the same redshifts. If major mergers are the driver of nuclear activity at this epoch, the signatures of gravitational interactions fade rapidly before the optical AGN phase starts, making them undetectable on single-orbit HST images, at least with usual morphological descriptors. This could be investigated in future synthetic observations created from numerical simulations of galaxy-galaxy interactions.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our project, `MegaMorph', is developing a next-generation tool for decomposing galaxies, in terms of both their structures and stellar populations. By combining data from UV to NIR wavelengths, accounting for morphological peculiarities using non-parametric components, and utilising efficient likelihood sampling methods, we are working to significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of galaxy decomposition. Applying these new techniques to modern large surveys will provide us with a deeper understanding of galaxies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2012; 7(S284):301-305.
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the structural and morphological properties of galaxies in a z = 1.62 proto-cluster using near-IR imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The cluster galaxies exhibit a clear color-morphology relation: galaxies with colors of quiescent stellar populations generally have morphologies consistent with spheroids, and galaxies with colors consistent with ongoing star formation have disk-like and irregular morphologies. The size distribution of the quiescent cluster galaxies shows a deficit of compact ( 1 kpc), massive galaxies compared to CANDELS field galaxies at z = 1.6. As a result, the cluster quiescent galaxies have larger average effective sizes compared to field galaxies at fixed mass at greater than 90% significance. Combined with data from the literature, the size evolution of quiescent cluster galaxies is relatively slow from z 1.6 to the present, growing as (1 + z)–0.6 ± 0.1. If this result is generalizable, then it implies that physical processes associated with the denser cluster region seem to have caused accelerated size growth in quiescent galaxies prior to z = 1.6 and slower subsequent growth at z < 1.6 compared to galaxies in the lower density field. The quiescent cluster galaxies at z = 1.6 have higher ellipticities compared to lower redshift samples at fixed mass, and their surface-brightness profiles suggest that they contain extended stellar disks. We argue that the cluster galaxies require dissipationless (i.e., gas-poor or "dry") mergers to reorganize the disk material and to match the relations for ellipticity, stellar mass, size, and color of early-type galaxies in z < 1 clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 750(2):93. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present single-Sérsic two-dimensional (2D) model fits to 167 600 galaxies modelled independently in the ugrizYJHK bandpasses using reprocessed Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven (SDSS DR7) and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey imaging data available from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data base. In order to facilitate this study we developed Structural Investigation of Galaxies via Model Analysis (SIGMA), an R wrapper around several contemporary astronomy software packages including SOURCE EXTRACTOR, PSF EXTRACTOR and GALFIT 3. SIGMA produces realistic 2D model fits to galaxies, employing automatic adaptive background subtraction and empirical point spread function measurements on the fly for each galaxy in GAMA. Using these results, we define a common coverage area across the three GAMA regions containing 138 269 galaxies. We provide Sérsic magnitudes truncated at 10re which show good agreement with SDSS Petrosian and GAMA photometry for low Sérsic index systems (n < 4), and much improved photometry for high Sérsic index systems (n > 4), recovering as much as Δm= 0.5 mag in the r band. We employ a K-band Sérsic index/u-r colour relation to delineate the massive (n > ˜2) early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the late-type galaxies (LTGs). The mean Sérsic index of these ETGs shows a smooth variation with wavelength, increasing by 30 per cent from g through K. LTGs exhibit a more extreme change in Sérsic index, increasing by 52 per cent across the same range. In addition, ETGs and LTGs exhibit a 38 and 25 per cent decrease, respectively, in half-light radius from g through K. These trends are shown to arise due to the effects of dust attenuation and stellar population/metallicity gradients within galaxy populations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2012; 421:1007-1039. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To automate source detection, two-dimensional light-profile Sersic modelling and catalogue compilation in large survey applications, we introduce a new code GALAPAGOS, Galaxy Analysis over Large Areas: Parameter Assessment by GALFITting Objects from SExtractor. Based on a single setup, GALAPAGOS can process a complete set of survey images. It detects sources in the data, estimates a local sky background, cuts postage stamp images for all sources, prepares object masks, performs Sersic fitting including neighbours and compiles all objects in a final output catalogue. For the initial source detection GALAPAGOS applies SExtractor, while GALFIT is incorporated for modelling Sersic profiles. It measures the background sky involved in the Sersic fitting by means of a flux growth curve. GALAPAGOS determines postage stamp sizes based on SExtractor shape parameters. In order to obtain precise model parameters GALAPAGOS incorporates a complex sorting mechanism and makes use of modern CPU's multiplexing capabilities. It combines SExtractor and GALFIT data in a single output table. When incorporating information from overlapping tiles, GALAPAGOS automatically removes multiple entries from identical sources. GALAPAGOS is programmed in the Interactive Data Language, IDL. We test the stability and the ability to properly recover structural parameters extensively with artificial image simulations. Moreover, we apply GALAPAGOS successfully to the STAGES data set. For one-orbit HST data, a single 2.2 GHz CPU processes about 1000 primary sources per 24 hours. Note that GALAPAGOS results depend critically on the user-defined parameter setup. This paper provides useful guidelines to help the user make sensible choices.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2012; 422(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Astrophysics Source Code Library, record ascl:1203.002; 03/2012
  • Marco Barden, Knud Jahnke, Boris Häußler
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    ABSTRACT: Bandpass shifting and the (1+z)5 surface brightness dimming (for a fixed width filter) make standard tools for the extraction of structural parameters of galaxies wavelength dependent. If only few (or one) observed high-res bands exist, this dependence has to be corrected to make unbiased statements on the evolution of structural parameters or on galaxy subsamples defined by morphology. FERENGI artificially redshifts low-redshift galaxy images to different redshifts by applying the correct cosmological corrections for size, surface brightness and bandpass shifting. A set of artificially redshifted galaxies in the range 0.1<z<1.1 using a set of ~100 SDSS low-redshift (v<7000 km s-1) images as input has been created to use as a training set of realistic images of galaxies of diverse morphologies and a large range of redshifts for the GEMS and COSMOS galaxy evolution projects. This training set allows other studies to investigate and quantify the effects of cosmological redshift on the determination of galaxy morphologies, distortions, and other galaxy properties that are potentially sensitive to resolution, surface brightness, and bandpass issues. The data sets are also available for download from the FERENGI website.
    Astrophysics Source Code Library. 03/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present single-S\'ersic two-dimensional model fits to 167,600 galaxies modelled independently in the ugrizYJHK bandpasses using reprocessed Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven (SDSS DR7) and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey (UKIDSS-LAS) imaging data available from the GAMA database. In order to facilitate this study we developed SIGMA, an R wrapper around several contemporary astronomy software packages including Source Extractor, PSF Extractor and GALFIT 3. SIGMA produces realistic 2D model fits to galaxies, employing automatic adaptive background subtraction and empirical PSF measurements on the fly for each galaxy in GAMA. Using these results, we define a common coverage area across the three GAMA regions containing 138,269 galaxies. We provide S\'ersic magnitudes truncated at 10 re which show good agreement with SDSS Petrosian and GAMA photometry for low S\'ersic index systems (n < 4), and much improved photometry for high S\'ersic index systems (n > 4), recovering as much as \Delta m = 0.5 magnitudes in the r band. We employ a K band S\'ersic index/u - r colour relation to delineate the massive (n > ~2) early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the late-type galaxies (LTGs). The mean S\'ersic index of these ETGs shows a smooth variation with wavelength, increasing by 30% from g through K. LTGs exhibit a more extreme change in S\'ersic index, increasing by 52% across the same range. In addition, ETGs and LTGs exhibit a 38% and 25% decrease respectively in half-light radius from g through K. These trends are shown to arise due to the effects of dust attenuation and stellar population/metallicity gradients within galaxy populations.
    12/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers ~125 arcmin2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of ~800 arcmin2 across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2011; 197(2):36. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Present-day massive galaxies are composed mostly of early-type objects. It is unknown whether this was also the case at higher redshifts. In a hierarchical assembling scenario the morphological content of the massive population is expected to change with time from disk-like objects in the early Universe to spheroid-like galaxies at present. In this paper we have probed this theoretical expectation by compiling a large sample of massive (M_{stellar}>10^{11} h_{70}^{-2} M_{Sun}$) galaxies in the redshift interval 0 < z < 3. Our sample of 1082 objects comprises 207 local galaxies selected from SDSS plus 875 objects observed with the HST belonging to the POWIR/DEEP2 and GNS surveys. 639 of our objects have spectroscopic redshifts. Our morphological classification is performed as close as possible to the optical restframe according to the photometric bands available in our observations both quantitatively (using the Sersic index as a morphological proxy) and qualitative (by visual inspection). Using both techniques we find an enormous change on the dominant morphological class with cosmic time. The fraction of early-type galaxies among the massive galaxy population has changed from ~20-30% at z~3 to ~70% at z=0. Early type galaxies have been the predominant morphological class for massive galaxies since only z~1.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2011; 428(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new automatic method to identify galaxy mergers using the morphological information contained in the residual images of galaxies after the subtraction of a smooth Sérsic model. The removal of the bulk signal from the host galaxy light is done with the aim of detecting the much fainter and elusive minor mergers. The specific morphological parameters that are used in the merger diagnostic suggested here are the residual flux fraction (RFF) and the asymmetry of the residuals [A(Res)]. The new diagnostic has been calibrated and optimized so that the resulting merger sample is very complete. However, the contamination by non-mergers is also high. If the same optimization method is adopted for combinations of other structural parameters such as the Concentration, Asymmetry, clumpineSs (CAS) system, the merger indicator we introduce yields merger samples of equal or higher statistical quality than the samples obtained through the use of other structural parameters. We investigate the ability of the method presented here to select minor mergers by identifying a sample of visually classified mergers that would not have been picked up by the use of the CAS system, when using its usual limits. However, given the low prevalence of mergers among the general population of galaxies and the optimization used here, we find that the merger diagnostic introduced in this work is best used as a negative merger test, that is, it is very effective at selecting non-merging galaxies. In common with all the currently available automatic methods, the sample of merger candidates selected is heavily contaminated by non-mergers, and further steps are needed to produce a clean merger sample. This merger diagnostic has been developed using the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS F606W images of the A901/902 multiple cluster system (z= 0.165) obtained by the Space Telescope A901/902 Galaxy Evolution Survey team. In particular, we have focused on a mass- and magnitude-limited sample (log M/M⊙ > 9.0, RVega, Total≤ 23.5 mag) which includes 905 cluster galaxies and 655 field galaxies of all morphological types.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2011; 419(3):2703 - 2724. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2011; 419:998-1016. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of V-band radial surface brightness profiles for spiral galaxies from the field and cluster environments using Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and data from the Space Telescope A901/2 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES). We use a large sample of ~330 face-on to intermediately inclined spiral galaxies and assess the effect of the galaxy environment on the azimuthally averaged radial surface brightness mu profiles for each galaxy in the outer stellar disc (24 < mu < 26.5 mag per sq arcsec). For galaxies with a purely exponential outer disc (~50 per cent), we determine the significance of an environmental dependence on the outer disc scalelength h_out. For galaxies with a broken exponential in their outer disc, either down-bending (truncation, ~10 per cent) or up-bending (anti-truncation, ~40 per cent), we measure the strength T (outer-to-inner scalelength ratio, log_10(h_out/h_in) of the mu breaks and determine the significance of an environmental dependence on break strength T. Surprisingly, we find no evidence to suggest any such environmental dependence on either outer disc scalelength h_out or break strength T, implying that the galaxy environment is not affecting the stellar distribution in the outer stellar disc. We also find that for galaxies with small effective radii (r_e < 3 kpc) there is a lack of outer disc truncations in both the field and cluster environments. Our results suggest that the stellar distribution in the outer disc of spiral galaxies is not significantly affected by the galaxy environment.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 419. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • B. Häußler, M. Gray, STAGES team
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    ABSTRACT: Boxy and disky isophotes in elliptical galaxies are an imprint of their formation history. It is thus interesting to examine the boxyness of early-type galaxies as a function of environment in large cluster systems, especially as some N-body simulations also predict a higher number of disky versus boxy ellipticals in overdense regions. Using high-resolution HSTdata from the Stagessurvey, centred on the Abell901/902 supercluster at a redshift of z ∼ 0. 167, we investigate this dependence. Taking extreme care of the setup of the codes used (particularly ellipse), we analyse a sample of ∼ 560 ellipticals and S0 galaxies, one of the biggest samples examined for this effect. Although other groups have found environmental dependencies before, no such dependence is found in the Stagessurvey data. The ratio of boxy to disky galaxies stays constant over the entire range of environment and galaxy density present in the field examined.
    07/2011: pages 117-122;

Publication Stats

2k Citations
325.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      • Departamento de Física Teórica
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institute for Astro-and Particle Physics
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria