Boris Häußler

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (90)339.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the star-formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass, M∗ relation of a star-forming (SF) galaxy sample in the XMM-LSS field to z ∼ 3.0 using the near-infrared data from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey. Combining VIDEO with broad- band photometry, we use the SED fitting algorithm CIGALE to derive SFRs and M∗ and have adapted it to account for the full photometric redshift PDF uncertainty. Applying a SF selection using the D4000 index, we find evidence for strong evolution in the normalisation of the SFR-M∗ relation out to z ∼ 3 and a roughly constant slope of (SFR ∝ M∗^α) α = 0.69 ± 0.02 to z ∼ 1.7. We find this increases close to unity toward z ∼ 2.65. Alternatively, if we apply a colour selection, we find a distinct turnover in the SFR-M∗ relation between 0.7 <z <2.0 at the high mass end, and suggest that this is due to an increased contamination from passive galaxies. We find evolution of the specific SFR ∝ (1 + z^)2.60 at log10(M∗/M⊙) ∼ 10.5, out to z < 2.4 with an observed flattening beyond z ∼ 2 with increased stellar mass. Comparing to a range of simulations we find the analytical scaling relation approaches, that invoke an equilibrium model, a good fit to our data, suggesting that a continual smooth accretion regulated by continual outflows may be a key driver in the overall growth of SFGs.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1715 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey is one of the largest contemporary spectroscopic surveys of low-redshift galaxies. Covering an area of ~286 deg^2 (split among five survey regions) down to a limiting magnitude of r < 19.8 mag, we have collected spectra and reliable redshifts for 238,000 objects using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In addition, we have assembled imaging data from a number of independent surveys in order to generate photometry spanning the wavelength range 1 nm - 1 m. Here we report on the recently completed spectroscopic survey and present a series of diagnostics to assess its final state and the quality of the redshift data. We also describe a number of survey aspects and procedures, or updates thereof, including changes to the input catalogue, redshifting and re-redshifting, and the derivation of ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared photometry. Finally, we present the second public release of GAMA data. In this release we provide input catalogue and targeting information, spectra, redshifts, ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared photometry, single-component S\'ersic fits, stellar masses, H$\alpha$-derived star formation rates, environment information, and group properties for all galaxies with r < 19.0 mag in two of our survey regions, and for all galaxies with r < 19.4 mag in a third region (72,225 objects in total). The database serving these data is available at http://www.gama-survey.org/.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2015; 452(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1436 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. This work investigates the potential of using the wavelength-dependence of galaxy structural parameters (S\'ersic index, n, and effective radius, Re) to separate galaxies into distinct types. Methods. A sample of nearby galaxies with reliable visual morphologies is considered, for which we measure structural parameters by fitting multi-wavelength single-S\'ersic models. Additionally, we use a set of artificially redshifted galaxies to test how these classifiers behave when the signal-to-noise decreases. Results. We show that the wavelength-dependence of n may be employed to separate visually-classified early- and late-type galaxies, in a manner similar to the use of colour and n. Furthermore, we find that the wavelength variation of n can recover galaxies that are misclassified by these other morphological proxies. Roughly half of the spiral galaxies that contaminate an early-type sample selected using (u-r) versus n can be correctly identified as late-types by N, the ratio of n measured in two different bands. Using a set of artificially-redshifted images, we show that this technique remains effective up to z ~ 0.1. N can therefore be used to achieve purer samples of early-types and more complete samples of late-types than using a colour-n cut alone. We also study the suitability of R, the ratio of Re in two different bands, as a morphological classifier, but find that the average sizes of both early- and late-type galaxies do not change substantially over optical wavelengths.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; 577. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425174 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey in the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.1 (8399 galaxies in g to Ks bands) to derive the stellar mass–half-light radius relations for various divisions of ‘early’- and ‘late’-type samples. We find that the choice of division between early and late (i.e. colour, shape, morphology) is not particularly critical; however, the adopted mass limits and sample selections (i.e. the careful rejection of outliers and use of robust fitting methods) are important. In particular, we note that for samples extending to low stellar mass limits (${<}10^{10}\mathcal {M_{\odot }}$) the Sérsic index bimodality, evident for high-mass systems, becomes less distinct and no-longer acts as a reliable separator of early- and late-type systems. The final set of stellar mass–half-light radius relations are reported for a variety of galaxy population subsets in 10 bands (ugrizZY JHKs) and are intended to provide a comprehensive low-z benchmark for the many ongoing high-z studies. Exploring the variation of the stellar mass–half-light radius relations with wavelength, we confirm earlier findings that galaxies appear more compact at longer wavelengths albeit at a smaller level than previously noted: at $10^{10}\mathcal {M_{\odot }}$ both spiral systems and ellipticals show a decrease in size of 13 per cent from g to Ks (which is near linear in log wavelength). Finally, we note that the sizes used in this work are derived from 2D Sérsic light profile fitting (using galfit3), i.e. elliptical semimajor half-light radii, improving on earlier low-z benchmarks based on circular apertures.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 447(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2467 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present galapagos-c, a code designed to process a complete set of survey images through automation of source detection (via SExtractor), postage stamp cutting, object mask preparation, sky background estimation and complex two-dimensional light profile Sérsic modelling (via galfit). galapagos-c is designed around the concept of MPI-parallelization, allowing the processing of large data sets in a quick and efficient manner. Further, galapagos-c is capable of fitting multiple-Sérsic profiles to each galaxy, each representing distinct galaxy components (e.g. bulge, disc, bar), in addition to the option to fit asymmetric Fourier mode distortions. The modelling reliability of our core single-Sérsic fitting capability is tested thoroughly using image simulations. We apply galapagos-c to the Space Telescope A901/902 Galaxy Evolution Survey to investigate the evolution of galaxy structure with cosmic time and the dependence on environment. We measure the distribution of Sérsic indices as a function of local object density in the A901/902 cluster sample to provide one of the first measures of the Sérsic index–density relation. We find that the fraction of galaxies with a high Sérsic index (2.5 < n < 7.0) is higher in denser environments (∼35 per cent), halving towards sparsely populated regions (∼15 per cent). The population of low Sérsic index galaxies (0.4 < n< 1.6) is lower in denser environments (∼35 per cent), increasing towards sparsely populated regions (∼60 per cent). The population of intermediate Sérsic index galaxies (1.6 < n < 2.5) approximately follows the trend of the high Sérsic index types.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2014; 444(4):3089-3117. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1649 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Sarah V. White · Matt J. Jarvis · Boris Häußler · Natasha Maddox
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the interplay between black-hole accretion and star formation, and how to disentangle the two, is crucial to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. To investigate, we use a combination of optical and near-infrared photometry to select a sample of 74 quasars from the VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey, over 1 deg2. The depth of VIDEO allows us to study very low accretion rates and/or lower-mass black holes, and 26 per cent of the candidate quasar sample has been spectroscopically confirmed. We use a radio-stacking technique to sample below the nominal flux-density threshold using data from the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz and find, in agreement with other work, that a power-law fit to the quasar-related radio source counts is inadequate at low flux density. By comparing with a control sample of galaxies (where we match in terms of stellar mass), and by estimating the star formation rate, we suggest that this radio emission is predominantly caused by accretion activity rather than star-formation activity.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2014; 448(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv134 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Marina Vika · Steven P. Bamford · Boris Häußler · Alex L. Rojas
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    ABSTRACT: Bulge-disc decomposition is a valuable tool for understanding galaxies. However, achieving robust measurements of component properties is difficult, even with high quality imaging, and it becomes even more so with the imaging typical of large surveys. In this paper we consider the advantages of a new, multi-band approach to galaxy fitting. We perform automated bulge-disc decompositions for 163 nearby galaxies, by simultaneously fitting multiple images taken in five photometric filters. We show that we are able to recover structural measurements that agree well with various other works, and confirm a number of key results. We additionally use our results to illustrate the link between total S\'ersic index and bulge-disc structure, and demonstrate that the visually classification of lenticular galaxies is strongly dependent on the inclination of their disc component. By simulating the same set of galaxies as they would appear if observed at a range of redshifts, we are able to study the behaviour of bulge-disc decompositions as data quality diminishes. We examine how our multi-band fits perform, and compare to the results of more conventional, single-band methods. Multi-band fitting improves the measurement of all parameters, but particularly the bulge-to total flux ratio and component colours. We therefore encourage the use of this approach with future surveys.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 444(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1696 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a new multi-wavelength technique for two-dimensional parametric modelling of galaxy surface-brightness profiles, which we have incorporated into the widely used software GALFIT. Our new method, named GALFITM, extends GALFIT3's current single-band fitting process by simultaneously using multiple images of the same galaxy to constrain a wavelength-dependent model. Each standard profile parameter may vary as a function of wavelength, with a user-definable degree of smoothness, from constant to fully free. The performance of GALFITM is evaluated by fitting elliptical S\'ersic profiles to ugriz imaging data for 4026 galaxies, comprising the original SDSS imaging for 163 low redshift (v < 7000 kms) galaxies and 3863 artificially redshifted (0.01 < z < 0.25) images of the same galaxies. Comparing results from single-band and multi-band techniques, we show that GALFITM significantly improves the extraction of information, particularly from bands with low signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., u and z SDSS bands) when combined with higher signal-to-noise images. We also study systematic trends in the recovered parameters, particularly S\'ersic index, that appear when one performs measurements of the same galaxies at successively higher redshifts. We argue that it is vital that studies investigating the evolution of galaxy structure are careful to avoid or correct for these biases. The resulting multi-band photometric structural parameters for our sample of 163 galaxies are provided. We demonstrate the importance of considering multi-band measurements by showing that the S\'ersic indices of spiral galaxies increase to redder wavelengths, as expected for composite bulge-disk systems. Finally, for the ellipticals in our sample, which should be well-represented by single-S\'ersic models, we compare our measured parameters to those from previous studies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1320 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence for a strong relationship between galaxy size and environment for the quiescent population in the redshift range 1 < z < 2. Environments were measured using projected galaxy overdensities on a scale of 400 kpc, as determined from ~ 96,000 K-band selected galaxies from the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS). Sizes were determined from ground-based K-band imaging, calibrated using space-based CANDELS HST observations in the centre of the UDS field, with photometric redshifts and stellar masses derived from 11-band photometric fitting. From the resulting size-mass relation, we confirm that quiescent galaxies at a given stellar mass were typically ~ 50 % smaller at z ~ 1.4 compared to the present day. At a given epoch, however, we find that passive galaxies in denser environments are on average significantly larger at a given stellar mass. The most massive quiescent galaxies (M_stellar > 2 x 10^11 M_sun) at z > 1 are typically 50 % larger in the highest density environments compared to those in the lowest density environments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we reject the null hypothesis that the size-mass relation is independent of environment at a significance > 4.8 sigma for the redshift range 1 < z < 2. In contrast, the evidence for a relationship between size and environment is much weaker for star-forming galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1275 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Projected axis ratio measurements of 880 early-type galaxies at redshifts 1<z<2.5 selected from CANDELS are used to reconstruct and model their intrinsic shapes. The sample is selected on the basis of multiple rest-frame colors to reflect low star-formation activity. We demonstrate that these galaxies as an ensemble are dust-poor and transparent and therefore likely have smooth light profiles, similar to visually classified early-type galaxies. Similar to their present-day counterparts, the z>1 early-type galaxies show a variety of intrinsic shapes; even at a fixed mass, the projected axis ratio distributions cannot be explained by the random projection of a set of galaxies with very similar intrinsic shapes. However, a two-population model for the intrinsic shapes, consisting of a triaxial, fairly round population, combined with a flat (c/a~0.3) oblate population, adequately describes the projected axis ratio distributions of both present-day and z>1 early-type galaxies. We find that the proportion of oblate versus triaxial galaxies depends both on the galaxies' stellar mass, and - at a given mass - on redshift. For present-day and z<1 early-type galaxies the oblate fraction strongly depends on galaxy mass. At z>1 this trend is much weaker over the mass range explored here (10^10<M*/M_sun<10^11), because the oblate fraction among massive (M*~10^11 M_sun) was much higher in the past: 0.59+-0.10 at z>1, compared to 0.20+-0.02 at z~0.1. In contrast, the oblate fraction among low-mass early-type galaxies (log(M*/M_sun)<10.5) increased toward the present, from 0.38+-0.11 at z>1 to 0.72+-0.06 at z=0. [Abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 773(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/773/2/149 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for fitting galaxy profiles which makes use of the full multi-wavelength data provided by modern large optical-near-infrared imaging surveys. We present a new version of GALAPAGOS, which utilises a recently-developed multi-wavelength version of GALFIT, and enables the automated measurement of wavelength dependent S\'ersic profile parameters for very large samples of galaxies. Our new technique is extensively tested to assess the reliability of both pieces of software, GALFIT and GALAPAGOS on both real ugrizY JHK imaging data from the GAMA survey and simulated data made to the same specifications. We find that fitting galaxy light profiles with multi-wavelength data increases the stability and accuracy of the measured parameters, and hence produces more complete and meaningful multi-wavelength photometry than has been available previously. The improvement is particularly significant for magnitudes in low S/N bands and for structural parameters like half-light radius re and S\'ersic index n for which a prior is used by constraining these parameters to a polynomial as a function of wavelength. This allows the fitting routines to push the magnitude of galaxies for which sensible values can be derived to fainter limits. The technique utilises a smooth transition of galaxy parameters with wavelength, creating more physically meaningful transitions than single-band fitting and allows accurate interpolation between passbands, perfect for derivation of rest-frame values.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2012; 430(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/sts633 · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • M. Barden · K. Jahnke · B. Häußler
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the creation of a set of artificially “redshifted ” galaxies in the range 0.1 < z < 1.1 using a set of ∼100 SDSS low redshift (v < 7000 kms −1) images as input. The intention is to generate a training set of realistic images of galaxies of diverse morphologies and a large range of redshifts for the GEMS and COSMOS galaxy evolution projects. This training set allows other studies to investigate and quantify the effects of cosmological redshift on the determination of galaxy morphologies, distortions and other galaxy properties that are potentially sensitive to resolution, surface brightness and bandpass issues. We use galaxy images from the SDSS in the u, g, r, i, z filter bands as input, and computed new galaxy images from these data, resembling the same galaxies as located at redshifts 0.1 < z < 1.1 and viewed with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS). In this process we take into account angular size change, cosmological surface brightness dimming, and spectral change. The latter is achieved by interpolating a spectral energy distribution that is fit to the input images on a pixel-to-pixel basis. The output images are created for the specific HST ACS point spread function and the filters used for GEMS (F606W and F850LP) and COSMOS (F814W). All images are binned onto the desired pixel grids (0. ′ ′ 03 for GEMS and 0. ′ ′ 05 for COSMOS) and corrected to an appropriate point spread function. Noise is added corresponding to the data quality of the two projects and the images are added onto empty sky pieces of real data images. We make these datasets available from our website, as well as the code – ferengi: “Full and Efficient Redshifting of Ensembles of Nearby Galaxy Images ” – to produce datasets for other redshifts and/or instruments.
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    ABSTRACT: We present first measurements of the evolution of the scatter of the cosmic average early-type galaxy color– magnitude relation (CMR) from z = 1 to the present day, finding that it is consistent with models in which galaxies are constantly being added to the red sequence through truncation of star formation in blue cloud galaxies. We used a sample of over 700 red sequence, structurally-selected early-type galaxies (defined to have Sérsic index> 2.5) with redshifts 0 < z < 1 taken from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (173 galaxies) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (550 galaxies), constructing rest-frame U −V colors accurate to < 0.04 mag. We find that the scatter of the CMR of cosmic average early-type galaxies is ∼ 0.1 mag in rest-frame U −V color at 0.05<z<0.75, and somewhat higher at z = 1. We compared these observations with a model in which new red sequence galaxies are being constantly added at the rate required to match the observed number density evolution, and found that this model predicts the correct CMR scatter and its evolution. Furthermore, this model predicts approximately the correct number density of ‘blue spheroids ’ — structurally early-type galaxies with blue colors — albeit with considerable model dependence. Thus, we conclude that both the evolution of the number density and colors of the early-type galaxy population paint a consistent picture in which the early-type galaxy population grows
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    ABSTRACT: We present a simulation analysis of weak gravitational lensing flexion and shear measurement using shapelet decomposition, and identify differences between flexion and shear measurement noise in deep survey data. Taking models of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and applying a correction for the HUDF point spread function we generate lensed simulations of deep, optical imaging data from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), with realistic galaxy morphologies. We find that flexion and shear estimates differ in our measurement pipeline: whereas intrinsic galaxy shape is typically the dominant contribution to noise in shear estimates, pixel noise due to finite photon counts and detector read noise is a major contributor to uncertainty in flexion estimates, across a broad range of galaxy signal-to-noise. This pixel noise also increases more rapidly as galaxy signal-to-noise decreases than is found for shear estimates. We provide simple power law fitting functions for this behaviour, for both flexion and shear, allowing the effect to be properly accounted for in future forecasts for flexion measurement. Using the simulations we also quantify the systematic biases of our shapelet flexion and shear measurement pipeline for deep Hubble data sets such as Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs, Space Telescope A901/902 Galaxy Evolution Survey or the Cosmic Evolution Survey. Flexion measurement biases are found to be significant but consistent with previous studies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2012; 435(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1353 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a quantitative morphological comparison between the hosts of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z~0.7). The imaging data are taken from the large HST/ACS mosaics of the GEMS and STAGES surveys. Our main aim is to test whether nuclear activity at this cosmic epoch is triggered by major mergers. Using images of quiescent galaxies and stars, we create synthetic AGN images to investigate the impact of an optical nucleus on the morphological analysis of AGN hosts. Galaxy morphologies are parameterized using the asymmetry index A, concentration index C, Gini coefficient G and M20 index. A sample of ~200 synthetic AGN is matched to 21 real AGN in terms of redshift, host brightness and host-to-nucleus ratio to ensure a reliable comparison between active and quiescent galaxies. The optical nuclei strongly affect the morphological parameters of the underlying host galaxy. Taking these effects into account, we find that the morphologies of the AGN hosts are clearly distinct from galaxies undergoing violent gravitational interactions. In fact, the host galaxies' distributions in morphological descriptor space are more similar to undisturbed galaxies than major mergers. Intermediate-luminosity (Lx < 10^44 erg/s) AGN hosts at z~0.7 show morphologies similar to the general population of massive galaxies with significant bulges at the same redshifts. If major mergers are the driver of nuclear activity at this epoch, the signatures of gravitational interactions fade rapidly before the optical AGN phase starts, making them undetectable on single-orbit HST images, at least with usual morphological descriptors. This could be investigated in future synthetic observations created from numerical simulations of galaxy-galaxy interactions.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; 549. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201015444 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our project, `MegaMorph', is developing a next-generation tool for decomposing galaxies, in terms of both their structures and stellar populations. By combining data from UV to NIR wavelengths, accounting for morphological peculiarities using non-parametric components, and utilising efficient likelihood sampling methods, we are working to significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of galaxy decomposition. Applying these new techniques to modern large surveys will provide us with a deeper understanding of galaxies.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2012; 7(S284):301-305. DOI:10.1017/S1743921312009301
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the structural and morphological properties of galaxies in a z = 1.62 proto-cluster using near-IR imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The cluster galaxies exhibit a clear color-morphology relation: galaxies with colors of quiescent stellar populations generally have morphologies consistent with spheroids, and galaxies with colors consistent with ongoing star formation have disk-like and irregular morphologies. The size distribution of the quiescent cluster galaxies shows a deficit of compact ( 1 kpc), massive galaxies compared to CANDELS field galaxies at z = 1.6. As a result, the cluster quiescent galaxies have larger average effective sizes compared to field galaxies at fixed mass at greater than 90% significance. Combined with data from the literature, the size evolution of quiescent cluster galaxies is relatively slow from z 1.6 to the present, growing as (1 + z)–0.6 ± 0.1. If this result is generalizable, then it implies that physical processes associated with the denser cluster region seem to have caused accelerated size growth in quiescent galaxies prior to z = 1.6 and slower subsequent growth at z < 1.6 compared to galaxies in the lower density field. The quiescent cluster galaxies at z = 1.6 have higher ellipticities compared to lower redshift samples at fixed mass, and their surface-brightness profiles suggest that they contain extended stellar disks. We argue that the cluster galaxies require dissipationless (i.e., gas-poor or "dry") mergers to reorganize the disk material and to match the relations for ellipticity, stellar mass, size, and color of early-type galaxies in z < 1 clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 750(2):93. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/750/2/93 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present single-Sérsic two-dimensional (2D) model fits to 167 600 galaxies modelled independently in the ugrizYJHK bandpasses using reprocessed Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven (SDSS DR7) and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey imaging data available from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data base. In order to facilitate this study we developed Structural Investigation of Galaxies via Model Analysis (SIGMA), an R wrapper around several contemporary astronomy software packages including SOURCE EXTRACTOR, PSF EXTRACTOR and GALFIT 3. SIGMA produces realistic 2D model fits to galaxies, employing automatic adaptive background subtraction and empirical point spread function measurements on the fly for each galaxy in GAMA. Using these results, we define a common coverage area across the three GAMA regions containing 138 269 galaxies. We provide Sérsic magnitudes truncated at 10re which show good agreement with SDSS Petrosian and GAMA photometry for low Sérsic index systems (n < 4), and much improved photometry for high Sérsic index systems (n > 4), recovering as much as Δm= 0.5 mag in the r band. We employ a K-band Sérsic index/u-r colour relation to delineate the massive (n > ˜2) early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the late-type galaxies (LTGs). The mean Sérsic index of these ETGs shows a smooth variation with wavelength, increasing by 30 per cent from g through K. LTGs exhibit a more extreme change in Sérsic index, increasing by 52 per cent across the same range. In addition, ETGs and LTGs exhibit a 38 and 25 per cent decrease, respectively, in half-light radius from g through K. These trends are shown to arise due to the effects of dust attenuation and stellar population/metallicity gradients within galaxy populations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2012; 421(2):1007-1039. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20355.x · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To automate source detection, two-dimensional light-profile Sersic modelling and catalogue compilation in large survey applications, we introduce a new code GALAPAGOS, Galaxy Analysis over Large Areas: Parameter Assessment by GALFITting Objects from SExtractor. Based on a single setup, GALAPAGOS can process a complete set of survey images. It detects sources in the data, estimates a local sky background, cuts postage stamp images for all sources, prepares object masks, performs Sersic fitting including neighbours and compiles all objects in a final output catalogue. For the initial source detection GALAPAGOS applies SExtractor, while GALFIT is incorporated for modelling Sersic profiles. It measures the background sky involved in the Sersic fitting by means of a flux growth curve. GALAPAGOS determines postage stamp sizes based on SExtractor shape parameters. In order to obtain precise model parameters GALAPAGOS incorporates a complex sorting mechanism and makes use of modern CPU's multiplexing capabilities. It combines SExtractor and GALFIT data in a single output table. When incorporating information from overlapping tiles, GALAPAGOS automatically removes multiple entries from identical sources. GALAPAGOS is programmed in the Interactive Data Language, IDL. We test the stability and the ability to properly recover structural parameters extensively with artificial image simulations. Moreover, we apply GALAPAGOS successfully to the STAGES data set. For one-orbit HST data, a single 2.2 GHz CPU processes about 1000 primary sources per 24 hours. Note that GALAPAGOS results depend critically on the user-defined parameter setup. This paper provides useful guidelines to help the user make sensible choices.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2012; 422(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20619.x · 5.23 Impact Factor
  • Marco Barden · Knud Jahnke · Boris Häußler
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    ABSTRACT: Bandpass shifting and the (1+z)5 surface brightness dimming (for a fixed width filter) make standard tools for the extraction of structural parameters of galaxies wavelength dependent. If only few (or one) observed high-res bands exist, this dependence has to be corrected to make unbiased statements on the evolution of structural parameters or on galaxy subsamples defined by morphology. FERENGI artificially redshifts low-redshift galaxy images to different redshifts by applying the correct cosmological corrections for size, surface brightness and bandpass shifting. A set of artificially redshifted galaxies in the range 0.1<z<1.1 using a set of ~100 SDSS low-redshift (v<7000 km s-1) images as input has been created to use as a training set of realistic images of galaxies of diverse morphologies and a large range of redshifts for the GEMS and COSMOS galaxy evolution projects. This training set allows other studies to investigate and quantify the effects of cosmological redshift on the determination of galaxy morphologies, distortions, and other galaxy properties that are potentially sensitive to resolution, surface brightness, and bandpass issues. The data sets are also available for download from the FERENGI website.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
339.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • University of Hertfordshire
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institute for Astro-and Particle Physics
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria