[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case of childhood arterial ischemic stroke associated with proven adenoviral upper respiratory tract infection in a previously healthy 4-year-old boy. Adenoviral meningitis and encephalitis have been reported repeatedly, thus confirming the neuroinvasive capability of these viruses. However, an association between adenoviral infection and arterial ischemic stroke has not been described thus far. HIV and varicella zoster virus are the only microorganisms that have been consistently associated with arterial ischemic stroke in the absence of acute central nervous system infection. In HIV-infected individuals ischemic stroke can be caused by vasculitis and hypercoagulability. Granulomatous arteritis of the vessel wall causes post-varicella cerebral infarction and ischemic stroke after herpes zoster ophthalmicus. We suggest that in our patient a post-varicella cerebral infarction-like mechanism of adenoviral spread to the affected artery wall occurred through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Adenoviruses are neuroinvasive and inflamed conjunctiva might have permitted introduction of the virus into ophthalmic nerve tissue. In consequence, the stenotic lesion of the artery might have been induced by the presence of adenovirus and the subsequent inflammatory reaction. We recommend a prompt quest for adenoviral infection in all previously healthy children with fever and clinical presentation compatible with ischemic stroke, because timely diagnosis and treatment could improve the outcome and hasten neurological recovery.
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 01/2009; 121(23-24):776-9. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a major medical problem in childhood. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) offer a new possibility to reduce the incidence of pneumococcal infections, especially IPD. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of IPD among Croatian children and examine the possibilities of introducing different PCVs in our population.
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing IPD during three years (2001, 2005, 2006) in Croatian children younger than 14 years old were collected prospectively. Epidemiological and clinical parameters, results of serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility data were evaluated.
One hundred strains were collected during the study period. The ages of the patients ranged from 30 days to 13 years (median: 25.5 months). Seventy-nine percent of the isolates were from patients younger than five years old. The incidence of IPD was highest among children younger than two years of age (33.9/100,000). Serotypes 14, 6B, 18C, and 23F accounted for 67% of all serotypes. The overall coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 72%, 80%, and 90%, respectively. Low-level resistance to penicillin was found in 20% of the isolates and high resistance to erythromycin in 33.8%. PCV7 covered 85% of the penicillin-resistant strains and 80% of the erythromycin-resistant strains.
The inclusion of a PCV in the immunization program could have a considerable effect on IPD-associated morbidity among Croatian children.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2009; 14(12):PH59-64. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sore throat is most commonly caused by viruses, but when caused by bacteria, the most important is group A streptococcus (GAS). The aim of these guidelines is to determine optimal treatment for streptococcal sore throat and reasonable indications for tonsillectomy, as well as recommend how to differentiate streptococcal infection for which antibiotics are justified, from numerous other sore throats where antibiotics wont have a significant effect on disease course, but might contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The development of the guidelines was initiated by the Interdisciplinary Section for Antibiotic Resistance Control (ISKRA) of the Croatian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in accordance with the principles of AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) methodology which means that the guidelines are the result of consensus between all interested professional societies and institutions. For streptococcal sore throat diagnostics, the Working Group recommends evaluation of clinical presentation according to Centor criteria and for patients with Centor score 0-1, antibiotic therapy is not recommended nor bacteriological testing, while for patients with Centor score 2-4 bacteriological testing is recommended (rapid test or culture) as well as antibiotic therapy in case of positive result. The drug of choice for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis is oral penicillin taken for ten days (penicillin V) or in case of poor patient compliance benzathine penicillin G can be administered parenterally in a single dose. Other antibiotics (macrolides, clindamycin, cephalosporins, co-amoxiclav) are administered only in case of hypersensitivity to penicillin or in recurrent infections. Tonsillectomy is a widely accepted surgical procedure that decreases the number of sore throats in children and should be performed only if indications for this procedure are established. Absolute indications include five or more streptococcal infections per year, tonsillitis complications, permanent respiratory tract obstruction, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and suspected tonsillar malignancy. Relative indications include chronic tonsillitis and occlusion disturbances.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recommendations for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis of urinary tract infections (UTI) have been made according to the results of investigation of resistance of the most frequent causative agents of UTI to antimicrobial drugs. This investigation has been conducted for the past seven years by the Committee for monitoring bacterial resistance to antibiotics in the Republic of Croatia, with consensus of eight professional societies of the Croatian Medical Association. Uncomplicated cystitis is treated 1, 3, or 7 days, complicated 7 days, pyelonephritis 10-14 days, and complicated UTI 7 to 14 days, rarely longer. For the treatment of cystitis fluorokinolons, nitrofurantoin, betalactam antibiotics, and in the fields of lower resistance trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol are being used. Single treatment with fluorokinolons is administered to otherwise healthy young women with normal urinary tract in whom cystitis symptoms have been present for less than 7 days. Empiric antimicrobial treatment of pyelonephritis, recurrent and all complicated UTI must be reviewed after urine culture finding is obtained. In the treatment of bacterial prostatitis and febrile UTI in males, the drug of first choice is ciprofloxacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is treated in pregnant women, newborns, preschool children with urinary tract abnormalities, before invasive urologic and gynecologic procedures, in kidney transplant recipients, and in the first days of short term urinary bladder catheterization. Recommendations for the treatment of AB in patients with diabetes mellitus have been controversial in the past two years. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is administered mostly one hour prior to the diagnostic or therapeutic invasive urological procedure, using selected antimicrobial agents.