[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appendicitis is one of the most common diseases that require urgent surgical intervention. Due to its position, the inflamed appendix can cause many complications in abdominal cavity. Most of these complications are based on the anatomical position of the appendix. According to world literature over 65% of the anatomical positions of appendix is retrocaecal position, followed paracaecal and then the other positions of the appendix in different percentages.
The main goal of this research is to shown that anatomical retrocaecal position of the appendix can lead to prolonged hospitalization and more often occurrence of appendicitis complications.
The research is based on patients who had appendectomy during 2009 at the Cantonal Hospital Zenica and General Hospital Tesanj. The study included approximately 400 respondents and the method of research was of retrospective, descriptive and analytical type.
According to the results of this research we can conclude that in our country is not devoted enough attention to the anatomic position of the appendix and that we are not using enough diagnostic methods such as ultrasound and CT in determining the anatomic position to help determine the course of the disease.
Retrocaecal appendix position according to the obtained data from this study did not cause many complications in classical appendectomy but this can be attributed to insufficient observation of the anatomical position of the appendix.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite enormous number of publications on classifications and treatment of ankle fractures, this problem remains actual till present days. Never the less, the ultimate goal remains the same--anatomically correct position of articular surfaces, painless and stabile ankle joint.
Through prospective study we processed over 50 patients from policlinic data of Orthopedic-Traumatology ward in Cantonal Hospital Zenica. Research lasted over one year and we collected tremendous data from patients which filled in surveys. These data were processed and presented in this study. From collected data we determined statistical incidence of so called "overseen" and poorly treated injuries of lateral ligaments, origin and mechanism of injuries, number of previous injuries of same nature and then compared with data on treatment method, whether conservative or operative.
We paid special attention and presented findings on age and gender groups that are most involved in ankle injuries. We've confirmed that RTG-Varus stress test is still the method of choice in diagnostics of ankle lateral ligaments injuries. We also determined how treatment duration correlates to time between injury and check in, number of recidivism and most importantly correlation between duration of symptoms and length of immobilization and physical therapy duration. We appeal to our colleagues to approach these injuries with higher level of interest and methodically during diagnosis and therapy because every oversight leads to increased risk of repeated injury, chronic instability of ankle joint, cartilage damage and progression of arthritic joint changes. All of those factors greatly impairs patient's life quality. Competent and quality examination will determine, with more accuracy, degree of injury and set basis for adequate therapy which will not leave any consequences for the patient. That would provide him to continue with normal everyday activaties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic scoliosis is a significant health problem which occurs in 2%-4% school kids in adolescent age. Reasons of occurrence are not quite clear, there are many theories, but probably it is multifactor disease. Among the theories that are mentioned some of them included environmental and behavioral factors.
Research the impact of some environmental and behavioral factor on development and progression of idiopathic scoliosis in school kids.
Research was conducted on 421 pupil in adolescent age, where 120 pupils was from urban schools and 301 pupil from rural schools. Environmental factors and habits like the bigger osteomuscular structure mobility at kids from rural schools, longer outdoor time spending, different nutrition, alcoholism and smoking, different obligations, etc. factors which can be cause of scoliosis development.
In this research we assumed that different environmental and behavioral factors of school kids, which exist in rural and urban areas, can develop to different expression of scoliosis in these areas. In our research we proved that the scoliosis occurrence is more often in urban areas than in rural (Fisher's exact test P<0.001).
It is necessary to research all factors of lifestyle individually, which are different between the urban and rural kids.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractures of the bones that make the wrist joint together with injury to the ligaments and joint capsules are frequent traumas. It can cause besides limited movement also the pathological mobility. These mild injuries often do not provide the degree of recognizable symptoms and signs. They are diagnosed by X-ray imaging, stress images. Before arthrography was an important method, but nowadays arthroscopy has the advantage. Fresh bone and ligament injuries can be and should be repaired in the early posttraumatic period. Unrecognized and undiagnosed injuries are leading to instability of the wrist, to motion abnormalities or impingement overload syndrome. In the treatment of instability important place have reconstruction of the ligaments and arthrodesis of the wrist.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In practical terms, whenever tissues are transplanted from one person to another it is essential to suppress the immune response of the recipient, no matter how perfect the HLA matching has been. When cellular (i.e. histo) compatibility differences exist, between donor and recipient, it is necessary to modify or suppress the immune response in order to enable the recipient to accept a graft. Immunosuppressive therapy, in general, suppresses all immune responses, including those to bacteria, fungi, viruses and even malignant tumors. Current scientific research and real life experiences show that the immunosuppression process can be more safely induced by utilizing the pharmacological means. Agents used in humans to suppress the immune response are discussed in more detail in the continuation of our paper. Financing of the organ transplantation will most probably be among one of the key questions, which need to be answered, before the patients begin to undergo this complex, tedious and costly procedure. The average actual costs and the associated financial contributions for the transplantation of liver and kidney, as well as other organs, have been reduced in the last decade. The main reason for this cost reduction is particularly the reduction
of the time period of the patients’ hospital stay. Other reasons that contribute to this reduction, among others, include, (e.g. the pressure from the taxpayers as well as the increased innovation and availability of the
new, highly potent and more effevctive and efficient immunosuppressive agents). The process of the cost estimation, in simplified terms, usually includes the costs involved in the following actions and procedures: (i.e. in the evaluation of the transplantation suitability, proper maintenance of the transplantatory candidacy, the costs related to the procurement of the compatible organs from the living and deceased-cadaveric
donors, all hospital and physicians’ costs, post transplant care as well as the funding of the cost of the immunosuppressive medications within the first year after the organ transplantation). Finally, the aspect of the interest group lobbying and their effect on the key policy decision makers must also be mentioned. The population of patients who, due to their medical conditions, have to prepare for, undergo and follow up after the organ transplantation, by utilizing the special and costly immunosuppressive therapy must have the keen interest in improving their medical, legal and financial status.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caring for the health of people is a potent factor in the development of social values. However, a bad set of health policy framework, without firm control mechanisms, creating the possibility of making politically motivated protectionist decisions that will give the poor outcomes of health services. Following the health needs of patients in the period since 2005 to 2010 in the area of Zenica-Doboj Canton and behavior of specialist consultants, after making an poorly judged, politically motivated decisions, we found increased demands of patients within primary health care (PHC) and specialist health care (SHC), an increase in the number of hospital patients, increasing demands for diagnostic tests, and dissatisfied patients for an inefficient health service. In order to prevent the possibility of making such decisions, or unethical behavior of health professionals, it is necessary to establish clear regulatory mechanisms and responsibilities in society and the health system, such as strategic plans, bylaws and standards, with guidelines for good practice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontal sinus fractures make up about 2-15% of all facial fractures.This is relatively low frequency of occurrence, but it has a large potential of complication and may involve not only the frontal sinuse but more importantly the brain and the eyes. The management depends of the complexity. If anterior wall is fractured with grossly involved nasofrontal duct (NFD) in the injury it is paramount to occlude NFD. Very often, sinus obliteration is done at the same time. In our expirience autogenous cancellous bone graft is considered to be the best grafting material. It has the less short - or long-term complications and the donor site morbidity is insignificant. KEY
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontal sinus fractures make up about 2-15% of all facial fractures.This is relatively low frequency of occurrence, but it has a large potential of complication and may involve not only the frontal sinuse but more importantly the brain and the eyes. The management depends of the complexity. If anterior wall is fractured with grossly involved nasofrontal duct (NFD) in the injury it is paramount to occlude NFD. Very often, sinus obliteration is done at the same time. In our expirience autogenous cancellous bone graft is considered to be the best grafting material. It has the less short - or long-term complications and the donor site morbidity is insignificant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The slamic authors of the medical and other works have become very known for West, but under well changed names, as for example Razes for Ar-Razi, Avicenna for Ibn Sina, Alhazen for Ibn Haitham, Avenzoar for Ibn Zuhr, Avveroes for Ibn Rusd etc. Up to those changes in the names has not come at any case come accidentally. This was the result of the religious striving to the cultural worls of the West, and not to speak about the plebs, only the giants are represented wich was imppossible to avoid. It is indusputable the great contribution of the Islamic authors to the development of the biomedical sciences. They not only succeeded to preserve the achievements of the pre Islamic authors, than they by the own researches gave the great contribution to the development of these sciences and their disciplines, and they have overgiven to us as a dowry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment for the pineal region tumors depends on tumor histology. Nowadays, germinomas can be cured by radiotherapy and chemotherapy without surgical resection but the other pineal region tumors should be primary treated by surgery. Two microsurgical approaches, the infratentorial supracerebellar and the occipital transtentorial, are accepted as the main standard accesses to the pineal region. For benign pineal tumors (pineocytoma, meningioma, mature teratomas, symptomatic pineal cysts, etc.) radical surgical resection can be curative. For malignant tumors radical surgical resection is not an objective. Serum and CSF markers contribute to the diagnosis of pineal parenchymal tumors. b-HCG is mainly positive in choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas and mixed germ cell tumors and AFP is expressed by yolk sac tumors, embryonic carcinomas, immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors, b-HCG is usually low in germinomas which are often positive for PLAP on immunohistochemistry. Fifty-one pineal region tumors were surgically treated by senior author (NdT). Only 17 of them were the neoplasms originating from pineal body (pineal tumors). In conclusion it can be stressed that management of pineal tumors requires a multidisciplinary cooperation. With the exception of germinoma where only a biopsy is needed, the role of the surgeons still remains prominent as resection of pineal tumors requires high technical skill and experience as well as precise clinical judgment.